Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts. It serves as the sport's most complete library, in addition to promoting and preserving the history of basketball. Dedicated to Canadian-American physician and inventor of the sport James Naismith, it was opened and inducted its first class in 1959; as of the induction of the Class of 2018, the Hall has formally inducted 389 individuals. The Naismith Hall of Fame was established in 1959 by Lee Williams, a former athletic director at Colby College. In the 1960s, the Basketball Hall of Fame struggled to raise enough money for the construction of its first facility. However, during the following half-decade the necessary amount was raised, the building opened on Feb. 17, 1968, less than one month after the National Basketball Association played its 18th All-Star Game. The Basketball Hall of Fame's Board named four inductees in its first year.
In addition to honoring those who contributed to basketball, the Hall of Fame sought to make contributions of its own. In 1979, the Hall of Fame sponsored a pre-season college basketball exhibition; this Tip-Off Classic has been the start to the college basketball season since, although it does not always take place in Springfield, Massachusetts it returns every few years. In the 17 years that the original Basketball Hall of Fame operated at Springfield College, it drew more than 630,000 visitors; the popularity of the Basketball Hall of Fame necessitated that a new facility be constructed, in 1985, an $11 million facility was built beside the scenic Connecticut River in Springfield. As the new hall opened, it recognized women for the first time, with inductees such as Senda Berenson Abbott, who first introduced basketball to women at Smith College. During the years following its construction, the Basketball Hall of Fame's second facility drew far more visitors than anticipated, due in large part to the increasing popularity of the game but to the scenic location beside the river and the second Hall's interesting modern architecture.
In 2002, the Basketball Hall of Fame moved again—albeit 100 yards south along Springfield's riverfront—into a $47 million facility designed by renowned architects Gwathmey Siegel & Associates. The building's architecture features a metallic silver, basketball-shaped sphere flanked by two symmetrical rhombuses; the dome is illuminated at night and features 80,000 square foot, including numerous restaurants and an extensive gift shop. The second Basketball Hall of Fame was not torn down but rather converted into an LA Fitness health clubs; the current Basketball Hall of Fame features Center Court, a full-sized basketball court on which visitors can play. Inside the building there are a game gallery, many interactive exhibits, several theaters, an honor ring of inductees. A large theater for ceremonies seats up to 300; the honorees inducted in 2002 included the Harlem Globetrotters and Magic Johnson, a five-time NBA champion, three-time NBA finals MVP and Olympic gold medalist. As of 2011, the current Basketball Hall of Fame has exceeded attendance expectations, with basketball fans traveling to the Hall of Fame from all over the world.
Despite the new facility's success, a logistical problem remains for the Basketball Hall of Fame and the City of Springfield. The two entities are separated by the Interstate 91 elevated highway—one of the eastern United States' busiest highways—which inhibits foot-traffic and other interaction between the Basketball Hall of Fame and Springfield's lively Metro Center. Both the Hall and Springfield have made public statements about cooperating further so as to facilitate more business and recreational growth for both. Urban planners at universities such as UMass Amherst have called for the I-91 to be moved, or to be re-configured so as to be pedestrian-friendly to Hall of Fame visitors. In 2010, the Urban Land Institute announced a plan to make the walk between Springfield's Metro Center and the Hall of Fame easier. In contrast to the Pro Football and the National Baseball Halls of Fame, Springfield honors international and American professionals, as well as American and international amateurs, making it arguably the most comprehensive Hall of Fame among major sports.
From 2011 to 2015 seven committees were, as of 2016 six committees are employed to both screen and elect candidates. Four of the committees screen prospective candidates: North American Screening Committee Women's Screening Committee International Screening Committee Veterans Screening Committee, with "Veterans" defined as individuals whose careers ended at least 35 years before they are considered for election. Since 2011, the Veterans and International Committees vote to directly induct one candidate for each induction class. Three committees were formed in 2011 to directly elect one candidate for each induction class: American Basketball Association Committee - This committee was permanently disbanded in 2015 because it had fulfilled its purpose over the previous five years. Contributor Direct Election Committee Other committees may choose to elect contributors. For example, the 2014 class included two contributors. Early African-American Pioneers of the Game CommitteeIndividuals who receive at least seven votes from the North American Screening Committee or five votes from one of the other screening committees in a given year are eligible to advance to an Honors Committee, composed of 12 members plus rotating groups of 12 specialists (one group for
Bradley University is a private university in Peoria, Illinois. Founded in 1897, Bradley University enrolls 5,400 students who are pursuing degrees in more than 100 undergraduate programs and more than 30 graduate programs in five colleges; the university is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and 22 national accrediting agencies. The Bradley Polytechnic Institute was founded by philanthropist Lydia Moss Bradley in 1897 in memory of her husband Tobias and their six children, all of whom died early and leaving Bradley a childless widow; the Bradleys had discussed establishing an orphanage in memory of their deceased children. After some study and travel to various institutions, Mrs. Bradley decided instead to found a school where young people could learn how to do practical things to prepare them for living in the modern world; as a first step toward her goal, in 1892 she purchased a controlling interest in Parsons Horological School in LaPorte, the first school for watchmakers in America, moved it to Peoria.
She specified in her will that the school should be expanded after her death to include a classical education as well as industrial arts and home economics: "...it being the first object of this Institution to furnish its students with the means of living an independent and useful life by the aid of a practical knowledge of the useful arts and sciences." In October 1896 Mrs. Bradley was introduced to Dr. William Rainey Harper, president of the University of Chicago, he soon convinced her to establish the school during her lifetime. Bradley Polytechnic Institute was chartered on November 13, 1896. Mrs. Bradley provided 17.5 acres of land, $170,000 for buildings, a library, $30,000 per year for operating expenses. Contracts for Bradley Hall and Horology Hall were awarded in April and work moved ahead quickly. Fourteen faculty and 150 students began classes in Bradley Hall on October 4—with 500 workers still hammering away. Bradley Polytechnic Institute was formally dedicated on October 8, 1897.
Its first graduate, in June 1898, was Cora Unland. The institute was organized as a four-year academy as well as a two-year college. There was only one other high school in the city of Peoria at the time. By 1899 the institute had expanded to accommodate nearly 500 pupils, study fields included biology, food work, English, French, Greek, manual arts, drawing and physics. By 1920 the institute adopted a four-year collegial program. Enrollment continued to grow over the coming decades and the name Bradley University was adopted in 1946; the first music building on Bradley's Campus was built in 1930 and named after Jennie Meta Constance, murdered on August 28, 1928. In 1962 the building was renovated to become the music building of Bradley's Campus. Only $2,500 was spent renovating the building, most of the money was spent turning a kitchen into a classroom. In 2002 more renovations were made to Constance Hall to make it more spacious; the renovation included more office space. Bradley University was ranked 6th among Regional Midwest Universities in the 2017 edition of America's Best Colleges published by U.
S. News & World Report; the annual survey recognized Bradley as the 36th "best value" Midwestern school in the ranking of Great Schools at Great Prices. The Bradley University Department of Teacher Education and College of Education and Health Sciences is NCATE-approved. Additionally, Bradley University's Foster College of Business is one of less than 2% of business schools worldwide to achieve and maintain AACSB International accreditation for both business and accounting programs. Bradley University is organized into the following colleges and schools: College of Education and Health Sciences Caterpillar College of Engineering and Technology College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Foster College of Business Slane College of Communications and Fine Arts Turner School of Entrepreneurship and InnovationStudents without a declared major may be admitted to the Academic Exploration Program; the University is home to the Charley Steiner School of Sports Communication, the first such named school in the U.
S. Through the Graduate School, Bradley University offers Masters level graduate degrees in five of its colleges: business and fine arts and health sciences and liberal arts and sciences; each varies in completion time. The program of physical therapy offers a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree. Bradley University is among the first universities in the nation to have a school of entrepreneurship and the first established as a freestanding academic unit; the Turner School of Entrepreneurship and Innovation is named in honor of Bob and Carolyn Turner, long-time supporters of Bradley. The Turners established the Robert and Carolyn Turner Center for Entrepreneurship in 2002. Dr. Gerald Hills, the School's founding academic executive director, received the Karl Vesper Entrepreneurship Pioneer Award in 2012 and the Babson Lifetime Award in 2011. Hills served as the Turner Chair of Entrepreneurship until he retired in December 2014. Entrepreneur magazine and The Princeton Review ranked Bradley's undergraduate entrepreneurship program among the top 25 programs in the nation.
Bradley is headquarters for the national Collegiate Entrepreneurs' Organization, with CEO student chapters at 240 universities. As of the 2015-2016 school year, students who are enrolled full-time at Bradley University pay $31,110 for tuition. S
Bradley Braves men's basketball
The Bradley Braves men's basketball team represents Bradley University, located in Peoria, Illinois, in NCAA Division I basketball competition. They compete as a member of the Missouri Valley Conference; the Braves are coached by Brian Wardle and play their home games at Carver Arena. Bradley has appeared in nine NCAA Tournaments, including two Final Fours, finishing as the national runner-up in 1950 and 1954, they last appeared in the NCAA Tournament in 2019, last reached the NCAA Sweet Sixteen in 2006. The Braves have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament 21 times with an all-time NIT record of 26–18 and have won four NIT championships, second only to St. John's in appearances and titles; until the introduction of the Vegas 16 Tournament in 2016, the program held the distinction of being invited to the initial offering of every national postseason tournament. The Braves began playing basketball in 1902. Alfred J. Robertson was named coach of the Braves football and basketball teams in 1920.
Robertson coached both teams until 1948. He is Bradley's all-time winningest coach with 316 wins over 26 seasons. Robertson died in 1948. Following Robertson's death, the school hired Forrest "Forddy" Anderson from Drake. In 1948, the school joined the Missouri Valley Conference for the first time. In 1950, the Braves won the MVC, earning a bid to the NCAA Tournament; the Braves advanced to the National Championship game against CCNY, which accomplished the greatest feat in basketball history, winning the National Invitation and the NCAA tournaments in the same season. However, in 1951, a point-shaving scandal rocked CCNY New York, college basketball as a whole; the scandal affected Bradley as Bradley players Gene Melchiorre, Bill Mann, Bud Grover, Aaron Preece, Jim Kelly admitted to taking bribes from gamblers to hold down scores against St. Joseph's in Philadelphia in 1951 and against Oregon State in Chicago. Melchiorre and George Chianakos pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor, but avoided jail time.
The others were not charged. In 1952, the Braves went 32–6 and lost in the final of the National Campus Basketball Tournament, held in response to the point-shaving scandals centered around New York. After the season, the Braves became independent again. In 1954, though only going 19–13, the Braves again advanced to the NCAA Tournament's championship game, this time falling short to La Salle. Anderson was hired away from Peoria to coach Michigan State after the season. Bob Vanatta coached the Braves for two seasons, they returned to the MVC in 1955. Chuck Orsborn, a Bradley alum and basketball player in the 1930s, took over in 1956 after being an assistant from 1947 to 1956. In 1957, his first year as head coach, the Braves won the NIT championship over Memphis State, the school's first NIT title; the school returned to the NIT in 1958 and to the NIT championship game in 1959, losing to St. John's. In 1960, the Braves won their second NIT championship; the Braves lost in the NIT's first round. A return to the NIT in 1964 resulted in the Braves' third NIT championship in eight years.
After another trip to the NIT in 1965, Orsborn took the position of Bradley's director of athletics and served in that function until 1978. From 1956 to 1965, he compiled a record of 194–56. During this nine-year span as head coach, the Braves earned six Associated Press top 20 finishes, Orsborn was named MVC coach of the year in 1960 and 1962. Orsborn has the distinction of recording his first 100 victories in 120 games, sixth on the all-time list for college coaches; the Braves again turned to a Bradley alum as Joe Stowell, an assistant coach under Orsborn, became Bradley's ninth head coach in 1965. In his 13 years as head coach, the Braves made only two postseason appearances: the 1968 NIT and the 1974 National Commissioners Invitational Tournament, he was fired as head coach in 1978. Stowell finished with the second most in Brave history. Bradley turned to Jim Les, to take over for Molinari. Les was a senior on the 1986 Braves squad that went 32–3 before losing in the Second Round of the NCAA Tournament.
However, the Braves failed to finish above.500 in Les's first three years as head coach. In 2006, the Braves, led by sophomore center Patrick O'Bryant, won their final five games of the season to finish in a tie for fifth place in MVC play; the Braves surprised in the MVC Tournament, reaching the championship game before losing to Southern Illinois. The Braves received an at-large bid to the NCAA Tournament as a No. 13 seed, their first trip to the Tournament since 1996. In the Tournament, the Braves upset No. 4-ranked Kansas in the First Round and upset No. 5-ranked Pittsburgh to advance to the Sweet Sixteen for the first time since 1955. In the Sweet Sixteen, the Braves' Cinderella run came to an end as No. 1-seeded Memphis blew out the Braves. O'Bryant left Bradley after the season for the NBA Draft; each of Les's next three Brave teams appeared in postseason play, losing in the second round of the 2007 NIT, finishing as runners-up in the 2008 College Basketball Invitational and 2009 CollegeInsider.com Tournament.
After a disappointing 2010 and a 20-loss 2011, the Braves fired Les. Kent State head coach Geno Ford was hired to replace Les. Ford's teams struggled under his leadership, failing to win more than seven games in conference play and finishing in last place in his first and final years at Bradley; the Braves did receive an invite to the College Basketball Invitational in 2013, where they advanced to the quarterfinals. In his final year, the Br
University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
Ohio State Buckeyes men's basketball
The Ohio State men's basketball team represents Ohio State University in NCAA Division I college basketball competition. The Buckeyes are a member of the Big Ten Conference; the Buckeyes share a classic rivalry with the Michigan Wolverines, in which OSU has a 97–77 series lead. The Buckeyes play their home games at Value City Arena in the Jerome Schottenstein Center in Columbus, which opened in 1998; the official capacity of the center is 19,200. Ohio State ranked 28th in the nation in average home attendance as of the 2016 season; the Buckeyes have won one national championship, been the National Runner-Up four times, appeared in 10 Final Fours, appeared in 27 NCAA Tournaments. Thad Matta was named the head coach of Ohio State in 2004 to replace coach Jim O'Brien, fired due to NCAA violations which cost Ohio State over 113 wins between 1998 and 2002. On June 5, 2017, after consecutive years of missing the NCAA Tournament, the school announced Matta would not return as head coach after 13 years and 337 wins at Ohio State.
On June 9, the school hired Butler head coach Chris Holtmann as head coach. The first basketball team at Ohio State University was formed in 1898, playing its first game against East High. Sparing success followed the Buckeyes throughout their time as an independent school. In 1912, some 13 years after forming their first basketball team, the Buckeyes joined the Big Nine Conference, which would be known as the Big Ten. At first, the Buckeyes were not able to mount a sustained run, never finishing higher than second in the conference standings. In 1923, Harold Olsen became head coach, launching the longest basketball coaching dynasty for OSU. Olsen began to see success with the Buckeyes' first conference championship during the 1922–1923 season; the Olsen era is highlighted by appearing in the final game for the first NCAA Championship Tournament in 1939, where the Buckeyes lost to Oregon 33–46. The Buckeyes would make three more Final Four appearances under Olsen, along with winning five Big Ten championships.
Following Olsen as head coach, Tippy Dye and Floyd Stahl led the Buckeyes. Not seeing the same amount of success as Olsen did and Stahl had one NCAA Tournament appearance between them. With the closing of the 1950s, the Ohio State basketball team was not considered a national powerhouse, but it continued to develop and led to the hiring of a man who would change basketball at Ohio State and bring it national fame. Of all Buckeye coaches, it was Fred Taylor. With the hiring of Taylor in 1958, not much was expected following an 11–11 record during the 1958–1959 season. However, in 1960, the second-year coach and All-American player Jerry Lucas led the Buckeyes to their first NCAA Championship Title, defeating California 75–55 in the final game; the 1960 season is the only NCAA Tournament championship. Taylor's team continued its dominance by being the runner-up the following two seasons, making a total of five tournament appearances during Taylor's 18 seasons tenure. With the departure of his championship team, Taylor began to see teams accustomed to Ohio State basketball of the past.
Taylor's last season at Ohio State in 1976 had the Buckeyes going 6–20, their worst record, only to be eclipsed by the team in 1995. Taylor achieved seven conference titles and an impressive overall winning percentage of over 65%. Past the Taylor era, Ohio State saw Eldon Miller, Gary Williams, Randy Ayers take the reins as head coach. Between 1976 and 1997, the Buckeyes made the NCAA bracket only eight times, while being crowned conference champions only twice. In 1997, Jim O'Brien was hired to replace head coach Randy Ayers. During his seven years as head coach, O'Brien drove the team to four 20+ win seasons, two Big Ten regular-season co-championships, the 2002 Big Ten Tournament Championship, a school record four-consecutive NCAA tournament appearances. Controversy erupted when Ohio State athletic director Andy Geiger fired O'Brien over alleged NCAA rules violations. A two-year NCAA investigation found that player Boban Savovic might have received improper benefits while he played for Ohio State.
On March 10, 2006, the NCAA gave Ohio State three years' probation and ordered it to pay back all tournament money earned from 1999–2002 when Boban Savovic was on the Buckeyes' roster. In addition, Ohio State was forced to remove all references to team accomplishments by the NCAA directorate from those years including a 1999 visit to the Final Four. Thad Matta, former head coach at Butler and Xavier, was hired by Ohio State in July 2004. During Matta's first season at Ohio State, the Buckeyes compiled a 20–12 record, highlighted by a win in the final game of the season over top-ranked Illinois, undefeated up until that game. Ohio State was defeated by Wisconsin in the Big Ten Tournament quarterfinals, the team was ineligible for further postseason due to self-imposed sanctions related to Jim O'Brien's time at the school; the 2005–06 season opened with the Buckeyes 11–0 heading into Big Ten play. Ohio State ended the season with a 26–6 record and 12–4 record in conference, the Buckeyes' first outright Big Ten championship since the 1991–92 season.
Ohio State lost to Iowa in the Big Ten Tournament championship game, but received a No. 2 seed in the NCAA Tournament. After a first round win, the Buckeyes lost to No. 7 seed Georgetown 70–52 in the second round. Matta's 2006–07 Ohio State team entered the season with the second-rated recruiting class in the nation, headed by Greg Oden and Mike Conley, Jr. and ranked No. 4 in the preseason polls. Ohio State entered conference play with an 11–2 record, with the
George M. "Red" Trautman was an American baseball executive and college men's basketball coach. As an undergraduate at the Ohio State University, Trautman was a three-sport letterwinner in football and baseball. After graduation, he became an assistant athletic director under Lynn St. John; as assistant athletic director, Trautman was instrumental in helping to establish the Ohio Relays. When St. John gave up his basketball coaching duties, he assigned them to Trautman. Trautman held the position of men's basketball head coach for three years. In those three years he had an overall record of 29-33. Trautman was inducted into the Ohio State Varsity O Hall of Fame in 1978. Trautman Field, named in honor of George Trautman, was the home field of the Ohio State baseball team from 1967 to 1996. In 1933 Trautman became president of a minor league baseball team. Three years Trautman was named president of the American Association, the league in which the Red Birds played, he held that position from 1936 through 1945.
Trautman moved the office of the league from North Carolina to Columbus, Ohio. In 1946 Trautman was named General Manager of the Detroit Tigers. After two seasons with the Tigers, Trautman was appointed as the new President of the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, succeeding William Bramham. Trautman held that position from 1947 until his death in 1963. Under Trautman's leadership, a new relationship was forged between the major leagues and the minor leagues. Territorial rights, in dispute, were established so that if the major leagues took over a National Association city, compensation would be due to both the existing team and its league; each year, the Topps Company, in conjunction with Minor League Baseball, awards the George M. Trautman Award to the Topps Player of the Year in each of sixteen domestic minor leagues; the Ohio State fight song, "Buckeye Battle Cry," was written by Trautman's brother-in-law, Frank Crumit, a musical comedy star
NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament known and branded as NCAA March Madness, is a single-elimination tournament played each spring in the United States featuring 68 college basketball teams from the Division I level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, to determine the national championship. The tournament was created in 1939 by the National Association of Basketball Coaches, was the idea of Ohio State coach Harold Olsen. Played during March, it has become one of the most famous annual sporting events in the United States; the tournament teams include champions from 32 Division I conferences, 36 teams which are awarded at-large berths. These "at-large" teams are chosen by an NCAA selection committee announced in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the "First Four" play-in games held in Dayton and dubbed Selection Sunday; the 68 teams are divided into four regions and organized into a single-elimination "bracket", which pre-determines, when a team wins a game, which team it will face next.
Each team is "seeded", or ranked, within its region from 1 to 16. After the First Four, the tournament occurs during the course of three weekends, at pre-selected neutral sites across the United States. Teams, seeded by rank, proceed through a single-game elimination bracket beginning with a "first four" consisting of 8 low-seeded teams playing in 4 games for a position in the first round the Tuesday and Wednesday before the first round begins, a first round consisting of 64 teams playing in 32 games over the course of a week, the "Sweet Sixteen" and "Elite Eight" rounds the next week and weekend and – for the last weekend of the tournament – the "Final Four" round; the Final Four is played during the first weekend of April. These four teams, one from each region, compete in a preselected location for the national championship; the tournament has been at least televised since 1969. The games are broadcast by CBS, TBS, TNT, truTV under the trade-name NCAA March Madness. Since 2011, all games are available for viewing nationwide and internationally.
As television coverage has grown, so too has the tournament's popularity. Millions of Americans fill out a bracket, attempting to predict the outcome of 63 games of the tournament. With 11 national titles, UCLA has the record for the most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships; the University of Kentucky is second, with eight national titles. The University of North Carolina is third, with six national titles, Duke University and Indiana University are tied for fourth with five national titles; the University of Connecticut is sixth with four national titles. The University of Kansas & Villanova are tied for 7th with three national titles. Since 1985, when the tournament expanded to 64 teams, Duke has won five championships; the NCAA has changed the tournament format several times since its inception, most being an increase of the number of teams. This section describes the tournament as it has operated since 2011. A total of 68 teams qualify for the tournament played during April. Thirty-two teams earn automatic bids as their respective conference champions.
Of the 32 Division I "all-sports" conferences, all 32 hold championship tournaments to determine which team receives the automatic qualification. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference. If two or more Ivies shared a regular-season championship, a one-game playoff was used to decide the tournament participant. Since 2017, the league conducts their own postseason tournament; the remaining 36 tournament slots are granted to at-large bids, which are determined by the Selection Committee in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the First Four play-in tournament and dubbed Selection Sunday by the media and fans, by a group of conference commissioners and school athletic directors who are appointed into service by the NCAA. The committee determines where all sixty-eight teams are seeded and placed in the bracket; the tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, but four additional teams are added per the decision of the Selection Committee.
The committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from. The names of the regions vary from year to year, are broadly geographic. From 1957 to 1984, the "Mideast" corresponding to the Southeastern region of the United States, designation was used. From 1985 to 1997, the Mideast region was known as "Southeast" and again changed to "South" starting from 1998; the selected names correspond to the location of the four cities hosting the regional finals. From 2004 to 2006, the regions were named after their host cities, e.g. the Phoenix Regional in 2004, the Chicago Regional in 2005, the Minneapolis Regional in 2006, but reverted to the traditional geographic designations beginning in 2007. For example, during 2012, the regions were named South, Midwest (St. Louis, Mis