David Ross Obey is a former United States Representative. Obey served in the House of Representatives for Wisconsin's 7th congressional district from 1969 to 2011; the district includes much including Wausau and Superior. He is a member of the Democratic Party, served as Chairman of the powerful House Committee on Appropriations from 1994 to 1995 and again from 2007 to 2011, he is the longest-serving member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Wisconsin. On May 5, 2010, Obey announced that he would not seek reelection to Congress in November 2010, he left Congress in January 2011, was succeeded by Republican Sean Duffy. He began working for Gephardt Government Affairs, a lobbying firm founded by former U. S. House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt, in June 2011. Obey was born in Okmulgee, the son of Mary Jane and Orville John Obey. Soon after his birth, his family moved back to his parents' native Wisconsin, Obey was raised in Wausau, where he has lived since, he graduated from Wausau East High School and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from and did his graduate work in Soviet politics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Before serving in Congress, Obey worked as a real estate broker. Obey grew up as a Republican. However, he was so angered after seeing his teachers falsely branded as Communists by backers of Joseph McCarthy that he became a Democrat in the mid-1950s, sometime between the ages of 16 and 18, he was elected to the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1963 and served there until 1969. Obey was the longest-serving member of either house of Congress in Wisconsin's history, he was the third longest-serving member of the House, after fellow Democrats John Dingell and John Conyers, both of Michigan. In Congress, Obey chaired the commission to write the House's Code of Ethics. Among the reforms he instituted was one requiring members of the House to disclose their personal financial dealings so the public would be made aware of any potential conflicts of interest. Obey served as chairman of the House Appropriations Committee from 2007 to 2011, he chaired its Subcommittee on Labor. Obey was one of the most liberal members of the House.
Obey had risen to the position of fifth ranking House Democrat since his party retook control of Congress. His "Obey Amendment" has prohibited the export of the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor to American allies such as Japan. Obey is remembered for being the congressman who intervened when fellow Democrat Harold Ford, Jr. approached Republican Jean Schmidt on the House floor in 2005. Ford was upset because Schmidt had called Congressman John Murtha a coward for advocating a redeployment of American forces in Iraq. Obey holds a critical view of the mainstream American news media, as evidenced by his words on June 13, 2008, upon the sudden death of NBC News Washington Bureau Chief Tim Russert. Obey said of Russert: "Tim Russert's death is not just a body blow for NBC News. Dave Obey announced an end to his congressional career on May 5, 2010, with press releases being released on May 6. On June 30, 2010, Obey proposed an amendment to a supplemental war spending bill that would allocate $10 billion to prevent expected teacher layoffs from school districts nationwide.
The amendment, which passed the House on July 1, 2010, proposed siphoning off $500 million from the Race to the Top fund as well as $300 million designated for charter schools and teacher incentive pay. In response, the White House released a statement threatening a veto if the bill is passed by the Senate. On March 21, 2010, Obey swung the same gavel used to pass Medicare in 1965, but this time to pass the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Obey was elected to the House to replace eight-term incumbent Republican Melvin R. Laird, appointed Secretary of Defense under President Richard Nixon. Obey, only 30 when he was elected, became the youngest member of Congress upon taking his seat, as well as the first Democrat to represent the district, he was reelected 18 times. He only faced serious opposition twice. In 1972, during his bid for a second full term, his district was merged with the neighboring 10th District of Republican Alvin O'Konski, a 15-term incumbent. However, Obey retained 60 percent of his former territory, was handily reelected in subsequent contests.
In 1994, Obey only won reelection by seven points as the Democrats lost control of the House during the Republican Revolution. Obey was expected to run in 2010. However, Obey was facing tough poll numbers in his district, plus his age and the death of close colleague John Murtha and his frustration with the White House convinced him to bow out of the race. Upon his retirement, the seat was won by Republican Sean Duffy, who defeated Democratic State Senator Julie Lassa. Foreword to Along Wisconsin’s Ice Age Trail by Eric Sherman and Andrew Hanson III ISBN 978-0-299-22664-0 Raising Hell for Justice: The Washington Battles of a Heartland Progressive ISBN 978-0-299-22540-7 Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Profile at the Democratic Party of Wisconsin A Hard-Edged Cheesehead and the Power of the Pu
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
United States House Committee on the Judiciary
The U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary called the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives, it is charged with overseeing the administration of justice within the federal courts, administrative agencies and Federal law enforcement entities. The Judiciary Committee is the committee responsible for impeachments of federal officials; because of the legal nature of its oversight, committee members have a legal background, but this is not required. In the 116th Congress, the chairman of the committee is Democrat Jerry Nadler of New York, the ranking minority member is Republican Doug Collins of Georgia; the committee was created on June 3, 1813 for the purpose of considering legislation related to the judicial system. This committee approved articles of impeachment against Presidents in three instances: the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, the impeachment process against Richard Nixon, the impeachment of Bill Clinton. In the 115th Congress, the chairman of the committee was Republican Bob Goodlatte of Virginia, the ranking minority member was Democrat John Conyers of Michigan.
On November 26, 2017, Conyers stepped down from his position as ranking member, while he faced an ethics investigation. On November 28, 2017, Jerrold Nadler of New York was named as acting ranking member. Claims: Functions merged in 1946 Immigration and Naturalization: Functions merged in 1946 Internal Security: Functions merged in 1975 Un-American Activities: Functions merged into Internal Security in 1969 Patents: Functions merged in 1946 Revision of Laws: Functions merged in 1946 War Claims: Functions merged in 1946 Sources: H. Res. 24, H. Res. 25, H. Res. 46, H. Res. 68 Sources: H. Res. 6, H. Res. 45, H. Res. 51 and H. Res. 95 Sources: Resolutions electing Republican members: H. Res. 6 and H. Res. 17 Resolutions electing Democratic members: H. Res. 7 and H. Res. 22 Sources: Resolutions electing Republican members: H. Res. 6, H. Res. 37 Resolutions electing Democratic members H. Res. 7, H. Res. 39 Chairman: Jim Sensenbrenner. All Judiciary Committee Members served as members of the Task Force, conducted hearings and investigations into consolidation of the Bell Telephone Companies.
Chairman: John Conyers. The task force operated like any other subcommittee. House Rules limit each full committee to just five subcommittees, any task force, special subcommittee, or other subunit of a standing committee, established for a cumulative period longer than six months in a Congress counts against that total. A longer term for the task force would cause the Judiciary Committee to exceed this limit. Chairman: Adam Schiff; the investigation was not completed by the end of the 110th Congress, it was reestablished after the 111th Congress convened in January 2009. The responsibilities of the Task Force were expanded to include the case of Judge Samuel B. Kent, leading to hearings and his subsequent impeachment by the full House of Representatives; the Task force voted to impeach Porteous on January 21, 2010. Administrative Law and Procedure Project The Use and Misuse of Presidential Clemency Power for Executive Branch Officials Equal Justice for Our Military Act of 2009, HR 569. Congress holds a hearing to consider granting members of the U.
S. Armed Forces access to the Supreme Court of the United States. List of United States House committees United States congressional committee United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary List of current United States House of Representatives committees Committee on the Judiciary website House Judiciary Committee. Legislation activity and reports, Congress.gov. Congressional Directory including lists of past memberships House Document No. 109-153, A History of the Committee on the Judiciary 1813–2006
Clement J. Zablocki
Clement John Zablocki was a U. S. Representative representing the Polish south side of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A liberal Democrat, he built his reputation in foreign policy, taking strong anti-Communist positions and supporting the Vietnam War. Zablocki was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and he graduated from Marquette University. Zablocki was elected to the Wisconsin State Senate in 1942, he was elected to the 81st United States Congress in 1948 as a member of the Democratic party. He was reelected to the succeeding Congresses serving from January 3, 1949, until his death from a heart attack in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on December 3, 1983. Zablocki was the chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee from 1977 until his death in 1983, he served during the presidencies of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan, a period that included several significant international events, including the Iran hostage crisis. Zablocki introduced the Taiwan Relations Act on February 28, 1979. Zablocki in 1970-72 helped design an early version of the War Powers Act, which put presidential war-making power under congressional control.
He was instrumental in House passage of the final version in late 1973 over President Nixon's veto. Zablocki was buried at St. Adalbert's Cemetery in Milwaukee. Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center at 5000 West National Avenue in Milwaukee is named for him, as is the Zablocki Library and the Clement J. Zablocki Elementary School in Milwaukee. Michael Barone et al; the Almanac of American Politics: 1976 pp 930–32 List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Clement J. Zablocki". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clement J. Zablocki Papers at Marquette University. Clement J. Zablocki, Photographs of Wisconsin’s “Mr. Democrat” at Marquette University. Appearances on C-SPAN
Henry S. Reuss
Henry Schoellkopf Reuss was a Democratic U. S. Representative from Wisconsin. Henry Schoellkopf Reuss was born in Wisconsin, he was the son of Gustav A. Reuss and Paula Schoellkopf, he was the grandson of a Wisconsin bank president who had emigrated to the United States from Germany in 1848. Both his mother and uncle, Henry Schoellkopf, were grandchildren of Jacob F. Schoellkopf, a pioneer in harnessing the hydroelectric power of Niagara Falls, he grew up in that Milwaukee's German section. Reuss earned his A. B. was a member of the Sphinx Head Society. He earned his LL. B. from Harvard Law School in 1936. He was a lawyer in private business executive, he served as assistant corporation counsel for Milwaukee County, Wisconsin from 1939 to 1940 and Counsel for United States Office of Price Administration from 1941 to 1942. He was in the United States Army from 1943 to 1945, leaving as a major, he was awarded the Bronze Star for his service in the infantry. He served as chief of price control, Office of Military Government for Germany in 1945, deputy general counsel for the Marshall Plan, France in 1949.
After the War, Reuss became a special prosecutor for Milwaukee County in 1950. In 1950, he left the Republican party due to antipathy for Senator Joseph McCarthy; as a Democrat, Reuss waged an unsuccessful primary election campaign to become McCarthy's opponent in the 1952 general election. He attended the 1952 Democratic National Convention as an alternate delegate, he served as member of the school board for Milwaukee from 1953 to 1954. He served as member of legal advisory committee, United States National Resources Board from 1948 to 1952, he was an unsuccessful candidate for mayor of Milwaukee in 1948 and 1960, losing to Frank Zeidler and Henry Maier, respectively. Reuss was elected as a Democrat from the 5th district to the Eighty-fourth and to the thirteen succeeding Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Banking and Housing in the Ninety-fourth Congress. He served as chairman of the Committee on Banking and Urban Affairs in the Ninety-fifth and Ninety-sixth Congresses, he served as chairman of the Joint Economic Committee in the Ninety-seventh Congress.
After the 1974 post-Watergate Democratic landslide victories in Congress, Reuss defeated the more senior Wright Patman of Texas as chairman of the House Banking Committee. He opposed the war in Vietnam, supported the campaign of U. S. Senator Eugene J. McCarthy for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination, he served as an at-large delegate for McCarthy at the Democratic National Convention that year. He was not a candidate for reelection to the Ninety-eighth Congress in 1982. After retiring from Congress, he continued to donate to Democrat campaigns, including to Senator Russ Feingold's and Paul Tsongas's campaigns in 1992. Mrs. Reuss was a more active donor to Democrats and related groups. In 1942, he married Margaret Magrath, she was an alumna of Bryn Mawr College who earned a master's degree from the University of Chicago in 1944, a Ph. D. from George Washington University in 1968, both in economics. She worked at the Office of Price Administration in the 1940s, taught at Federal City College from 1970.
University of District of Columbia took over FCC in 1977, she continued teaching there until she retired in 1985, as department chairman. She served mayor Marion Barry in several capacities, supported the Community for Creative Non-Violence, Emily's List, various Democrats, they had four children, seven grandchildren, eight great-grandchildren. Their children were: Christopher Reuss Michael Reuss Jacqueline Reuss Anne Reuss His name graces the Reuss Plaza Federal Office Building in Milwaukee, the National Park Service's Henry Reuss Ice Age Center near Dundee, Wisconsin. Notes SourcesReuss, Henry S.. When government was good: memories of a life in politics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-16190-0. Reuss, Henry S.. The unknown south of France: a history buff’s guide. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Common Press. ISBN 1-55832-030-X. Reuss, Henry S.. On the trail of the Ice Age: a guide to Wisconsin’s Ice Age National Reserve and Trail for hikers and motorists. Sheboygan, Wisconsin: Ice Age Park and Trail Foundation.
ISBN 0-9627079-0-2.. Reuss, Henry S.. To save our cities: what needs to be done. Washington, D. C.: Public Affairs Press. ISBN 0-8183-0252-6. Walker, Charls E.. Major tax reform: urgent necessity or not?. Washington, D. C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. ISBN 0-8447-2037-2. Reuss, Henry S.. Revenue-sharing. New York, New York: Praeger Publishers. Reuss, Henry S.. Entwicklungshilfe und internationale Geldschöpfung. Anton Zottmann. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr. Reuss, Henry S.. The critical decade: an economic policy for America and the free world. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill. United States Congress. "Henry S. Reuss". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem