Haaf Gruney is a small island in the north east of the Shetland Islands. The island is between Fetlar which are to the north and south respectively. Between it and Yell are a mini-archipelago of small islands including Linga, Sound Gruney, Urie Lingey and Wedder Holm. Uyea is to the west. There was a chromate mine; the island's name is a corruption of the Norse hafgröney, gröney meaning "green island", "haf" being an old word, meaning deep open water that used for fishing. "Haaf" is added to distinguish it from other islands, such as Sound Gruney nearby. On August 4, 1745, two girls from Uyea rowed here to milk some of the cows grazing here, their return was marred by a strong storm, they found their tiny boat blown to Karmøy in south west Norway. The Uyea girls ended up marrying Karmøy men, their descendants still live there. Haaf Gruney is a national nature reserve for the storm petrels. Mousa in the southern Shetland islands has a strong colony; the islet is no longer used for grazing, but there are marine Eurasian otters living here, the usual seals
A pier is a raised structure in a body of water supported by well-spaced piles or pillars. Bridges and walkways may all be supported by piers, their open structure allows tides and currents to flow unhindered, whereas the more solid foundations of a quay or the spaced piles of a wharf can act as a breakwater, are more liable to silting. Piers can range in size and complexity from a simple lightweight wooden structure to major structures extended over 1600 metres. In American English, a pier may be synonymous with a dock. Piers have been built for several purposes, because these different purposes have distinct regional variances, the term pier tends to have different nuances of meaning in different parts of the world, thus in North America and Australia, where many ports were, until built on the multiple pier model, the term tends to imply a current or former cargo-handling facility. In Europe in contrast, where ports more use basins and river-side quays than piers, the term is principally associated with the image of a Victorian cast iron pleasure pier.
However, the earliest piers pre-date the Victorian age. Piers can be categorized into different groupings according to the principal purpose. However, there is considerable overlap between these categories. For example, pleasure piers also allow for the docking of pleasure steamers and other similar craft, while working piers have been converted to leisure use after being rendered obsolete by advanced developments in cargo-handling technology. Many piers are floating piers, to ensure that the piers raise and lower with the tide along with the boats tied to them; this prevents a situation where lines become overly loose by rising or lowering tides. An overly taut or loose tie-line can damage boats by pulling them out of the water or allowing them so much leeway that they bang forcefully against the sides of the pier. Working piers were built for the handling of passengers and cargo off ships or canal boats. Working piers themselves fall into two different groups. Longer individual piers are found at ports with large tidal ranges, with the pier stretching far enough off shore to reach deep water at low tide.
Such piers provided an economical alternative to impounded docks where cargo volumes were low, or where specialist bulk cargo was handled, such as at coal piers. The other form of working pier called the finger pier, was built at ports with smaller tidal ranges. Here the principal advantage was to give a greater available quay length for ships to berth against compared to a linear littoral quayside, such piers are much shorter; each pier would carry a single transit shed the length of the pier, with ships berthing bow or stern in to the shore. Some major ports consisted of large numbers of such piers lining the foreshore, classic examples being the Hudson River frontage of New York, or the Embarcadero in San Francisco; the advent of container shipping, with its need for large container handling spaces adjacent to the shipping berths, has made working piers obsolete for the handling of general cargo, although some still survive for the handling of passenger ships or bulk cargos. One example, is in use in Progreso, Yucatán, where a pier extends more than 4 miles into the Gulf of Mexico, making it the longest pier in the world.
The Progreso Pier supplies much of the peninsula with transportation for the fishing and cargo industries and serves as a port for large cruise ships in the area. Many other working piers have been demolished, or remain derelict, but some have been recycled as pleasure piers; the best known example of this is Pier 39 in San Francisco. At Southport and the Tweed River on the Gold Coast in Australia, there are piers that support equipment for a sand bypassing system that maintains the health of sandy beaches and navigation channels. Pleasure piers were first built in Britain during the early 19th century; the earliest structures were Ryde Pier, built in 1813/4, Trinity Chain Pier near Leith, built in 1821, Brighton Chain Pier, built in 1823. Only the oldest of these piers still remains. At that time the introduction of the railways for the first time permitted mass tourism to dedicated seaside resorts; the large tidal ranges at many such resorts meant that for much of the day, the sea was not visible from dry land.
The pleasure pier was the resorts' answer, permitting holidaymakers to promenade over and alongside the sea at all times. The world's longest pleasure pier is at Southend-on-sea and extends 1.3 miles into the Thames estuary. With a length of 2,745 feet, the longest pier on the West Coast of the US is the Santa Cruz Wharf. Providing a walkway out to sea, pleasure piers include amusements and theatres as part of the attraction; such a pier may be open air, closed, or open closed. Sometimes a pier has two decks. Galveston Island Historic Pleasure Pier in Galveston, Texas has 1 roller coaster, 15 rides, carnival games and souvenir shops. Early pleasure piers were of wooden construction, with iron structures being introduced with the construction in 1855 of Margate Jetty, in Margate, England. Margate was never repaired; the longest iron pleasure pier still remaining in Southend-on-Sea,Essex and dates from 1829 - however the world's oldest iron pier dates from 1834 and is in Gravesend, Kent. In a 2006 UK poll, the public voted the seaside pier onto the list of icons of England.
Many piers are built for the purpose of providing boatless anglers access to fishing grounds that are otherwise inaccessible. Many "Free Piers" are available in larger harbors. Free Piers are primarily used for fishing. See the List of piers article for detai
Shetland called the Shetland Islands and Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of the mainland of Scotland. The islands lie some 80 km to the northeast of Orkney, 168 km from the Scottish mainland and 280 km southeast of the Faroe Islands, they form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean to the North Sea to the east. The total area is 1,466 km2, the population totalled 23,210 in 2011. Comprising the Shetland constituency of the Scottish Parliament, Shetland Islands Council is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the largest island, known as the "Mainland", has an area of 967 km2, making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands; the archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills. Humans have lived in Shetland since the Mesolithic period; the earliest written references to the islands date to Roman times. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences from Norway, the islands did not become part of Scotland until the 15th century.
When Scotland became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, trade with northern Europe decreased. Fishing has continued to be an important aspect of the economy up to the present day; the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s boosted Shetland's economy and public sector revenues. The local way of life reflects the Scottish and Norse heritage of the isles, including the Up Helly Aa fire festival, a strong musical tradition the traditional fiddle style; the islands have produced a variety of writers of prose and poetry in the distinct Shetland dialect of Scots. There are numerous areas set aside to protect the local fauna and flora, including a number of important sea bird nesting sites; the Shetland pony and Shetland Sheepdog are two well-known Shetland animal breeds. Other local breeds include the Shetland sheep, cow and duck; the Shetland pig, or grice, has been extinct since about 1930. The islands' motto, which appears on the Council's coat of arms, is "Með lögum skal land byggja"; the Old Norse original of this Icelandic phrase is taken from the Danish 1241 Basic Law, Code of Jutland, is mentioned in Njáls saga, means "By law shall land be built".
The name of Shetland is derived from the Old Norse words and land. In AD 43 and 77 the Roman authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder referred to the seven islands they called Haemodae and Acmodae, both of which are assumed to be Shetland. Another possible early written reference to the islands is Tacitus' report in Agricola in AD 98, after describing the discovery and conquest of Orkney, that the Roman fleet had seen "Thule, too". In early Irish literature, Shetland is referred to as Insi Catt—"the Isles of Cats", which may have been the pre-Norse inhabitants' name for the islands; the Cat tribe occupied parts of the northern Scottish mainland and their name can be found in Caithness, in the Gaelic name for Sutherland. The oldest version of the modern name Shetland is Hetlandensis, the Latinised adjectival form of the Old Norse name recorded in a letter from Harald, Count of Shetland in 1190, becoming Hetland in 1431 after various intermediate transformations, it is possible. It became Hjaltland in the 16th century.
As Norn was replaced by Scots in the form of the Shetland dialect, Hjaltland became Ȝetland. The initial letter is the Middle Scots letter, the pronunciation of, identical to the original Norn sound, /hj/; when the use of the letter yogh was discontinued, it was replaced by the similar-looking letter z, hence Zetland, the form used in the name of the pre-1975 county council. This is the source of the ZE postcode used for Shetland. Most of the individual islands have Norse names, although the derivations of some are obscure and may represent pre-Norse Pictish or pre-Celtic names or elements. Shetland is around 170 kilometres north of mainland Scotland, covers an area of 1,468 square kilometres and has a coastline 2,702 kilometres long. Lerwick, the capital and largest settlement, has a population of 6,958 and about half of the archipelago's total population of 23,167 people live within 16 kilometres of the town. Scalloway on the west coast, the capital until 1708, has a population of less than 1,000.
Only 16 of about 100 islands are inhabited. The main island of the group is known as Mainland; the next largest are Yell and Fetlar, which lie to the north, Bressay and Whalsay, which lie to the east. East and West Burra, Muckle Roe, Papa Stour and Vaila are smaller islands to the west of Mainland; the other inhabited islands are Foula 28 kilometres west of Walls, Fair Isle 38 kilometres south-west of Sumburgh Head, the Out Skerries to the east. The uninhabited islands include Mousa, known for the Broch of Mousa, the finest preserved example in Scotland of an Iron Age broch. Shetland's location means that it provides a number of such records: Muness is the most northerly castle in the United Kingdom and Skaw the most northerly settlement. The
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Shetland (Scottish Parliament constituency)
Shetland is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the first past the post method of election. However, it is one of eight constituencies in the Highlands and Islands electoral region, which elects seven additional members, in addition to eight constituency MSPs, to produce a form of proportional representation for the region as a whole. Shetland is part of the Highlands and Islands electoral region; the region covers most of Argyll and Bute council area, all of the Highland council area, most of the Moray council area, all of the Orkney Islands council area, all of the Shetland Islands council area and all of Na h-Eileanan Siar. The Shetland constituency was created at the same time as the Scottish Parliament, in 1999, to cover the Shetland Isles council area. In the House of Commons of the British Parliament at, the council area is covered by the Orkney and Shetland constituency, which covers the Orkney Islands council area, it has been represented by Tavish Scott, former Scottish Liberal Democrat leader, since the 1999 election
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Lerwick is the main port of the Shetland Islands, Scotland. Shetland's only burgh, Lerwick had a population of about 7,000 residents in 2010. Centred 123 miles off the north coast of the Scottish mainland and on the east coast of the Shetland Mainland, Lerwick lies 211 miles north-by-northeast of Aberdeen, it is the most northerly town in the United Kingdom. One of the UK's coastal weather stations is situated there. Lerwick is a name with roots in Old Norse and its local descendant, spoken in Shetland until the mid-19th century; the name "Lerwick" means bay of clay. The corresponding Norwegian name is Leirvik, leir meaning clay and vik meaning "bay" or "inlet". Towns with similar names exist on the Faroe Islands. Evidence of human settlement in the Lerwick area dates back 3,000 years, centred on the Broch of Clickimin, constructed in the first century BCE; the first settlement to be known as Lerwick was founded in the 17th century as a herring and white fish seaport to trade with the Dutch fishing fleet.
This settlement was on the mainland side of Bressay Sound, a natural harbour with south and north entrances between the Shetland mainland and the island of Bressay. Its collection of wooden huts was burned to the ground twice: once in the 17th century by the residents of Scalloway on the western side of Mainland the capital of Shetland, who disapproved of the immoral and drunken activities of the assembled fishermen and sailors. Fort Charlotte was built in the mid 17th century on Lerwick’s waterfront, permanent stone-built buildings began to be erected around the fort and along the shoreline; the principal concentration of buildings was in the "lanes" area: a steep hillside stretching from the shoreline to Hillhead at the top. Lerwick became capital of the Shetland Islands in 1708; the civil parish of Lerwick had been in 1701 created from a small part of the parish of Tingwall, to which Scalloway still belongs. When Lerwick became more prosperous through sea trade and the fishing industry during the 19th century, the town expanded in 1891 to the west of Hillhead, thereby including the former civil parishes of Gulberwick and Quarff, as well as the islands parish of Burra.
Lerwick Town Hall was built during this period of expansion. Lerwick war memorial was designed by Sir Robert Lorimer; the next period of significant expansion was during the North Sea oil boom of the 1970s when large housing developments were built to the north of Staney Hill and to the south. Lerwick has an oceanic climate bordering on the subpolar climate with cool to cold temperatures all year long; the lack of trees resembles the latter type. This is pronounced by virtue of Lerwick being on a small isolated island, so extreme temperature records are subdued. Lerwick is a cloudy town, averaging only 1,110 sunshine hours annually. February is the coldest month, with high temperatures averaging around 5.5 °C. In August, the warmest month, average high temperatures are near 14.5 °C. This produces an narrow difference for an area north of the 60 parallel. In terms of average monthly precipitation, October to January are the year's wettest months, with over 5.5 inches of precipitation each month. Snowfall can occur from December to March, but snow accumulation is heavy and short-lived.
The exposed North Atlantic location and proximity to autumn and winter storm tracks means high winds are a regular occurrence, alongside high levels of cloudiness and precipitation. The weather station is at an elevation of 82 metres, so temperatures are to be milder in the town centre at sea level. Owing to its northerly location, winter months are dark in Lerwick. On the day of the winter solstice it gets 49 minutes of daylight. In sharp contrast daylight lasts 55 minutes on the day of the summer solstice; as a result, nights never get dark for a period of time in summer, with dark blue elements remaining in the sky. The maritime influence tempers the climate effects of these swings in daylight, but in many areas of the world this latitude has hostile winters. Farther north in the world, only the Faroe Islands have such high January averages as Lerwick and fellow Shetland station at Baltasound – with the warm Atlantic currents preventing ice formation. Only when temperatures in continental areas are record cold does Lerwick experience some cold as was the case in December 2010 during the severe cold wave affecting the British Isles and Europe that covered much of England in snow.
So, average highs remained above 3 °C and frosts were light. Warm summers are extremely rare with the warmest recorded month being July 2006 at an average high of 16 °C. Lerwick has 6,958 residents, as of 2011, it is 97.0% White, 2.2% Asian or Asian Scottish or British Asian, 0.8% other ethnic groups. Lerwick's residents are 2.5% unemployed, 17.3% are part-time employees, 50.3% are full-time employees. Lerwick is a busy ferry port; the harbour services vessels