Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd
In structural geology, an anticline is a type of fold, an arch-like shape and has its oldest beds at its core. A typical anticline is convex up in which the hinge or crest is the location where the curvature is greatest, the limbs are the sides of the fold that dip away from the hinge. Anticlines can be recognized and differentiated from antiforms by a sequence of rock layers that become progressively older toward the center of the fold. Therefore, if age relationships between various rock strata are unknown, the term antiform should be used; the progressing age of the rock strata towards the core and uplifted center, are the trademark indications for evidence of anticlines on a geologic map. These formations occur because anticlinal ridges develop above thrust faults during crustal deformations; the uplifted core of the fold causes compression of strata that preferentially erodes to a deeper stratigraphic level relative to the topographically lower flanks. Motion along the fault including both shortening and extension of tectonic plates also deforms strata near the fault.
This overturned fold. An antiform can be used to describe any fold, convex up, it is the relative ages of the rock strata. The hinge of an anticline refers to the location where the curvature is greatest called the crest; the hinge is the highest point on a stratum along the top of the fold. The culmination refers to the highest point along any geologic structure; the limbs are the sides of the fold. The inflection point is the area on the limbs; the axial surface is an imaginary plane connecting the hinge of each layer of rock stratum through the cross section of an anticline. If the axial surface is vertical and the angles on each side of the fold are equivalent the anticline is symmetrical. If the axial plane is tilted or offset the anticline is asymmetrical. An anticline, cylindrical has a well-defined axial surface, whereas non-cylindrical anticlines are too complex to have a single axial plane. An overturned anticline is an asymmetrical anticline with a limb, tilted beyond perpendicular, so that the beds in that limb have flipped over and may dip in the same direction on both sides of the axial plane.
If the angle between the limbs is large the fold is an "open" fold, but if the angle between the limbs is small the fold is a "tight" fold. If an anticline plunges, it will form Vs on a geologic map view that point in the direction of plunge. A plunging anticline has a hinge, not parallel to the earth's surface. All anticlines and synclines have some degree of plunge. Periclinal folds are a type of anticlines that have a well-defined, but curved hinge line and are doubly plunging and thus elongate domes. Folds in which the limbs dip toward the hinge and display a more U-like shape are called synclines, they flank the sides of anticlines and display opposite characteristics. A syncline's oldest rock strata are in its outer limbs. A monocline is a bend in the strata resulting in a local steepening in only one direction of dip. Monoclines have the shape of a carpet draped over a stairstep. An anticline, more eroded in the center is called a breached or scalped anticline. Breached anticlines can become incised by stream erosion.
A structure that plunges in all directions to form a circular or elongate structure is a dome. Domes may be created via diapirism from underlying magmatic intrusions or upwardly mobile, mechanically ductile material such as rock salt and shale that cause deformations and uplift in the surface rock; the Richat Structure of the Sahara is considered a dome, laid bare by erosion. An anticline which plunges at both ends is termed a doubly plunging anticline, may be formed from multiple deformations, or superposition of two sets of folds, it may be related to the geometry of the underlying detachment fault and the varying amount of displacement along the surface of that detachment fault. An anticlinorium is a large anticline. Examples include the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Purcell Anticlinorium in British Columbia and the Blue Ridge anticlinorium of northern Virginia and Maryland in the Appalachians, or the Nittany Valley in central Pennsylvania. Anticlines are developed above thrust faults, so any small compression and motion within the inner crust can have large effects on the upper rock stratum.
Stresses developed during mountain building or during other tectonic processes can warp or bend bedding and foliation. The more the underlying fault is tectonically uplifted, the more the strata will be deformed and must adapt to new shapes; the shape formed will be dependent on the properties and cohesion of the different types of rock within each layer. During the formation of flexural-slip folds, the different rock layers form parallel-slip folds to accommodate for buckling. A good way to visualize how the multiple layers are manipulated, is to bend a deck of cards and to imagine each card as a layer of rock stratum; the amount of slip on each side of the anticline increases from the hinge to the inflection point. Passive-flow folds form when the rock is so soft that it behaves like weak plastic and flows. In this process different parts of the rock body move at different rates causing shear stress to shift from layer to layer. There is no mec
Estérençuby is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE EZTERENZUBI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia