Lucien Marcus Underwood
Lucien Marcus Underwood was an American botanist and mycologist of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He was born in New Woodstock, New York, graduated from Syracuse University. In 1880 he was appointed professor of geology and botany in Illinois Wesleyan University, in 1883 professor of biology in his alma mater, in 1891 he became professor of botany in De Pauw University. In 1896, after a short stint as a biology professor at Auburn University, Underwood became a professor of botany at Columbia University and joined the staff of the New York Botanical Garden. Underwood published numerous papers in botanical journals, was the author of Our Native Ferns and how to study them, Descriptive Catalogue of North American Hepaticae and “Hepaticae” in Gray's Manual of Botany, he prepared An Illustrated Century of Fungi with 100 specimens, Hepaticae Americanae with 160 specimens. After losing large amounts of money on Wall Street, Underwood attempted to murder his wife and daughter before committing suicide at the family's home in Redding, Connecticut.
Works by or about Lucien Marcus Underwood at Internet Archive Media related to Lucien Marcus Underwood at Wikimedia Commons
William Gilson Farlow
William Gilson Farlow was an American botanist, born in Boston and educated at Harvard, after several years of European study, he became adjunct professor of botany in 1874 and professor of cryptogamic botany in 1879. Farlow corresponded with Caroline Bingham and Jacob Georg Agardh collaborating in the identification and classification of species of algae unknown to science. In 1899 he was president of the American Society of Naturalists, he received honorary degrees from Harvard University, the University of Glasgow, the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He was known as the "father" of cryptogamic botany in the United States. Among his students was the phytologist William Albert Setchell. Among his publications are: The Gymnosporangia or Cedar-Apples of the United States Marine Algœ of New England A Provisional Host-Index of the Fungi of the United States Biographical Index of North American Fungi This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed".
New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics, concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis. Techniques used include karyotyping, analysis of G-banded chromosomes, other cytogenetic banding techniques, as well as molecular cytogenetics such as fluorescent in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization. Chromosomes were first observed in plant cells by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842, their behavior in animal cells was described by Walther Flemming, the discoverer of mitosis, in 1882. The name was coined by another German anatomist, von Waldeyer in 1888; the next stage took place after the development of genetics in the early 20th century, when it was appreciated that the set of chromosomes was the carrier of the genes. Levitsky seems to have been the first to define the karyotype as the phenotypic appearance of the somatic chromosomes, in contrast to their genic contents. Investigation into the human karyotype took many years to settle the most basic question: how many chromosomes does a normal diploid human cell contain?
In 1912, Hans von Winiwarter reported 47 chromosomes in spermatogonia and 48 in oogonia, concluding an XX/XO sex determination mechanism. Painter in 1922 was not certain whether the diploid number of man was 46 or 48, at first favoring 46, he revised his opinion from 46 to 48, he insisted on man having an XX/XY system. Considering their techniques, these results were quite remarkable. In science books, the number of human chromosomes remained at 48 for over thirty years. New techniques were needed to correct this error. Joe Hin Tjio working in Albert Levan's lab was responsible for finding the approach: Using cells in culture Pre-treating cells in a hypotonic solution, which swells them and spreads the chromosomes Arresting mitosis in metaphase by a solution of colchicine Squashing the preparation on the slide forcing the chromosomes into a single plane Cutting up a photomicrograph and arranging the result into an indisputable karyogram, it took until 1956 until it became accepted that the karyotype of man included only 46 chromosomes.
The great apes have 48 chromosomes. Human chromosome 2 was formed by a merger of ancestral chromosomes. Barbara McClintock began her career as a maize cytogeneticist. In 1931, McClintock and Harriet Creighton demonstrated that cytological recombination of marked chromosomes correlated with recombination of genetic traits. McClintock, while at the Carnegie Institution, continued previous studies on the mechanisms of chromosome breakage and fusion flare in maize, she identified a particular chromosome breakage event that always occurred at the same locus on maize chromosome 9, which she named the "Ds" or "dissociation" locus. McClintock continued her career in cytogenetics studying the mechanics and inheritance of broken and ring chromosomes of maize. During her cytogenetic work, McClintock discovered transposons, a find which led to her Nobel Prize in 1983. In the 1930s, Dobzhansky and his coworkers collected Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis from wild populations in California and neighboring states.
Using Painter's technique they studied the polytene chromosomes and discovered that the wild populations were polymorphic for chromosomal inversions. All the flies look alike whatever inversions they carry: this is an example of a cryptic polymorphism. Evidence accumulated to show that natural selection was responsible. Using a method invented by L'Héritier and Teissier, Dobzhansky bred populations in population cages, which enabled feeding and sampling whilst preventing escape; this had the benefit of eliminating migration as a possible explanation of the results. Stocks containing inversions at a known initial frequency can be maintained in controlled conditions, it was found that the various chromosome types do not fluctuate at random, as they would if selectively neutral, but adjust to certain frequencies at which they become stabilised. By the time Dobzhansky published the third edition of his book in 1951 he was persuaded that the chromosome morphs were being maintained in the population by the selective advantage of the heterozygotes, as with most polymorphisms.
The lily is a favored organism for the cytological examination of meiosis since the chromosomes are large and each morphological stage of meiosis can be identified microscopically. Hotta et al. presented evidence for a common pattern of DNA nicking and repair synthesis in male meiotic cells of lilies and rodents during the zygotene–pachytene stages of meiosis when crossing over was presumed to occur. The presence of a common pattern between organisms as phylogenetically distant as lily and mouse led the authors to conclude that the organization for meiotic crossing-over in at least higher eukaryotes is universal in distribution. Following the advent of procedures which allowed easy enumeration of chromosomes, discoveries were made related to aberrant chromosomes or chromosome number. In some congenital disorders, such as Down syndrome, cytogenetics revealed the nature of the chromosomal defect: a "simple" trisomy. Abnormalities arising from nondisjunction events can cause cells with aneuploidy in one of the parents or in the fetus.
In 1959, Lejeune discovered patients with Down syndrome had an extra copy of chromosome 21. Down syndrome is referred to as trisomy 21. Other numerical abnormalities discovered include sex chromosome abnormalities. A female with only one X chromosome has Turner syndrome, whereas an additional X chromosome in a male, resulting in 47 total chromosomes, has Klinefelter syndrome. Many other sex chromosome combinations are compatible with live bir
Charles Edwin Bessey
Charles Edwin Bessey was an American botanist. He was born at Wayne County, Ohio, he graduated in 1869 at the Michigan Agricultural College. Bessey studied at Harvard University under Asa Gray, in 1872 and in 1875–76, he was professor of botany at the Iowa Agricultural College, today known as Iowa State University from 1870 to 1884. In 1884, he was appointed professor of botany at the University of Nebraska and became head dean there in 1909, he served as Chancellor of the University of Nebraska from 1888 to 1891 and again from 1899 to 1900. He served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1911. Bessey's son, Ernst Bessey was Professor of Botany at Michigan State University, his arrangement of flowering plants taxa, with focus on the evolutionary divergence of primitive forms, is considered by many as the system most to form the basis of a modern, comprehensive taxonomy of the plant kingdom. In 1967, Iowa State University built a Plant Industry Building, named after Bessey.
Today the building is used by departments in the biological sciences. In 2009 he was inducted to the Nebraska Hall of Fame. Bessey system, his taxonomic plant system. Nebraska National Forest Works by or about Charles Edwin Bessey at Internet Archive Charles Bessey papers at the Iowa State University Library. Retrieved on July 10, 2009. Charles Bessey papers at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Retrieved on October 13, 2009; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead
William Francis Ganong
William Francis Ganong, M. A. Ph. D. LL. D. F. R. S. C. was a Canadian biologist botanist and cartographer. His botany career was spent as a professor at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. In his private life he contributed to the historical and geographical understanding of his native New Brunswick, he was born in New Brunswick, in 1864, the eldest of seven children. He is the brother of Susie, Arthur and Kit Ganong Whidden. At the age of seven, the family moved to St. Stephen where his father, James Harvey Ganong and uncle Gilbert Ganong established the now-famous Ganong Brothers candy factory, it was expected that young William would enter the family business when he came of age, but early on, he showed an interest in the natural world. These interests extended to botany, reading and exploring the countryside, he showed a talent for languages. Through his life he would come to have at least a working knowledge of French, Maliseet and Mi'kmaq, he was an early naturalist and by the age of seventeen, he had first-hand knowledge of numerous rivers and coastal areas of New Brunswick as well as the flora and fauna of the province.
His explorations would continue throughout his life, both on his own and with one or more companions including Arthur H. Pierce, Mauran I. Furbish and George Upham Hay, he attended the University of New Brunswick where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884 and his master's degree in 1886. The next year, he went to Boston where in 1887, he received an A. B. from Harvard University. He obtained a doctorate in biology from the University of Munich in 1894 and published two papers in the German language, it was at Harvard that he met Jean Murray Carmen, sister of his friend and fellow Harvard student, New Brunswick poet Bliss Carman. They married in 1888; the marriage lasted thirty-two years until her death in 1920. They had no children. After graduating from Harvard, Ganong was appointed an assistant instructor in botany there, he stayed at Harvard for a few years until May 1894, when he accepted an appointment as Professor of Botany at Smith College. It was a position, he was director of the Botanic Garden at Smith.
Ganong, was responsible for developing the Garden, laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1893. Ganong expanded and revised Olmsted's planting specifications to make the entire campus an arboretum, they reworked the herbaceous beds as a "systematics garden" after the Engler-Prantl classification system; the outdoor environment at Smith thus became a place of learning for students of botany and horticulture. By authoring several books including The Teaching Botanist, A Laboratory Manual for Plant Physiology, The Living Plant, A Textbook of Botany for Colleges, Ganong was able to establish and maintain an international reputation in botany. Under his administration, Smith's Botany department reached a peak in student enrollment, size of staff, number of courses, he ensured that the range and quality of equipment available to students was high, the department was able to attain a positive academic reputation. Enrollment in the introductory elective class peaked at 182 in 1926. Dr. Ganong retired from Smith College in 1932.
He was elected President of the Botanical Society of America in 1907. Ganong undertook historical work during his teaching career. In summers, he would return to New Brunswick to study and document the historical geography of the province. Among his surveys were St. Croix Island, site of Champlain's first settlement in North America in 1604, he acquired a working knowledge of the Maliseet and Mi'kmaq languages, with that understanding and consultation with linguists and native historians, he undertook an investigation of the aboriginal place names in the Maritime Provinces, publishing a series of six articles in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada between 1911 and 1928. In 1889 he presented a paper on the cartography of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence from the 1530s to 1604. In the 1930s, he published an additional nine articles in the Transactions on what he termed the crucial maps in the early cartography and place-nomenclature of the region; the articles were drawn together and published in book form by the University of Toronto Press in 1964.
His work on place-nomenclature is still referenced. In his explorations, he had a chance to name several geographical features in the unexplored central and northern parts of New Brunswick, including Mount Carleton, the highest summit in the province, which he named after the first Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick, Thomas Carleton. Another mountain to the north of Mount Carleton was named for Ganong in 1901 by his friend and naturalist Mauran Furbish; as a scientist, Ganong brought a special quality to the study of New Brunswick history, which featured an emphasis on map-based studies and in determining the exact location of key historic sites. He went to the places he wrote about; as a translator and editor of the 17th-century Acadian narratives of Nicolas Denys and Father Chrétien Le Clercq he became a foremost scholar of the Acadian period. He contributed articles on Samuel de Champlain to publications of the New Brunswick Historical Society, the New Brunswick Magazine and Acadiensis.
In addition to document-based research and translation, Ganong prepared maps, took photographs and gave slide presentations. He collaborated with others. One frequent collaborator was Dr. John Clarence Webster, for whom he prepared numerous maps and other contributions, he took a great interest in the international border between New Brunswick and Maine. Because of this interest and expertise he was asked to take part in the cross