Brighton is an affluent coastal suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 11 km south-east of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Bayside. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Brighton had a population of 23,253 people in 2016<. Brighton is named after Brighton in England. Brighton houses some of the wealthiest citizens in Melbourne with grand homes, the development of large residential blocks of land. Brighton is well known for its Dendy Street Beach with its 82 colourful beach boxes; as of June 2016, Brighton has a median house price of AU$2,287,500. In England, on 29 August 1840, Henry Dendy purchased 5,120 acres of Port Phillip land at £1 per acre, site unseen, under the terms of the short-lived Special Survey regulations. Dendy arrived on 5 February 1841 to claim his land; the area was known as Dendy's Special Survey. The area Dendy was compelled to take, called "Waterville", was bound by the coastline to the west and the present day North Road, East Boundary Road and South Road.
A town was surveyed in mid-1841, defined by the crescent-shaped street layout which remains today, subdivided allotments were offered for sale. The area soon became the "Brighton Estate", Dendy's site for his own home was named "Brighton Park"; the land did not have any ready sources of water. Sales were slow at first, the financial depression came and Dendy's scheme for emigration and land sales failed; the family of his agent Jonathan Binns Were who had arrived in Melbourne in 1839, bought the land. All of Dendy's business ventures failed, he died a pauper. After the depression, sales of land resulted in Brighton becoming the third most populated town in the Port Phillip District, by 1846. Brighton attracted wealthy residents who wanted generous building sites and the prospect of sea bathing. By the late 1840s stately homes were built in an area known as'The Terrace', now called the Esplanade, overlooking Dendy Street Beach; the Brighton Post Office opened on 19 April 1853. St Andrew's Anglican Church, one of the earliest churches in Victoria, was founded in 1842.
Wesleyan and Catholic churches followed by 1848, a Methodist church in 1851. Schools were opened by the Catholic Church in Centre Road. Another was opened in the Wesleyan Church in 1855. In 1854, Brighton had a census population of 2,731. An railway connection to Melbourne was built in stages: Windsor to North Brighton was completed in 1859 and connected to the loop line to St Kilda station. A single line railway-tram from St Kilda to Brighton Beach was completed in 1906; the railway tramline was duplicated in 1914. In 1919 the railway was electrified. A tram ran down Hawthorn Road; the noted bathing boxes in Brighton are known to have existed as far back as 1862, although the earliest ones were at the water's edge at the end of Bay St rather than their present location on Dendy Street Beach just south of Middle Brighton. In 1906, the completion of a tram line from St Kilda to Brighton led to an increase in applications for bathing box permits and significant construction between 1908 and 1911; as part of capital works programs during the Depression to help relieve unemployment, the City of Brighton, backed by State Government funding, relocated all bathing boxes to the high-water mark on Dendy Street Beach, or removed them completely.
The boxes were relocated again in 1934 to their present position at the rear of this beach. Two years after the opening of the railway line to Brighton Beach in 1861, Captain Kenny’s Brighton Beach Baths opened. At the time, bathing in the open during daylight hours was prohibited, as was mixed bathing: separate sections of the beach were designated for men and for women; the baths were built off shore and were accessed by a wooden bridge, so that bathers would not have to cross the sand clad only in bathing costumes, but could gain entry straight into the water. Brighton Beach Baths had been destroyed several times, were demolished in 1979; the Middle Brighton Municipal Baths were opened in 1881. The Baths are one of the only remaining caged open water sea baths in Australia. In 1992 former Mayor of Brighton John Locco had a fist fight with former Baths Manager Mark Greene which resulted in Greene's sacking. On 18 January 1859, the municipality of Brighton was proclaimed extending eastwards between Dendy's survey boundaries to Thomas Street and Nepean Highway.
Brighton became a borough in October 1863, in 1870 parts of Elwood and Elsternwick were added. Brighton became a town on 18 March 1887, it annexed 13.8 hectares from the City of Moorabbin on 3 April 1912 and became the City of Brighton on 12 March 1919. On 14 December 1994, the City of Brighton was incorporated in a new municipality called City of Bayside. On the beach, Beach Road is a popular cycling route, with the Bay Trail off-road walking/cycling tracks following the coastline. Dendy Street Beach, just south of Middle Brighton, features 82 colourful bathing boxes, which are one of the tourist icons of Melbourne; the boxes share a uniformity of size and build, a regular arrangement along the beach, are the only surviving such structures close to the Melbourne CBD. A Planning Scheme Heritage Overlay on the boxes by the Bayside City Council restricts alterations, all retain their Victorian era architecture, such as timber frames, weatherboard
Shoreham-by-Sea is a seaside town and port in West Sussex, England. The town is bordered to its north by the South Downs, to its west by the Adur Valley and to its south by the River Adur and Shoreham Beach on the English Channel; the town lies in the middle of the ribbon of urban development along the English south coast equidistant from the city of Brighton and Hove to the east and the town of Worthing to the west. Shoreham covers an area of 2,430 acres and has a population of 20,547. Old Shoreham dates back to pre-Roman times. St Nicolas' Church, inland by the River Adur, is Anglo-Saxon The name of the town has an Old English origin; the town and port of New Shoreham was established by the Norman conquerors towards the end of the 11th century. St Mary de Haura Church was built in the decade following 1103, around this time the town was laid out on a grid pattern that, in essence, survives in the town centre; the church is only half the size of the original – the former nave was ruinous at the time of the civil war although remnants of the original west façade survive in the churchyard to some height.
Muslim scholar Muhammad al-Idrisi, writing c.1153, described Shoreham as "a fine and cultivated city containing buildings and flourishing activity". The growth of neighbouring Brighton and Worthing – in particular the arrival of the railway in 1840 – prepared the way for Shoreham's rise as a Victorian sea port, with several shipyards and an active coasting trade. Shoreham Harbour remains in commercial operation to this day. Southdown Golf Club, Shoreham-by-Sea ceased to operate in the 1940s. Shoreham Beach, to the south of the town, is a shingle spit deposited over millennia by longshore drift, as an extension to Lancing parish in the west; this blocks the southerly flow of the River Adur which turns east at this point to discharge into the English Channel further along the coast at a point that has varied over time. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the mouth of the river shifted eastwards which restricted trade to the port. In 1816, work had been completed to fix the position of the river in its present position, flowing into the sea between two piers.
Once the harbour mouth was stabilised it was defended by Shoreham Fort, built in 1857. Converted railway carriages became summer homes around the start of the 20th century, and'Bungalow Town', as it was known, became home to the early British film industry. Francis L. Lyndhurst, founded the Sunny South Film Company, which made its first commercial movie on Shoreham Beach in 1912 and built a film studio there. Shoreham Beach became part of Shoreham-by-Sea in 1910. Much of the housing in the area was cleared for defence reasons during the Second World War and most of what remained after the war is now long gone, having been replaced by modern houses, some of which are expensive, architect designed constructions; the Church of the Good Shepherd, built in 1913, still stands. Along the Adur mud flats adjacent to Shoreham Beach sits a large collection of houseboats made from converted barges, mine sweepers, Motor Torpedo Boats etc; the seaside shingle bank of Shoreham beach extends further east past the harbour mouth, forming the southern boundary of the commercial harbour in Southwick and Hove.
The Monarch's Way long-distance footpath, commemorating the flight of Charles II to France after the Battle of Worcester, follows the beach westwards from Hove past Portslade and Southwick, terminating by the harbour mouth's east breakwater. Transversed by the River Adur and with the downs and the sea nearby the area supports a diverse wildlife flora and fauna; the mudflats support wading birds and gulls, including the ringed plover which attempts to breed on the coastal shingle. The pied wagtail is common in the town in the winter months. Insects include dragonflies over the flood plains of the river; the south and west facing downs attract at least 33 species of butterfly including a nationally important population of the chalkhill blue butterfly on Mill Hill. The underlying rock is chalk on the downs, with alluvium in the old river channels; the Adur district has a variety of habitats in a small area, including natural chalk downs and butterfly meadows and reed beds, salt marsh and estuary, brackish water lagoons, shingle seashore, chalk platform undersea and large expanses of sand.
The town is the end-point of the Monarch's Way, a 615-mile Long-distance footpath, based on the escape route taken by King Charles II in 1651 after being defeated by Cromwell in the Battle of Worcester. Brighton City Airport lies to the west of the main town and has been in private ownership since 2006, it is the UK's oldest licensed airport still in operation and has a 1936 Grade II*-listed Art Deco terminal building. The terminal has been a filming location for an episode of Agatha Christie's Poirot, "Lord Edgware Dies", a Crimewatch-type reconstruction, BBC Tenko series episode, The Da Vinci Code film scenes and the film Woman in Gold; the town is served by Shoreham-by-Sea railway station, located on the West Coastway Line. Local bus services are provided by the Brighton & Hove bus company, Stagecoach South and a local town route is operated by Compass Travel. Shoreham Tollbridge crosses the River Adur in the west of the town; this bridge was the last Sussex toll bridge in use. The bridge was part of the A27 road until it was closed to traffic in 1968.
The structure is now too weak to carry vehicles and underwent extensive restoration was ceremonially re-opened for pede
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more the ability to perform aspects of sports and daily activities. Physical fitness is achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, sufficient rest. Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, to meet emergency situations. Fitness is defined as the state of being fit. Around 1950 consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term "fitness" increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten; the modern definition of fitness describes either a person or machine's ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations.
This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness that has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries. Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to persons who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i.e. endurance or strength. A well-rounded fitness program improves a person in all aspects of fitness compared to practicing only one, such as only cardio/respiratory endurance or only weight training. A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual focuses on one or more specific skills, on age- or health-related needs such as bone health. Many sources cite mental and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness; this is presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical and mental fitness. Physical fitness can prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging. Working out can help some people sleep better and alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals.
Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines, which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases; the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were created by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. This publication recommends that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically. For substantial health benefits, adults should participate in at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, preferably, it should be spread throughout the week.
New guidelines in the United Kingdom include the following points: The intensity at which we exercise is key, light activity such as strolling and housework is unlikely to have much positive impact on the health of most people. For aerobic exercise to be beneficial it must make you sweat; the more exercise, the better. Everyone should do a minimum of 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise but, the minimum for health benefits. If you can go beyond 150 minutes, you’ll gain more health benefits. Sedentary time is bad for your health for those who are achieving 150 minutes of exercise a week; these guidelines, are now much more in line with those used in the US include recommendations for muscle-building and bone strengthening activities such as lifting weights and yoga.<https://www.nhs.uk/news/lifestyle-and-exercise/major-new-exercise-guidelines-announced/> The US guidelines continue: For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 150 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.
Additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount. Adults should do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits. Cardiorespiratory fitness can be measured using VO2 max, a measure of the amount of oxygen the body can uptake and utilize. Aerobic exercise, which improves cardiorespiratory fitness, involves movement that increases the heart rate to improve the body's oxygen consumption; this form of exercise is an important part of all training regiments ranging from professional athletes to the everyday person. It helps increase stamina. Examples are: Jogging -- Running at a gentle pace; this form of exercise is great for maintaining weight. Elliptical training – This is a stationary exercise machine used to perform walking, or running without causing excessive stress on the joints; this form of exercise is perfect for people with achy hips and ankles.
Walking – Moving at a regular pace for a short, medium or long distance. Treadmill training – Many treadmills have programs set up that offer numerous different workout plans. One effective cardiovascular activity would be to switch between walking. Warm up first by walking and switch off between walking f
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
St Kilda, Victoria
St Kilda is an inner suburb of the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia, 6 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Port Phillip. At the 2016 Census, St Kilda had a population of 20,230. St Kilda was named by Charles La Trobe, after a schooner, Lady of St Kilda, which moored at the main beach for much of 1841, the ship's master and early settler Lieutenant James Ross Lawrence. During the Victorian and Edwardian eras, St Kilda became a favoured suburb of Melbourne's elite, many palatial mansions were constructed along its hills and waterfront. Shortly after the turn of the 20th century, St Kilda served a similar function for Melburnians as did Coney Island to the residents of New York City. Densely populated postwar St Kilda became Melbourne's red-light district, home to low-cost rooming houses. Since the late 1960s, St Kilda has become known for its culture of bohemianism and as home to many prominent artists and subcultures, including punk and LGBT.
While some of these groups still maintain a presence in St Kilda, in recent years the district has experienced rapid gentrification pushing many lower socio-economic groups out to other areas. St Kilda is home to many of Melbourne's visitor attractions including Luna Park, the Esplanade Hotel, Acland Street and Fitzroy Street, it is home to several theatres and many of Melbourne's big events and festivals. Before being named St Kilda in 1841 by Charles La Trobe, superintendent of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, the area was known by several names, including'Green Knoll','Punk Town' and'The Village of Fareham', it was named after the schooner Lady of St Kilda, owned between 1834 and 1840 by Sir Thomas Acland. In 1840 Thomas Acland sold the vessel to Jonathan Cundy Pope of Plymouth who sailed for Port Phillip in Melbourne in February 1841; the vessel was moored at the main beach for most of that year, soon known as "the St Kilda foreshore."The schooner Lady of St Kilda was named in honour of Lady Grange, imprisoned on the island of Hirta, the largest island in the St Kilda archipelago, on the western edge of Scotland, by her husband in 1734–40.
Kulin people lived in Euroe Yroke for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. Evidence has been found of shellfish middens and huts along Albert Park and Lake and axes which were most sharpened on the sandstone cliffs behind the main beach. Corroborees were held at the historic tree which still stands at St Kilda Junction, at the corner of Fitzroy Street and Queens Road. Much of the area north of present-day Fitzroy Street was swampland, part of the Yarra River Delta which comprised vast areas of wetlands and sparse vegetation; the first European settler in St Kilda was Benjamin Baxter in around 1839. He was a settler from Melbourne on a grazing lease. In 1840, St Kilda was the home to Melbourne's first quarantine station for Scottish immigrants; the area was named St Kilda in 1841. The first sale of Crown lands in St Kilda took place on 7 December 1842; the first block was bought by James Ross Lawrence, master of the Lady of St Kilda until 1842. Lawrence had now settled in Melbourne, his block was bounded by three unmade roads.
One of these roads he named Acland Street after Thomas Acland, his employer until 1840 but who had never been to Port Phillip District. The remaining two became The Esplanade. By 1845, Lawrence had sold the land on which he had built a cottage; the land on the sea-side of The Esplanade has continued to be Crown land. Within a few years, St Kilda became a fashionable area for wealthy settlers and the indigenous peoples were driven out to surrounding areas; the high ground above the beach offered a cool fresh breeze during Melbourne's hot summer months. St Kilda became a separate municipality on 24 April 1857, in the same year, the railway line and railway station connected St Kilda to Melbourne city and a loop line to Windsor; these railway lines brought many visitors to St Kilda and increased patronage to the run sea baths, the jetty promenade and the St Kilda Cup and bowling clubs were formed in 1855 and 1865. By the mid-1860s St Kilda had about fifteen hotels including the George the Seaview.
St Kilda's population more than doubled between 1890 to about 19,000 persons. During the Land Boom of the 1880s, St Kilda became a densely populated district of great stone mansions and palatial hotels along the seaside streets such as Fitzroy Street, Grey Street and Acland Street the area once known as St Kilda Hill centred between Wellington Street, Alma Road, former High Street and Chapel Street; the Esplanade Hotel was built in 1878 overlooking St Kilda Beach and the George Hotel was built in 1889 at the railway terminus on Fitzroy Street, on the site of the Seaview hotel. The lower inland areas of St Kilda East were not so wealthy and included many smaller, semi detached cottages, many constructed of timber. Much of the area, now St Kilda West was swampland, but was reclaimed and subdivided in the 1870s. Cable tram lines were opened in 1888 and 1891 to run from the Melbourne central city area along St Kilda Road to St Kilda Junction and branch out along Wellington and Fitzroy Streets. During the Depression of the 1890s, however, St Kilda began to decline.
Many wealthy families had lost much of their fortunes and several of the large mansions were subdivided for apartment or boarding-house accommodation. After a cable tram line was extended south from the Melbourne central city area, the seaside area beca
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one's entire body to move through water. The sport takes place in open water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, breaststroke and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers; the order for a medley relay is: backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques. There are regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are multiple health benefits associated with the sport. Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10,000 years ago.
Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first book about swimming, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public. By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London; the recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association was formed, there were over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country. In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England.
His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel, in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles in 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T. W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries established swimming federations; the first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892. Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced freestyle to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation, was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century.
The goal of high level competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. An athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition; the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. Tapering is used to give the swimmer's body some rest without stopping exercise completely. A final stage is referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water. Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath.
This helps to "shave" off mere milliseconds on your time. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 16 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50-meter pool, called a long course pool. There are forty recognized individual swimming events in the pool; the international governing body for competitive swimming is the Fédération Internationale de Natation, better known as FINA. In open water swimming, where the events are swum in a body of open water, there are 5 km, 10 km and 25 km events for men and women. However, only the 10 km event is included in the Olympic schedule, again for both women. Open-water competitions are separate to other swimming competitions with the exception of the World Championships and the Olympics. In competitive swimming, four major styles have been established; these have been stable over the last 30–40 years with minor improvements. They are: Butterfly Backstroke