History of slavery
The history of slavery spans many cultures and religions from ancient times to the present day. However the social and legal positions of slaves have differed vastly in different systems of slavery in different times and places. Slavery occurs rarely among hunter-gatherer populations because it develops under conditions of social stratification. Slavery operated in the first civilizations. Slavery features in the Mesopotamian Code of Hammurabi, which refers to it as an established institution. Slavery became common within much of Europe during the Dark Ages and it continued into the Middle Ages; the Byzantine–Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the capture of large numbers of Christian slaves. The Dutch, Spanish, British, Arabs and a number of West African kingdoms played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade after 1600. David P. Forsythe wrote: "The fact remained that at the beginning of the nineteenth century an estimated three-quarters of all people alive were trapped in bondage against their will either in some form of slavery or serfdom."
The Republic of Ragusa became the first European country to ban the slave trade - in 1416. In modern times Denmark-Norway abolished the trade in 1802. Although slavery is no longer legal anywhere in the world, human trafficking remains an international problem and an estimated 25-40 million people were enslaved as of 2013, the majority in Asia. During the 1983–2005 Second Sudanese Civil War people were taken into slavery. Evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic child-slavery and -trafficking on cacao plantations in West Africa. Slavery continues into the 21st-century. Although Mauritania criminalized slavery in August 2007, an estimated up to 600,000 men and children, or 20% of the population of Mauritania, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labor. Slavery in 21st-century Islamism continues, Islamist quasi-states such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and Boko Haram have abducted and enslaved women and children. Evidence of slavery predates written records, has existed in many cultures.
However, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Mass slavery requires a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, about 11,000 years ago. Slavery was known in civilizations as old as Sumer, as well as in every other ancient civilization, including Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, the Akkadian Empire, Babylonia, Ancient Iran, Ancient Greece, Ancient India, the Roman Empire, the Arab Islamic Caliphate and Sultanate and the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas; such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, the birth of slave children to slaves. French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. "Slavery came in different guises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries as traders".
During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. In 1807 Britain, which held extensive, although coastal, colonial territories on the African continent, made the international slave trade illegal, as did the United States in 1808. In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the Western Sudan, including Ghana, Mali and Songhai, about a third of the population was enslaved. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves; the population of the Kanem was about a third slave.
It was 40% in Bornu. Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves; the population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It is estimated. Half the population of Madagascar was enslaved; the Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million. Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935, when it was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces. In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II Ethiopia abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independence in 1942. On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery; when British rule was first imposed on the Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria at the turn of the 20th century 2 million to 2.5 million people there were slaves.
Slavery in northern Nigeria was outlawed in 1936. Elikia M'bokolo, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique. Quot
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. Preferred terms include mixed race, biracial, polyethnic, half-and-half, Métis, Dougla, mulatto, Criollo, zambo, hapa, hāfu, garifuna and pardo; some of the terms are considered offensive. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America, studies have found. In many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, people with multiracial backgrounds make up the majority of the population. Other countries where multiracial people make up a sizable portion of the population are the United Kingdom, France, Spain, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius and Fiji. While defining race is controversial,race remains a used term for categorization. Insofar as race is defined differently in different cultures, perceptions of multiraciality will be subjective. According to U. S. sociologist Troy Duster and ethicist Pilar Ossorio: Some percentage of people who look white will possess genetic markers indicating that a significant majority of their recent ancestors were African.
Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were European. In the United States: Many state and local agencies comply with the U. S. Office of Management and Budget 1997 revised standards for the collection and presentation of federal data on race and ethnicity; the revised OMB standards identify a minimum of five racial categories: White. The most significant change for Census 2000 was that respondents were given the option to mark one or more races on the questionnaire to indicate their racial identity. Census 2000 race data are shown for people who reported a race either alone or in combination with one or more other races. In the English-speaking world, many terms for people of various multiracial backgrounds exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. Mulato and mestizo are used in Spanish, caboclo, cafuzo and mestiço in Portuguese and mulâtre and métis in French for people of multiracial descent; these terms are in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world.
In Canada, the Métis are a recognized ethnic group of mixed European and First Nation descent, who have status in the law similar to that of First Nations. Terms such as mulatto for people of African descent and mestizo for people of Native American descent are still used by English-speaking people of the western hemisphere, but when referring to the past or to the demography of Latin America and its diasporic population. Half-breed is a historic term. Mestee, once used, is now used for members of mixed-race groups, such as Louisiana Creoles, Redbones, Brass Ankles and Mayles. In South Africa, much of English-speaking southern Africa, the term Coloured was used to describe a mixed-race person and Asians not of African descent. While the term is accepted, it is becoming an outdated due to its association with the apartheid era. In Latin America, where mixtures became tri-racial after the introduction of African slavery, a panoply of terms developed during the colonial period, including terms such as zambo for persons of Amerindian and African descent.
Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common. The well-known Casta paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, were illustrations of the different classifications. At one time, Latin American census categories have used such classifications, but in Brazilian censuses since the Imperial times, for example, most persons of multiracial heritage, except the Asian Brazilians of some European descent and vice versa, tend to be thrown into the single category of "pardo", although race lines in Brazil do not denote ancestry but phenotype, as such a westernized Amerindian of copper-colored skin is a "pardo", a caboclo in this case, despite being not multiracial, but a European-looking person with one or more African or Indigenous American ancestor is not a "pardo" but a "branco", or a white Brazilian; the same applies to Afro-Brazilians and European or Amerindian ancestors. Most Brazilians of all racial groups are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research. In English, the terms miscegenation and amalgamation were used for unions between whites and other ethnic groups.
These terms are now considered offensive and are becoming obsolete. The terms mixed-race, biracial or multiracial are becoming accepted. In other languages, translations of miscegenation did not become politically incorrect. In the United States, the 2000 census was the first in the history of the country to offer respondents the option of identifying themselves as belonging to more than one race; this multiracial option was considered a necessary adaptation to the demographic and cultural changes that the United States has been experiencing. Multiracial Americans numbered 6.1 million in 2006, or 2.0% of the population. There is considerable evidence. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their mul
Indian removal was a forced migration in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forced by the United States government to leave their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River to a designated Indian Territory. The Indian Removal Act was signed by Andrew Jackson, who took a hard line on Indian removal, but it was put into effect under the Martin van Buren administration. Indian removal was a consequence of actions first by European settlers to North America in the colonial period by the United States government and its citizens until the mid-20th century; the policy traced its direct origins to the administration of James Monroe, though it addressed conflicts between European Americans and Native Americans, occurring since the 17th century, were escalating into the early 19th century as white settlers were continually pushing westward. The Indian Removal Act was the key law that forced the removal of the Indians, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
American leaders in the Revolutionary and Early National era debated whether the American Indians should be treated as individuals or as nations in their own right. Some of these views are summarized below. In a draft, "Proposed Articles of Confederation", presented to the Continental Congress on May 10, 1775, Benjamin Franklin called for a "perpetual Alliance" with the Indians for the nation about to take birth with the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy: Article XI. A perpetual Alliance offensive and defensive, is to be entered into as soon as may be with the Six Nations; the Boundaries and Lands of all the other Indians shall be ascertained and secured to them in the same manner. And all Purchases from them shall be by the Congress for the General Advantage and Benefit of the United Colonies. In his Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson defended American Indian culture and marveled at how the tribes of Virginia "never submitted themselves to any laws, any coercive power, any shadow of government" due to their "moral sense of right and wrong".
He would write to the Marquis de Chastellux in 1785, "I believe the Indian to be in body and mind equal to the whiteman". His desire, as interpreted by Francis Paul Prucha, was for the Native Americans to intermix with European Americans and to become one people. To achieve that end, Jefferson would, as President, offer U. S. citizenship to some Indian nations, propose offering credit to them to facilitate their trade—with the expectation, as Bernard Sheehan argues, that they would be unable to honor their debts and thereby allow the United States to acquire their land. President George Washington, in his address to the Seneca nation in 1790, describing the pre-Constitutional Indian land sale difficulties as "evils", asserted that the case was now altered, publicly pledged to uphold their "just rights". In March and April 1792, Washington met with 50 tribal chiefs in Philadelphia—including the Iroquois—to discuss closer friendship between them and the United States; that same year, in his Fourth Annual Message to Congress, Washington stressed the need for building peace and commerce with America's Indian neighbors: I cannot dismiss the subject of Indian affairs without again recommending to your consideration the expediency of more adequate provision for giving energy to the laws throughout our interior frontier, for restraining the commission of outrages upon the Indians.
To enable, by competent rewards, the employment of qualified and trusty persons to reside among them, as agents, would contribute to the preservation of peace and good neighbourhood. If, in addition to these expedients, an eligible plan could be devised for promoting civilization among the friendly tribes, for carrying on trade with them, upon a scale equal to their wants, under regulations calculated to protect them from imposition and extortion, its influence in cementing their interests with our’s could not but be considerable. In 1795, in his Seventh Annual Message to Congress, Washington intimated that if the U. S. government wanted peace with the Indians it must give peace to them, that if the U. S. wanted raids by Indians to stop raids by American "frontier inhabitants" must stop. The Confederation Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which would serve broadly as a precedent for the manner in which the United States' territorial expansion would occur for years to come, calling for the protection of Indians' "property and liberty": The U.
S. Constitution of 1787 makes Congress responsible for regulating commerce with the Indian tribes. In 1790, the new U. S. Congress passed the Indian Nonintercourse Act to protect and codify the land rights of recognized tribes; as president, Thomas Jefferson developed a far-reaching Indian policy. First, the security of the new United States was paramount, so Jefferson wanted to assure that the Native nations were bound to the United States, not other foreign nations. Second, he wanted "to
Walter F. George Lake
The Walter F. George Lake, named for Walter F. George, a United States Senator from Georgia, is formed on the Chattahoochee River along the state line between Alabama and Georgia, it is widely known by the name, Lake Eufaula — in Alabama, where the state legislature passed a resolution on June 25, 1963, to give the lake that name. The 46,000-acre lake extends north about 85 miles from the Walter F. George Lock and Dam and has 640 miles of shoreline. Popular activities along the lake include trophy fishing; the lake is controlled by the US Army Corp of Engineers. The states control several other protected lands along the lake, including the Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge and Lakepoint State Park in Alabama, Florence Marina and George T. Bagby state parks in Georgia; the flooding of the land in the area covered numerous historic and prehistoric sites associated with Native American culture. Indigenous peoples had lived along the river for thousands of years; the unincorporated area of Oketeyeconne, which had a majority of Native American residents, was evacuated in the 1950s to allow creation of the lake.
Official website Visitor's website
Muscogee County, Georgia
Muscogee County is a county located on the central western border of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 189,885, its county seat and only city is Columbus, with which it has been a consolidated city-county since the beginning of 1971. Muscogee County is part of Columbus, GA-AL Metropolitan Statistical Area; the only other city in the county was Bibb City, a company town that disincorporated in December 2000, two years after its mill closed permanently. Fort Benning, a large Army installation, takes up nearly one quarter of the county and extends into Chattahoochee County. Inhabited for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, this area was territory of the historic Creek people at the time of European encounter; the land for Lee, Troup and Carroll counties was ceded by a certain eight chiefs among the Creek people in the 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs. The Creek Nation declared the land cession illegal, because it did not represent the will of the majority of the people.
The United States Senate did not ratify it. The following year, the US government negotiated another treaty with the Creek, by which they ceded nearly as much territory under continued pressure from the state of Georgia and US land commissioners; the counties' boundaries were created by the Georgia General Assembly on June 9, but they were not named until December 14 of 1826. The county was developed by European Americans for cotton plantations, with labor accomplished by enslaved African Americans. A total of one million African Americans were brought into the Deep South through the domestic slave trade from the Upper South, breaking up countless families and creating a massive demographic shift. In many areas of what became known as the Black Belt for the fertility of soil and development of plantations, African Americans made up the majority of population in many counties; this county was named by European Americans for the native Creek people. Parts of the then-large county were taken to create every other neighboring Georgia county, including Harris County to the north in 1827.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 221 square miles, of which 216 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. The majority of Muscogee County, from north of Columbus running northeast in the direction of Ellerslie, is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Walter F. George Lake subbasin of the ACF River Basin; the northwestern corner of the county, south of Fortson, is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Lake Harding subbasin of the same ACF River Basin. Harris County Talbot County Chattahoochee County Russell County, Alabama Lee County, Alabama As of the census of 2000, there were 186,291 people, 69,819 households, 47,686 families residing in the county; the population density was 861 people per square mile. There were 76,182 housing units at an average density of 352 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 50.42% White, 43.74% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 1.54% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 1.90% from other races, 1.87% from two or more races.
4.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There are 69,819 households out of which 34.60% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.70% were married couples living together, 19.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.70% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 11.90% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 19.70% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,798, the median income for a family was $41,244. Males had a median income of $30,238 versus $24,336 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,262.
15.70% of the population and 12.80% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 22.00% of those under the age of 18 and 12.10% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 189,885 people, 74,081 households, 47,742 families residing in the county; the population density was 877.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 82,690 housing units at an average density of 382.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 46.3% white, 45.5% black or African American, 2.2% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 2.4% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 8.7% were Irish, 8.4% were German, 6.7% were English, 6.3% were American. Of the 74,081 households, 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.3% were married couples living together, 21.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families, 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.08. The median age was 33.5 years. The median income for a household in the c
Callaway Gardens is a 6,500-acre resort complex located in Pine Mountain, just outside LaGrange, Georgia. The destination draws over 750,000 visitors annually. Callaway Gardens was founded in 1952 by Cason J. and Virginia Hand Callaway to promote and protect native azalea species. His son, Bo Callaway, helped run the garden. Today, Callaway Gardens features a wide variety of recreational attractions including a large enclosed butterfly habitat, the Cecil B. Day Butterfly Center; the native palm Sabal minor maintains one of its northernmost populations in the area. The garden was conceived in 1930 after Cason J. Callaway discovered a rare azalea growing in the area. Callaway Gardens opened on May 21, 1952, as the Ida Cason Gardens, with a number of lakes, a golf course, scenic drives; the gardens were named for the mother of founder Cason J. Callaway. Robin Lake Beach and the Overlook Azalea Garden opened the following year in 1953. In 1955, The gardens were renamed Ida Cason Callaway Gardens; the Masters Water-ski Tournament, now an annual event called the Masters Water Ski & Wakeboard Tournament, held its first competition in 1959.
On April 12, 1961, founder Cason J. Callaway died and was succeeded as Chairman of the Board by his wife, co-founder Virginia Hand Callaway; the gardens have experienced numerous expansions following Cason Callaway's death. The Cason J. Callaway Memorial Forest opened in 1972, was designated a National Natural Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior. Robin Lake was the site of a terrible ferry accident in the 70's; the John A. Sibley Horticultural Center opened in 1984. Mr. Cason's Vegetable Garden was the location for years of TV shows about growing vegetable gardens, most notably the southern edition of The Victory Garden; the annual Steeplechase at Callaway Gardens ran its first race in 1985. The Cecil B. Day Butterfly Center opened on September 25, 1988. "Fantasy In Lights", a Christmas light display, debuted in 1992. In 1999, the Azalea Bowl opened as well as the premiere of the Sky High Hot Air Balloon Festival. In 2000, the Virginia Hand Callaway Discovery Center was opened.
The garden has several trails both for biking. The Discovery Bike Trail, a 10-mile trail that weaves through the wooded gardens, provides guests access to all attractions. Robin Lake Beach is the world's largest white sand beach; the beach stretches a mile around 65-acre Robin Lake. Robin Lake Beach is opened from Memorial Day weekend through Labor Day Weekend; the Florida State University Flying High Circus have taken up residence at the beach every summer since 1961. During the summer, the circus conducts a recreation program and performs seven shows weekly under the big top adjacent to the beach; the Cecil B. Day Butterfly Center, named after the founder of Days Inns of America, Inc. opened to the public on September 25, 1988. Mrs. Deen Day Sanders, Cecil Day's wife, provided the initial funding for the center. In 2004, the center earned a LEED certification. In 2005, the Day Butterfly Center underwent a $2 million renovation to accommodate more visitors; the conservatory is maintained at 80 °F and 74% relative humidity.
The center has 1,000 butterflies representing over 50 species. The butterflies are received in the pupa stage from Malaysia, the Philippines and Central and South America; because the butterflies are considered to be invasive species, an inward blast of air is shot by a machine at the doorway to prevent any butterfly breakouts. As of 2011, Callaway Gardens has two golf courses in operation. Lake View the same day the gardens opened; the Mountain View golf course, designed in 1965, hosted the Buick Challenge from 1991 to 2002. In 2001, Buick pulled its sponsorship of the tournament because of low attendance and little network coverage. A third golf course, Gardens View golf course, was opened in 1969 but was closed in 2002. TreeTop Adventure Zip Line and Obstacle Course Callaway Brothers Azalea Bowl Overlook Azalea Garden Ida Cason Callaway Memorial Chapel Mr. Cason's Vegetable Garden John A. Sibley Horticultural Center Callaway Gardens hosts several seasonal events. On Memorial weekend, the gardens host the Masters Water Wakeboard Tournament.
The gardens hosts the Sky High Hot Air Balloon Festival on Labor Day weekend and a steeplechase on the first Saturday of November. "Fantasy in Lights," a Christmas light display, takes place in December. List of botanical gardens in the United States Callaway Gardens Callaway Gardens historical marker Callaway Gardens historical marker