A poll tax known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual. Head taxes were important sources of revenue for many governments from ancient times until the 19th century. In the United Kingdom, poll taxes were levied by the governments of John of Gaunt in the 14th century, Charles II in the 17th and Margaret Thatcher in the 20th century. In the United States, voting poll taxes have been used to disenfranchise impoverished and minority voters. Poll taxes are considered regressive taxes, are very unpopular and have been implicated in many uprisings; the word "poll" is an archaic term for "head" or "top of the head". The sense of "counting heads" is found in phrases like opinion poll; as prescribed in Exodus Jewish law imposed a poll tax of half-shekel, payable by every man above the age of twenty. Exodus 30:11-16: 11 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 12 When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel after their number shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest them.
13 This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: an half shekel shall be the offering of the LORD. 14 Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and above, shall give an offering unto the LORD. 15 The rich shall not give more, the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls. 16 And thou shalt take the atonement money of the children of Israel, shalt appoint it for the service of the tabernacle of the congregation. The money was designated for the Tabernacle in the Exodus narrative and for the upkeep of the Temple of Jerusalem. Priests, women and minors were exempted, although they could offer it voluntarily. Payment by Samaritans or Gentiles was rejected, it was collected yearly during the month of Adar, both at the Temple and at special collection bureaux in the provinces. Zakat al-Fitr is an obligatory charity that must be given by every Muslim near the end of every Ramadan.
Muslims in dire poverty are exempt from it. The amount is its cash equivalent. Zakat al-Fitr is to be given to the poor. Jizya was a poll tax imposed under Islamic law on non-Muslims permanently residing in a Muslim state as part of their dhimmi status; the tax is levied on free-born abled-bodied men of military age. The indigent were exempt, as well as slaves, children, the old, the sick and hermits. Several rationales for the jizya have been advanced, they include the argument that jizya was a fee in exchange for the dhimma, the argument that imposition of jizya on non-Muslims is similar to the imposition of zakat on Muslims. Although jizya is called a poll tax, its assessment and collection was qualified by income. For instance, Amr ibn al-As, after conquering Egypt, set up a census to measure the population for the jizya, thus the total expected jizya revenue for the whole province, but organized the actual collection by partitioning the population into wealth classes, so that the rich paid more and the poor less jizya of that total sum.
Elsewhere, it is reported customary to partition into three classes, e.g. 48 dirhams for the rich, 24 for middle class and 12 for the poor. In 1855, the Ottoman Empire abolished the jizya tax, as part of reforms to equalize the status of Muslims and non-Muslims, it was replaced by a military-exemption tax on the Bedel-i Askeri. The Chinese head tax was a fixed fee charged to each Chinese person entering Canada; the head tax was first levied after the Canadian parliament passed the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 and was meant to discourage Chinese people from entering Canada after the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The tax was abolished by the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, which stopped all Chinese immigration except for business people, educators and other categories; the poll tax was a lay subsidy to help fund war. It had first been continued, under different names, until the 17th century. People were taxed a percentage of the assessed value of their movable goods; that percentage varied from year to year and place to place, which goods could be taxed differed between urban and rural locations.
Churchmen were exempt, as were the poor, workers in the Royal Mint, inhabitants of the Cinque Ports, tin workers in Cornwall and Devon, those who lived in the Palatinate counties of Cheshire and Durham. The Hilary Parliament, held between January and March 1377, levied a poll tax in 1377 to finance the war against France at the request of John of Gaunt who, since King Edward III was mortally sick, was the de facto head of government at the time; this tax covered 60% of the population, far more than lay subsidies had earlier. It was levied two more times after 1377, in 1379 and 1381; each time the taxation basis was different. In 1377, every lay person over the age of 14 years, not a beggar had to pay a groat to the Crown. By 1379, graded
Texas and Pacific Railway
The Texas and Pacific Railway Company was created by federal charter in 1871 with the purpose of building a southern transcontinental railroad between Marshall and San Diego, California. The T&P had a significant foothold in Texas by the mid-1880s. Construction difficulties delayed westward progress, until American financier Jay Gould acquired an interest in the railroad in 1879; the T&P never reached San Diego. The Missouri Pacific Railroad controlled by Gould, leased the T&P from 1881 to 1885 and continued a cooperative relationship with the T&P after the lease ended. Missouri Pacific gained majority ownership of the Texas and Pacific Railway's stock in 1928 but allowed it to continue operation as a separate entity until they were merged on October 15, 1976. On January 8, 1980, the Missouri Pacific Railroad was purchased by the Union Pacific Railroad; because of lawsuits filed by competing railroads, the merger was not approved until September 13, 1982. However, due to outstanding bonds of the Missouri Pacific, the actual merger with the Union Pacific Railroad took place on January 1, 1997.
Several reminders of the Texas and Pacific remain to this day two towering buildings which help define the southern side of Fort Worth's skyline—the original station and office tower and a warehouse located to the west. In 2001, the passenger platforms at the T&P station were put into use for the first time in decades as the westernmost terminus for the Trinity Railway Express, a commuter rail line connecting Fort Worth and Dallas; the warehouse still exists. The passenger terminal and corporate offices have been converted into luxury condominiums. Major named passenger trains of the Texas and Pacific: Louisiana Eagle -- New Orleans - Dallas - Fort Worth Texas Eagle -- St. Louis - various Texas points: western section going to El Paso, with connecting Southern Pacific service to Los Angeles. Note: This is a different Southern Pacific Railroad company from the one referred to above. March 21, 1872 - The Southern Pacific is purchased. March 30 - Southern Trans-Continental Railway Company is purchased.
1872 - Thomas A. Scott, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, becomes president of the Texas & Pacific. May 2, 1872 - an Act of Congress changes the name to Texas and Pacific Railway Company June 12, 1873 - Memphis, El Paso and Pacific Railroad Company purchased. July 1, 1873 - First rail line opened between Longview and Dallas, Texas December 28, 1873 - Rail line from Marshall, Texas, to Texarkana, placed in service. 1881 - Abilene, TX connected to the line. 1925 - Lima Locomotive Works delivers 2-10-4 locomotives to the T&P. The type is nicknamed "Texas" as a result. October 15, 1976 - merged with the Missouri Pacific"T&P" includes its subsidiary roads; the Texas and Pacific was unable to finance construction to San Diego, as a result the Southern Pacific was able to build from California to Sierra Blanca, Texas. In doing so, Southern Pacific used land designated for, surveyed by Texas and Pacific, in its rail line from Yuma, Arizona, to El Paso, Texas; this resulted in lawsuits, which were settled with agreements to share tracks, to cooperate in the building of new tracks.
Most of the features advantageous to Texas and Pacific were disallowed by legislation. Under the influence of General Buell the TPRR was to be 3 ft 6 in gauge, but this was overturned when the state legislature passed a law requiring 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge. From 1873 to 1881 the Texas and Pacific built a total of 972 miles of track. T&P, received land only for the construction of track east of Fort Worth; this meant. The State of Texas did not award the additional area because, it said, the construction had not been completed within the time required by the firm's charter; the state Attorney General Charles A. Culberson filed suit to recover 301,893 acres on the grounds that "the road had been granted land on sidetracks and on land not subject to location." The state recovered 256,046 acres giving a net grant to the T&P of 4,917,074 acres, or 7,683 square miles. By comparison, the state of Connecticut is 5,543 square miles; the Texas Pacific Land Trust was created in 1888 in the wake of the bankruptcy of the T&P in order to provide an efficient and orderly way to sell the railway's land, receiving at the time in excess of 3.5 million acres.
As of 31 December 2006 the Trust was still the largest private land owner in the State of Texas, owning the surface estate of 966,392 acres spread across 20 counties in the western part of the state. The Trust generates income from oil & gas royalties through its 1/128 non-participating royalty interest under 85,414 acres and 1/16 non-participating royalty i
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Sharecropping has a long history and there are a wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have used a form of the system; some are governed by tradition, others by law. Legal contract systems such as the Italian mezzadria, the French métayage, the Spanish mediero, the Slavic połowcy,издoльщина or the Islamic system of muqasat, occur widely. Sharecropping has costs for both the owners and the tenant. Everyone encourages the cropper to remain on the land. At the same time, since the cropper pays in shares of his harvest and croppers share the risks of harvests being large or small and of prices being high or low; because tenants benefit from larger harvests, they have an incentive to work harder and invest in better methods than in a slave plantation system. However, by dividing the working force into many individual workers, large farms no longer benefit from economies of scale.
On the whole, sharecropping was not as economically efficient as the gang agriculture of slave plantations. In the U. S. "tenant" farmers own their own mules and equipment, "sharecroppers" do not, thus sharecroppers are poorer and of lower status. Sharecropping occurred extensively in Scotland and colonial Africa, came into wide use in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era; the South had been devastated by war – planters had ample land but little money for wages or taxes. At the same time, most of the former slaves had labor but no money and no land – they rejected the kind of gang labor that typified slavery. A solution was the sharecropping system focused on cotton, the only crop that could generate cash for the croppers, landowners and the tax collector. Poor white farmers, who had done little cotton farming, needed cash as well and became sharecroppers. Jeffery Paige made a distinction between centralized sharecropping found on cotton plantations and the decentralized sharecropping with other crops.
The former is characterized by long lasting tenure. Tenants are tied to the landlord through the plantation store, their work is supervised as slave plantations were. This form of tenure tends to be replaced by wage slavery. Decentralized sharecropping involves no role for the landlord: plots are scattered, peasants manage their own labor and the landowners do not manufacture the crops. Leases are short which leads to peasant radicalism; this form of tenure becomes more common. Use of the sharecropper system has been identified in England, it is still used in many rural poor areas of the world today, notably in India. Although there is a perception that sharecropping was exploitative, "evidence from around the world suggests that sharecropping is a way for differently endowed enterprises to pool resources to mutual benefit, overcoming credit restraints and helping to manage risk." According to Dr. Hunter, "a few acres to the cottage would make the labourers too independent."It can have more than a passing similarity to serfdom or indenture where associated with large debts at a plantation store that ties down the workers and their family to the land.
It has therefore been seen as an issue of land reform in contexts such as the Mexican Revolution. However, Nyambara states that Eurocentric historiographical devices such as'feudalism' or'slavery' qualified by weak prefixes like'semi-' or'quasi-' are not helpful in understanding the antecedents and functions of sharecropping in Africa. Sharecropping agreements can, however, be made as a form of tenant farming or sharefarming that has a variable rental payment, paid in arrears. There are three different types of contracts. Workers can keep the whole crop. Workers keep some of the crop. No money changes hands but the land owner each keep a share of the crop; the advantages of sharecropping in other situations include enabling access for women to arable land where ownership rights are vested only in men. It has been pointed out. However, many outside factors make it efficient. One factor is slave emancipation: sharecropping provided the freed slaves of the US, Brazil and the late Roman Empire with land access.
It is efficient as a way of escaping inflation, hence its rise in 16th-century France and Italy. It gave sharecroppers a vested interest in the land, incentivizing hard work and care. However, American plantation were wary of this interest, as they felt that would lead to African Americans demanding rights of partnership. Many black laborers denied the unilateral authority that landowners hoped to achieve, further complicating relations between landowners and sharecroppers. Landlords opt for sharecropping to avoid the administrative costs and shirking that occurs on plantations and haciendas, it is preferred to cash tenancy because cash tenants take all the risks, any harvest failure will hurt them and not the landlord. Therefore, they tend to demand lower rents than sharecroppers; the practice was harmful to tenants with many cases of high interest rates, unpredictable harvests, unscrupulous landlords and merchants keeping tenant farm families indebted. The debt was compounded year on year leaving the cropper vulnerable to intimidation and shortchanging.
It appeared to be inevitable, with no serious altern
Gregg County, Texas
Gregg County is a county located in the eastern part of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 121,730, its county seat is Longview. The county is named after John Gregg, a Confederate general killed in action during the American Civil War. Gregg County is part of the Longview, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Longview–Marshall, TX Combined Statistical Area. Discovery of oil near Kilgore, Texas in October 1920 was the beginning of an oil boom that attracted workers to the county and expanded the population by more than 500% by 1940, according to the census. By that time, the economy had stabilized but the East Texas Oil Field, extending in five counties, has continued to be important to the county and region's economy; this area was among early sections settled by United States immigrants before Texas became an independent republic and, after 1848, a state of the United States. It was an area developed as cotton plantations dependent on slave labor of African Americans.
Lumbering of the pine forests was pursued in the early years of clearing the land for cultivation. Gregg County was organized in 1873 after the American Civil War from portions of existing counties; when the Texas State Legislature convened in January 1873, Democratic representative B. W. Brown of Upshur County introduced a bill to create a new county from parts of Harrison and Upshur counties, he was trying to break up the black majority that dominated county politics in Harrison County. Under Brown's proposal, the county was to be named Roanoke, Longview was to be the county seat; the proposed name was changed to honor Texas leader and Confederate General John Gregg, the county seat was determined by popular election. Harrison and Rusk counties resisted efforts to have portions of their territory assigned to Gregg County; when Gregg County was created, it first consisted of 143 square miles taken from Upshur County, the Sabine River was its southern boundary. In April 1874 about 141 square miles south of the Sabine River in Rusk County was added to Gregg County.
The third portion, of about 145 square miles to be taken from Harrison County, was never realized. Many of its voters continued to elect Republicans to county offices. By 1919 the county population was a total of 16,700, of which 8,160, or forty-eight percent, was black. Most were sharecroppers or tenant farmers raising cotton as a commodity crop. Members of the Negro Business League set up a cooperative store in Longview to compete with white merchants and offer African-American residents more choices for purchases. Beginning July 10, the town had a short-lived Longview Race Riot in which one black man was killed, several black homes and properties were burned, it was quelled when the sheriff asked for other law enforcement. They established military occupation. Agricultural work declined during the Great Depression of the 1930s, many African Americans continued to leave in the Great Migration north to find other work. In October 1930, oil was discovered in Texas near Kilgore; the county economy was booming, the East Texas Oil Field attracted so many workers that county population increased by more than 500% by 1940.
Growth stabilized. County demographics changed. In the early 21st century less than 20% of the population is African American. Texas Attorney General John Ben Shepperd, who served from 1953-1957, maintained a ranch in Gregg County near his native Gladewater, he served on the Gregg County Commissioners Court for a brief period in 1949. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 276 square miles, of which 273 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. Interstate 20 U. S. Highway 80 U. S. Highway 259 U. S. Highway 271 State Highway 31 State Highway 42 Upshur County Harrison County Rusk County Smith County As of the census of 2000, there were 111,379 people, 42,687 households, 29,667 families residing in the county; the population density was 406 people per square mile. There were 46,349 housing units at an average density of 169 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 72.89% White, 19.86% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.55% from other races, 1.49% from two or more races.
9.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 42,687 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.00% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,006, the median income for a family was $42,617. Males had a median income of $33,186 versus $21,432 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,449.
About 12.00% of families and 15.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.50% of those under age 18 and 11.40% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Gregg County: Gladewater ISD Kil
Sabine River (Texas–Louisiana)
The Sabine River is a river, 510 miles long, in the Southern U. S. states of Louisiana. In its lower course, it forms part of the boundary between the two states and empties into Sabine Lake, an estuary of the Gulf of Mexico. Over the first half of the 19th century, the river formed part of the Spanish–American, Mexican–American, Texan–American international boundaries; the upper reaches of the river flow through the prairie country of northeast Texas. Along much of its lower reaches, it flows through the pine forests along the Texas–Louisiana border, the bayou country near the Gulf Coast; the river drains an area of 9,756 square miles, of which 7,426 square miles are in Texas and 2,330 square miles in Louisiana. It flows through an area of abundant rainfall and discharges the largest volume of any river in Texas; the name Sabine comes from the Spanish word for cypress, in reference to the extensive growth of bald cypresses along the lower river. The river flows through an important petroleum-producing region, the lower river near the Gulf is among the most industrialized areas of the southeastern United States.
The river was described as the dividing line between the Old South and the New Southwest. The Sabine rises in northeast Texas by the union of three branches: the Cowleech Fork, Caddo Fork, South Fork; the Cowleech Fork flows southeast for 49.2 miles. The Caddo Fork, shown as "Caddo Creek" on federal maps, rises in two tributary forks, the East Caddo Fork and the West Caddo Fork, in northwestern Hunt County; the South Fork rises in the southwestern corner of Hunt County and flows east for 28.3 miles, joining the Caddo Fork and Cowleech Fork in southeastern Hunt County. The confluence of the forks is now submerged in the Lake Tawakoni reservoir; the combined river flows southeast across northeast Texas and is joined by a fourth branch, Lake Fork Creek, 70.0 miles downstream from the reservoir. In northeast Texas, the river flows past Mineola, Big Sandy, Longview, the largest city on the river, to southwest of Shreveport at the 32nd parallel north, where it establishes the Texas-Louisiana boundary.
It flows south. It is impounded 10 miles west of Leesville, Louisiana, to form the 70-mile-long Toledo Bend Reservoir, with the Sabine National Forest along its western bank. South of the reservoir, it passes through the bayou country, surrounded by wetlands, as well as widespread industrial areas near the Gulf Coast. 10 miles south of Orange, it meets the Neches River from the west to form the 17-mile-long and 7-mile-wide Sabine Lake, which drains through Sabine Pass to the Gulf of Mexico. The city of Port Arthur, sits along the western shore of Sabine Lake Archeological evidence indicates the valley of the river has been inhabited for as long as 12,000 years by indigenous peoples. Starting in the eighth century, the Caddo inhabited the area, building extensive earthwork mounds in complexes expressing their cosmology; the Caddo culture flourished until the late 13th century. Descendants of the Caddo were living along the river when the first European explorers arrived in the 16th century; the river was named in 1716 by Spanish explorer Domingo Ramón, appeared as Río de Sabinas on a 1721 map.
The river was used by French traders, at various times, the river was claimed by both Spain and France. After the acquisition by Spain of the French territory of Louisiana in 1763, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War, the capital of the Spanish province of Texas was established on the east side of the river, near present-day Robeline, Louisiana. After acquiring the French territory west of the Mississippi River in the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the United States started to exert control in this area, it was at war with Native Americans in Louisiana along the Sabine River from 1836 to 1837, in the period when it was trying to remove the Indians to Indian Territory from the Southeast. The Sabine River was too deep to ford, proved to be navigable. Early travelers and settlers would have to swim the river on horseback and cattle would have to be driven into the river to swim across. Ferries were put into service. By the 1840s, steamboats were travelling from Logansport to Sabine Lake.
Recorded ferry use began 1794, when Louis Chabinan, his wife Margarite LaFleur, their four children settled on the east bank of the Sabine River on land purchased from Vicinte Michele. Chabinan built a ferry landing on the river called Paso del Chaland. Louisiana State Highway 6 and Texas State Highway 21 now meet near here, at the site of the present-day Pendleton Bridge. In 1796, Chabinan was drowned after falling into the Sabine. Michel Crow married his widow and ran the ferry, until he sold it to James Gaines circa 1819; this ferry was in service until 1937, when it was replaced by the Pendleton Bridge, built during the Great Depression. Crow operated a ferry he had started upriver, a 120-foot crossing started in 1796, it linked what became known as Carter's Ferry Road, now Texas FM 276. Carter's ferry was 15 miles from Many, Louisiana. Crow sold the ferry to Carter. Farther north, just above Bayou Lanan, was Williamson Ferry. Other ferries on the Sabine River: Burr's ferry Hadden's ferry Ballew's ferry Sabinetown ferry Gaines Ferry: Carter's ferry: (Located SSE of La 191 after crossing hwy 1215.
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa