Harrison Mills, British Columbia
Harrison Mills Carnarvon and Harrison River, is an agricultural farming and tourism-based community in the District of Kent west of Agassiz, British Columbia. The community is a part of the Fraser Valley Regional District. Harrison Mills is home to Campground. Harrison Bay is the home of the Scowlitz people, whose main reserve is on the bay's western shore, across from Harrison Mills, of the Sts'Ailes or Chehalis people, whose reserve is located on the north side of the bay along the lower Harrison River and around that river's confluence with its tributary, the Chehalis; the Scowlitz and Chehalis peoples once had large and famously-carved longhouse villages, long since destroyed by the encouragement of missionaries. An archaeological site on the Harrison Mills side of the bay, the Scowlitz Mounds known as the Fraser Valley Pyramids, is under investigation by Simon Fraser University and the Scowlitz First Nation and represent an unusual period in the anthropological and cultural history of the Fraser Valley.
The Scowlitz are Halqemeylem-speaking and are part of the Sto:lo cultural group, while the Sts'ailes identify themselves separately and speak a dialect of Halqemeylem that has similarities with the Lower Lillooet River dialect of St'at'imcets. The dialect spoken by the Sts'Ailes, whose name means "beating heart", includes the word sesqac, the source of the English word "sasquatch"; the vicinity of Harrison Bay, Harrison Mills and the lower Harrison River is reputed to have the greatest number and density of sasquatch sightings worldwide. The sasquatch is sacred in Sts ` Ailes culture; the opening of Fort Langley in 1827 downriver began changing the traditional patterns of life for the Scowlitz and Chehalis by the introduction of new goods and an end to raids by the Euclataws Kwakwaka'wakw of Cape Mudge and other northern coastal tribes. In 1859, Governor James Douglas named the meeting place of the Harrison and Fraser rivers Carnarvon in honour of Henry Herbert Molyneux, the fourth Earl of Carnarvon.
At the time of its naming, the town consisted of one crude hotel. Because of this, the name never caught on and the town-to-be never grew as hoped. For a time, official maps of the area duly recorded the name as Carnarvon but all newspapers and diaries referred to it as Harrisonmouth. In just a few weeks, during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858, 30,000 men travelled up the Fraser River to the Fraser Canyon, upstream from Hope. Many stopped along the way, with sandbars along the Fraser near Harrison Mills and throughout the Fraser Valley turned over by prospectors. Gold was found around Harrison Mills and as far downstream as the present site of Mission, but extraction was profitable only above Hope; the valuable Douglas Fir timber of the Chehalis River and area was prized early on—the Canadian Pacific Railway used cants from the area for bridge timbers. A large steel CPR bridge, swing type, was built to cross the Harrison River at Harrison Mills in 1885; the first settlers of note, the most important, were Captain William Menten and his wife Emma who arrived in 1890.
Emma Menten became the owner of the aforementioned hotel, expanded over the years. The next prominent family to arrive was that of Charles Fenn Pretty who built a spacious lodge in 1903. Joseph Martin built a large sawmill in 1892 beside the railway; the construction of this mill would move the townsite away from Lot 10A, bordered on all sides by the Scowlitz reserve and towards Harrison Bay, a move that would have significant repercussions. It was at this time that Emma Menten moved her store from Lot 10A to a site east of the Martin mill in order to compete with a new store by the railway opened by Laurie and David Galbraith. Meanwhile, Captain Menten built a small sternwheeler called the Minto to carry passengers between Chilliwack and Harrison Mills; this increased the traffic coming across the Fraser River from Chilliwack and spurred business in the town. Quite two new mills were constructed: a shingle mill, which would remain in operation until 1942, a larger sawmill that replaced the old Martin mill, bought by the Tretheweys.
James Trethewey sr. was an ambitious man with big plans for the enterprise. In November 1899, the Harrison River Mills Timber and Trading Company was incorporated. Trethewey planned to run the business jointly with his two sons, as well as Thomas Jackson of Chilliwack, T. A. Cuddy and Frank Boyd. With these mills came a large influx of people. A school and church were built in 1901 to meet the needs of the expanding town. In June 1903, the Tretheweys decided to sell half-interest in their mill to the Rat Portage Lumber Company but before the contracts could be signed and the cheque handed over, a fire swept through the millsite, destroying the buildings and lumber; the company's losses were estimated at $50,000 above its insurance coverage. As a result of this, the Rat Portage company bought the entire holdings of the Tretheweys in October 1903; when the new mill was opened in 1909, it was one of BC's largest sawmills. The Chilliwack Progress estimated the mill's daily capacity at 100,000 to 150,000 feet.
It was in these adjoining years of relative inactivity in the sawmill that Thomas and Eliza Kilby built and opened their famous store. They bought the two adjoining lots from Robert Menton in 1906, building in two stages; the store itself was built in 1906, while the hotel was built in 1907, doubling the si
Fraser Canyon Gold Rush
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton. The rush overtook the region around the discovery, was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet. Though the rush was over by 1927, miners from the rush spread out and found a sequence of other gold fields throughout the British Columbia Interior and North, most famously that in the Cariboo; the rush is credited with instigating European-Canadian settlement on the mainland of British Columbia. It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, the founding of many towns. Although the area had been mined for a few years, news of the strike spread to San Francisco when the governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island, James Douglas, sent a shipment of ore to that city's mint.
People in San Francisco and the California gold fields greeted the news with excitement. Within a month 30,000 men had descended upon Victoria. 4000 of these Gold Rush pioneers settlers were Chinese. Until that time, the village had had a population of only about 500; this was a record for mass movement of mining populations on the North American frontier though more men in total were involved in the California and Colorado By the fall, tens of thousands of men who had failed to stake claims, or were unable to because of the summer's high water on the river, pronounced the Fraser to be "humbug". Many returned to San Francisco. A continuing influx of newcomers replaced the disenchanted, with more men storming the route of the Douglas Road to the upper part of Fraser Canyon around Lillooet. All these routes were technically illegal since the Governor required that entry to the colony to be made via Victoria, but thousands came overland anyway. Accurate numbers of miners on the upper Fraser, are therefore difficult to reckon.
During the gold rush tens of thousands of prospectors from California flooded into the newly declared Colony of British Columbia and disrupted the established balance between the Hudson's Bay Company's fur traders and indigenous peoples. The influx of prospectors included numerous European Americans and African Americans, Germans, English Canadians, French Canadians, Italians and French, other European ethnicities, Chinese, West Indians, others. Many of those first-arrived of European and British origin were Californian by culture, this included Maritimers such as Amor De Cosmos and others; the numbers of "Americans" associated with the gold rush must be understood to be inherently European-ethnic to start with. Anglo-American Southerners and New Englanders were well represented. Alfred Waddington, an entrepreneur and pamphleteer of the gold rush infamous for the disastrous road-building expedition which led to the Chilcotin War of 1864, estimated there were 10,500 miners on the Fraser at the peak of the gold rush.
This estimate did not include the non-mining "hangers-on" population. When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Richard Clement Moody was hand-picked by the Colonial Office, under Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to establish British order and to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment. Moody had hoped to begin the foundation of a capital city, but upon his arrival at Fort Langley he learned of an outbreak of violence at the settlement of Hill's Bar; this led to an incident popularly known as "Ned McGowan's War", where Moody quashed a group of rebellious American miners. Governor Douglas placed restrictions on immigration to the new British colony, including the proviso that entry to the territory must be made via Victoria and not overland, but thousands of men still arrived via the Okanagan and Whatcom Trails.
Douglas sought to limit the importation of weapons, one of the reasons for the Victoria-disembarkation requirement, but his lack of resources for oversight meant that overland routes to the goldfields could not be controlled. During the fall of 1858, tensions increased between miners and the Nlaka'pamux, the First Nations people of the Canyon; this led to the Fraser Canyon War. Miners wary of venturing upriver beyond Yale began to use the Lakes Route to Lillooet instead, prompting Douglas to contract for the building of the Douglas Road, the Mainland Colony's first public works project; the governor arrived in Yale to accept the apologies of the Americans who had waged war on the natives. Wanting to make the British military and governmental presence more visible, Douglas appointed justices of the peace and revised the slapdash mining rules which had emerged along the river. Troops to maintain order, were still in short supply. Competition and interracial tensions between European Americans and non-white miners erupted on Christmas Eve 1858, with the beating of Isaac Dixon, a freed American black.
He was the town barber and in years was a popular journalist in the Cariboo. Dixon was beaten by two men from Hill's Bar, the other main town in the southern part of the goldfields; the complicated series of events that ensued is known as McGowan's War. Its potential to provoke United State
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Harrison Lake is the largest lake in the southern Coast Mountains of Canada, being about 250 square kilometres in area. It is about 60 km in length and at its widest 9 km across, its southern end, at the resort community of Harrison Hot Springs, is c. 95 km east of downtown Vancouver. East of the lake are the Lillooet Ranges while to the west; the lake is the last of a series of large north-south glacial valleys tributary to the Fraser along its north bank east of Vancouver, British Columbia. The others to the west are the Chehalis, Alouette and Coquitlam Rivers. At the north end of the lake is a small First Nations community of the In-SHUCK-ch Nation, Port Douglas, known in the St'at'imcets language as Xa'xtsa. There are three hot springs along the shores of the lake or near it, including near Port Douglas, at Clear Creek, a tributary of Silver River, at Harrison Hot Springs. Doctors Point on the lake's northwest shore was a village and Transformer site, with a large rock painting depicting either the spirit of the winds that rule travel on the lake, or a medicine man turned to stone by the Transformer.
As with any large body of water, safe swimming practices should be employed during recreational use at Harrison Lake. The lake may impose a higher risk to recreational users than other BC lakes as it is colder than many of the lakes in the surrounding areas. Harrison Lake was implicated in the deaths of three people in 2015, five total since 2008. There is an initiative underway to post warning signs about the lake's colder water that can impose a hypothermic risk to swimmers who attempt swimming far distances away from the safety of the shore; the main waterflow coming into the lake is the Lillooet River, where there is a small bay named Little Harrison Lake. At the head of this bay was one of British Columbia's main ghost towns, Port Douglas. Halfway down Harrison Lake on its eastern shore is the valley of the Silver River known as the Big Silver River, one of its tributaries being the Little Silver. Opposite Silver River on the west shore of Harrison Lake is Twenty-Mile Bay. Mid-lake between the Silver River and Twenty-Mile Bay is the northern end of the lake's longest and largest island, aptly named Long Island, 9.5 km long, 2.6 km wide.
The other main island of any size in the lake is 2.2 km wide. It is offshore from Harrison Hot Springs, is east of the forested canyon of the Harrison River at the lake's outflow; the Harrison enters the Fraser near the community of Chehalis. Harrison Lake was important in the early history of British Columbia as one of the water links on the Douglas Road, which accessed the goldfields of the upper Fraser during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858-60
Port Douglas, British Columbia
Port Douglas, sometimes referred to as Douglas, is a remote community in British Columbia, Canada at east of the mouth of the Lillooet River, at the head of Harrison Lake, the head of river navigation from the Strait of Georgia. Port Douglas was the second major settlement of any size on the British Columbia mainland during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. From Port Douglas to Lillooet a mixed land and water route was built named the Douglas Road, a.k.a. the Lillooet Trail, Harrison Trail or Lakes Route. During its rowdy heyday, Port Douglas' population numbered in the thousands, many of the BC mainland's first companies had their start here, including the famous B. X. Express and other freighting companies that relocated to the Fraser Canyon with the completion of the Cariboo Wagon Road in the mid-1860s. Port Douglas dwindled in size with the abandonment of the Douglas Road. Today, there is nothing left - other than the place-name and the adopted name of the local First Nation, the Douglas Band of the In-SHUCK-ch Nation.
A land alienation pattern on the lakeshore to the southwest of Douglas, across the mouth of the Lillooet River and down the lake a bit, remains on the map as Tipella City. It was a port and land-promotion scheme from 1898 that never went far, although a number of investors and buyers were taken in by it; the port was a wharf for the Moneyspinner silver mine at Fire Lake. Regular steamboat traffic to Port Douglas from Georgia Strait and New Westminster via the Fraser River ended in the 1890s, although the town was in decline, only a handful of non-native residents remained. In the 1970s, a large logging operation bulldozed the last remains of the town, which were only vestiges of a few foundations. Both Port Douglas and the Douglas Road, as well as the Douglas Ranges to the west of Harrison Lake, were named in honour of the first governor of the Colony of British Columbia, Sir James Douglas; the Indian reserve community of Xa'xtsa, home to the Douglas First Nation, who are part of the St'at'imc cultural group but have many ties to the Sto:lo of the Lower Mainland, is located on Douglas Indian Reserve No. 8, across Little Harrison Lake, as the bay which became the site of the steamer port is known, from the location of what had been Port Douglas proper.
The name Port Douglas today refers to that community and its location, as nothing remains of the frontier-era town. Vessels of the Lakes Route