Magnus Hirschfeld was a German physician and sexologist educated in Germany. An outspoken advocate for sexual minorities, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee. Historian Dustin Goltz characterized this group as having carried out "the first advocacy for homosexual and transgender rights". Hirschfeld was born in Kolberg, in an Ashkenazi Jewish family, the son of a regarded physician and Senior Medical Officer Hermann Hirschfeld. In 1887–1888, he studied philosophy and philology in Breslau from 1888 to 1892 medicine in Strasbourg, Munich and Berlin. In 1892, he earned his doctoral degree. After his studies, he traveled through the United States for eight months, visiting the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, living from the proceeds of his writing for German journals. During his time in Chicago, Hirschfeld became involved with the homosexual sub-culture in that city. Struck by the essential similarities between the homosexual sub-cultures of Chicago and Berlin, Hirschfeld first developed his theory about the universality of homosexuality across the world, as he researched in books and newspaper articles about the existence of gay sub-cultures in Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo.
He started a naturopathic practice in Magdeburg. Hirschfeld first became interested in gay rights when he noticed that many of his gay patients were committing suicide. In the German language, the word for suicide is Selbstmord, which carried more judgemental and condemnatory connotations than its English language equivalent, making the subject of suicide a taboo in 19th century Germany. In particular, Hirschfeld mentioned as a reason for his gay rights activism, the story of one of his patients: a young Army officer suffering from depression, who killed himself in 1896, leaving behind a suicide note saying, despite his best efforts, he could not end his desires for other men, so had ended his life out of his guilt and shame. In his suicide note, the officer wrote that he lacked the "strength" to tell his parents the "truth", spoke of his shame of "that which nearly strangled my heart"; the officer could not bring himself to use the word "homosexuality", instead conspicuously referred to as "that" in his note.
However, the officer mentioned at the end of his suicide note: "The thought that you could contribute a future when the German fatherland will think of us in more just terms sweetens the hour of my death". Hirschfeld had been treating the officer for depression in 1895–96, the use of the term "us" led to speculation that a relationship existed between the two. However, the officer's use of Sie, the formal German word for you, instead of the informal Du, suggests Hirschfeld's relationship with his patient was professional. At the same time, Hirschfeld was affected by the trial of Oscar Wilde, which he referred to in his writings. Hirschfeld was struck by the number of his gay patients who had Suizidalnarben, found himself trying to give his patients a reason to live. Magnus Hirschfeld found a balance between writing about his findings. Between 1 May-15 October 1896, the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeausstellung took place, which featured 9 "human zoos" where people from Germany's colonies in New Guinea and Africa were put on display for the visitors to gawk at.
Such exhibitions of colonial peoples were common at industrial fairs, after Qingdao, the Mariannas and Caroline islands became part of the German empire, Chinese and Micronesians all joined the Africans and New Guineans displayed in the "human zoos". Hirschfeld, keenly interested in sexuality in other cultures, visited the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeastellung and subsequently other exhibitions to inquire of the people in the "human zoos" via interpreters about the status of sexuality in their cultures, it was in 1896, after talking to the people displayed in the "human zoos" at the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeastellung, that Hirschfeld began writing what became his 1914 book Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes, an attempt to comprehensively survey homosexuality around the globe, as part of an effort to prove that homosexuality occurred in every culture. After several years as a general practitioner in Magdeburg, in 1896 he issued a pamphlet and Socrates, on homosexual love. In 1897, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee with the publisher Max Spohr, the lawyer Eduard Oberg, the writer Franz Joseph von Bülow.
The group aimed to undertake research to defend the rights of homosexuals and to repeal Paragraph 175, the section of the German penal code that, since 1871, had criminalized homosexuality. They argued; the motto of the Committee, "Justice through science", reflected Hirschfeld's belief that a better scientific understanding of homosexuality would eliminate social hostility toward homosexuals. Within the group, some of the members rejected Hirschfeld's view that male homosexuals are, by nature, effeminate. Benedict Friedlaender and some others left the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee and formed another group, the "Bund für männliche Kultur" or Union for Male Culture, which did not exist long, it argued. Under Hirschfeld's leadership, the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee gathered over 5000 signatures from prominent Germans on a petition to overturn Paragraph 175. Signatories included
Jacqueline Charlotte Dufresnoy, better known by her stage name Coccinelle, was a French actress and singer. She was transgender, was the first publicized post-war sexual reassignment case in Europe, where she was an international celebrity and a renowned club singer. Born in Paris under the name of Jacques Charles Dufresnoy at rue Notre Dame de Nazareth Nr. 66 in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, she took the stage name Coccinelle when she entered show business, making her debut as a transgender showgirl in 1953 at Chez Madame Arthur where her mother was a flower seller. She performed at the famous nightclub Le Carrousel de Paris, which featured regular acts by other famous trans women such as April Ashley and Marie-Pier Ysser. In 1958, she travelled to Casablanca to undergo a vaginoplasty by Georges Burou, she said "Dr Burou rectified the mistake nature had made and I became a real woman, on the inside as well as the outside. After the operation, the doctor just said,'Bonjour, Mademoiselle', I knew it had been a success."
She sang the title track of Premier rendez-vous, a 1941 film directed by Henri Decoin. She became a media sensation, performed the Cherchez la femme revue which ran for 7 months at the Olympia in Paris between 1963 and 1964. In 1987 her autobiography was titled Coccinelle par Coccinelle, she married French journalist Francis Bonnet in 1960 and was married by the French Roman Catholic Church after her legal name change and rebaptism. Her marriage to Bonnet was dissolved in 1962, she married Paraguayan dancer Mario Costa in 1963, who died in 1977. She married fellow transgender activist Thierry Wilson in 1996, she quickly became a media sensation upon her return to France as a woman, with a look and stage act based on the prominent sex symbols of the day. Historian Joanne Meyerowitz wrote "the more sexualized MTF showed up in the sensationalized press in the stories on Coccinelle, who worked at Le Carrousel in Paris". In 1959 she appeared in Europa di notte by director Alessandro Blasetti; that same year, Italian singer Ghigo Agosti dedicated the song Coccinella to her, provoking widespread consternation and controversy.
Coccinelle appeared in the 1962 film Los Viciosos and was the first French trans woman to become a major star, when Bruno Coquatrix splashed her name in red letters on the front of Paris Olympia for her 1963 revue, Cherchez la femme. She appeared in the 1968 film Días de viejo color. In Israeli slang, the word coccinelle is used as a synonym for transgender derogatorily. Coccinelle worked extensively as an activist on behalf of transgender people, founding the organization "Devenir Femme", designed to provide emotional and practical support for those seeking sexual reassignment surgery, she helped establish the Center for Aid and Information for Transsexuality and Gender Identity. In addition, her first marriage was the first union to be acknowledged by the government of France, establishing transgender persons' legal right to marry, her 1987 autobiography Coccinelle was published by Daniel Filipacchi. Coccinelle was died on 6 October at Marseille. Coccinelle No 1 Tu t'fous de moi L'Amour a fleur de coeur Prends-moi ou laisse-moi Tu es là Coccinelle No 2 Je cherche un millionnaire Avec mon petit faux-cul Coccinelle - 4 chansons de la Revue de l'Olympia "Chercher la femme" Cherchez la femme On fait tout à la main C'est sûrement vous Depuis toujours Star du Carrousel de Paris CD Compilation of 20 titles.
Coccinelle on IMDb
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
In customary international law, an enemy alien is any native, denizen or subject of any foreign nation or government with which a domestic nation or government is in conflict and who are liable to be apprehended, restrained and removed. But not always, the countries are in a state of declared war. At the outbreak of World War II, in 1939, the United Kingdom had become a place of refuge for people who had fled Nazi persecution, including Jews and political refugees. At first, the authorities interned these refugees without distinction. On, when Italy declared war, significant numbers of Italian residents were interned; the Isle of Man isolated from the British mainland and with a useful amount of holiday accommodation, was used to provide housing for the "Alien Civilians". There were efforts to move internees from Britain. In July, 1940, the Arandora Star was torpedoed and sunk while transporting Italian and German aliens to North America; the 813 surviving prisoners were subsequently included in the 2,500 men transported by HMT Dunera for internment in Hay, New South Wales.
The Pioneer Corps was the only British unit that enemy aliens could serve in early in the war. Many thousands of Germans and Austrians joined the Pioneer Corps to assist the Allied war efforts and liberation of their home countries; these were Jews and political opponents of the Nazi Regime who had fled to Britain while it was still possible, included the cinematographer Ken Adam, writer George Clare and publisher Robert Maxwell. These men - dubbed "The King's Most Loyal Enemy Aliens" - moved on to serve in fighting units; some were recruited by Special Operations Executive as secret agents. They were instructed to choose an "English" name using their old initials. Serving as German nationals in the British forces was dangerous, since, in case of taken captive, with a high probability they would have been executed as traitors by the Germans; the number of German-born Jews joining the British forces was exceptionally high. Their profound knowledge of the German language and customs proved useful.
Many of them served in the administration of the British occupation army in Germany and Austria after the war. A well-known example of enemy aliens were the Japanese citizens residing in the United States during World War II. Many of these Japanese and Japanese Americans were imprisoned in internment camps by President Roosevelt during wartime, alongside many German- and Italian-Americans. However, many Japanese Americans and Italian-Americans were not "aliens", as they held American citizenship; the term "enemy alien" referred only to non-American citizens. Included in this number were thousands of resident aliens who were prohibited from applying for citizenship by race-based naturalization laws. Therefore, German American, Italian American and Japanese American permanent residents were classified as enemy aliens and interned as such. In total 10,905 Italian Americans and 110,000 Japanese Americans were interned in many different camps and sites across the country. German Americans were held in more than 50 different locations.
Citizens of an enemy country who lived in the USA during World War II were required to have an "Enemy Alien" card and register monthly with the authorities. 1798 US Alien and Sedition Acts Alien Legal alien Resident alien Nonresident alien Crystal City, Texas Defence Regulation 18B Handbook of Texas online entry on WWII internment camps in Texas
Second Serve is a 1986 American made-for-television biographical film starring Vanessa Redgrave as retired eye surgeon, professional tennis player, transgender woman Renée Richards. The film is based on her 1983 autobiography Second Serve: The Renée Richards Story, written with John Ames; the script is by Stephanie Liss and Gavin Lambert and the film was directed by Anthony Page. Second Serve aired on CBS on May 13, 1986. In 1976, Renée Richards is on the tennis court as a professional tennis player; the film flashes back to 1964. Radley secretly cross-dresses at night. Unable to speak with his mother Sadie, a psychiatrist, Radley consults his own psychiatrist, Dr. Beck, who advises him to grow a beard; this strategy works temporarily. Following his discharge and a failed marriage, Radley undergoes gender reassignment surgery and becomes Renée. Renée resumes her career as a surgeon and begins dating. After playing in a local tennis tournament in La Jolla, Renée is outed as transgender by a television reporter.
In the ensuing controversy, Renée takes the United States Tennis Association to court, where she secures her right to play professional tournament tennis as a woman without being subjected to chromosome testing. Vanessa Redgrave as Richard Radley/Renee RichardsWhit Hertford as Young Richard Radley Martin Balsam as Dr. Beck William Russ as Josh Alice Krige as Gwen Kerrie Keane as Meriam Richard Venture as Dr. David Radley Reni Santoni as Dr. Roberto Granato Louise Fletcher as Dr. Sadie M. Bishop Jeff Corey as Dr. Harry Benjamin Critic John J. O'Connor of The New York Times praised Redgrave's performance. Although noting that from a physical standpoint Redgrave is not believable, O'Connor calls her performance "astonishingly convincing". While finding the script wanting for its tendency to reduce complexities to cliches, O'Connor found that Second Serve "does manage, despite oversimplifications and evasions, to stick to the point, but it is the extraordinary Redgrave performance that slams the message home."
New York magazine concurred in this assessment, with reviewer John Leonard calling the film "calm and matter-of-fact, too tidy". Leonard lavished Redgrave with praise for her performance, writing: Redgrave and vulnerable, athletic and bewildered and loving competitive and lonely, manages to transsex both ways, she embodies, with the fine bones of that face and the twitching of her various limbs, every internal contradiction of the polymorphously perverse." Second Serve was not universally praised by critics, receiving negative reviews from such outlets as the Chicago Sun-Times. Redgrave was nominated for an Emmy Award and a Golden Globe for her performance and Second Serve won Emmys for hairstyling and makeup. Second Serve on IMDb
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol