Thomas Wright Fats Waller was an American jazz pianist, composer and comedic entertainer. His innovations in the Harlem stride style laid the groundwork for modern jazz piano and his best-known compositions, Aint Misbehavin and Honeysuckle Rose, were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1984 and 1999. Waller was the youngest of 11 children born to Adeline Locket Waller and he started playing the piano when he was six and graduated to playing the organ at his fathers church four years later. His mother instructed him when he was a youth, at the age of 14 he was playing the organ at the Lincoln Theater, in Harlem, and within 12 months he had composed his first rag. Wallers first piano solos were recorded in October 1922, when he was 18 years old and he was the prize pupil and the friend and colleague of the stride pianist James P. Johnson. Against the opposition of his father, a clergyman, Waller became a professional pianist at the age of 15, working in cabarets, in 1918 he won a talent contest playing Johnsons Carolina Shout, a song he learned from watching a player piano play it.
Waller became one of the most popular performers of his era, finding critical and commercial success in the United States and he was a prolific songwriter, and many songs he wrote or co-wrote are still popular, such as Honeysuckle Rose, Aint Misbehavin and Squeeze Me. Fellow pianist and composer Oscar Levant dubbed Waller the black Horowitz, Waller is believed to have composed many novelty tunes in the 1920s and 1930s and sold them for small sums, attributed to another composer and lyricist. Standards attributed to Waller, sometimes controversially, include I Cant Give You Anything but Love and he further supports the conjecture, noting that early handwritten manuscripts in the Dana Library Institute of Jazz Studies of Spreadin Rhythm Around are in Wallers hand. Machlin comments that the Singer conjecture has considerable justification, maurice Wallers biography similarly notes his fathers objections to hearing On the Sunny Side of the Street playing on the radio. The anonymous sleeve notes on the 1960 RCA Victor album Handful of Keys state that Waller copyrighted over 400 songs, many of them co-written with his closest collaborator, Razaf described his partner as the soul of melody. A man who made the piano sing, both big in body and in mind.
After a balance had been taken, wed just need one take to make a side, on one occasion his playing seemed to have put him at risk of injury. Waller was kidnapped in Chicago leaving a performance in 1926, four men bundled him into a car and took him to the Hawthorne Inn, owned by Al Capone. Waller was ordered inside the building, and found a party in full swing, gun to his back, he was pushed towards a piano, and told to play. A terrified Waller realized he was the surprise guest at Capones birthday party and it is rumored that Waller stayed at the Hawthorne Inn for three days and left very drunk, extremely tired, and had earned thousands of dollars in cash from Capone and other party-goers as tips. After sessions with Ted Lewis, Jack Teagarden and Billy Banks Rhythmakers, he began in May 1934 the voluminous series of recordings with a band known as Fats Waller. This six-piece group usually included Herman Autrey, Gene Sedric or Rudy Powell, Waller wrote Squeeze Me, Keepin Out of Mischief Now, Aint Misbehavin, Blue Turning Grey Over You, Ive Got a Feeling Im Falling, Honeysuckle Rose and Jitterbug Waltz
Noble Lee Sissle was an African-American jazz composer, bandleader and playwright, best known for the Broadway musical Shuffle Along, and its hit song Im Just Wild About Harry. Sissle was born in Indianapolis, Indiana on July 10,1889 and his mother, Martha Angeline Sissle, was a school teacher and juvenile probation officer. As a youth Sissle sang in choirs and as a soloist with his high schools glee club in Cleveland. Sissle attended De Pauw University in Greencastle, Indiana on scholarship, on October 1,1918, Sissle joined the New York 369th Infantry Regiment at New York City where he helped Lieutenant James Reese Europe form the 369th Regimental Band. Sissle played violin and served as major for the 369th that, under Europe as bandmaster. He sang several vocals on the last disc recorded by the band that was released in March 1919 and he left the army after the war as a second lieutenant with the 370th Infantry Regiment and joined Europe’s civilian version of the 369th band. Years earlier Sissle had struck up a partnership with Blake after they first met in Baltimore in 1915 and had remained in touch during the war, Sissle is noted for his collaborations with Blake.
The pair first performed in vaudeville and produced the musicals Shuffle Along, Sissle is also, the only African-American artist to appear in the Pathé film archives. Shortly after World War I, Sissle joined forces with Blake to form a music duo. After vaudeville, the pair work on the jazz musical revue Shuffle Along, which incorporated many songs they had written. When it premiered in 1921, Shuffle Along became the first hit musical on Broadway written by, the musicals introduced hit songs such as Im Just Wild About Harry and Love Will Find a Way. In 1923 Sissle made two films for Lee DeForest in DeForests Phonofilm sound-on-film process and they were Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake featuring Sissle and Blakes song Affectionate Dan, and Sissle and Blake Sing Snappy Songs featuring Sons of Old Black Joe and My Swanee Home. Blake made a film in Phonofilm, playing his composition Fantasy on Swanee River. These three films are preserved in the Maurice Zouary film collection at the Library of Congress, in 1932, Sissle appeared with Nina Mae McKinney, the Nicholas Brothers, and Eubie Blake in Pie, Pie Blackbird, a Vitaphone short released by Warner Brothers.
In February 1931, Sissle accompanied Adelaide Hall on piano at the prestigious Palace Theatre in New York during her 1931-32 world tour, in 1954, New York radio station WMGM, which was owned by Loews Theatre Organization, signed Sissle as a disc jockey. His show featured the music of African-American recording artists, Sissle was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. Sissle died in 1975 at the age of 86 in Tampa and his rendition of the song Viper Mad was included in the Woody Allen film Sweet and Lowdown. African American musical theater Notes Bibliography Reef, New York City, New York, Facts on File, Inc
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Latvian Ministry of Culture. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918, the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvias information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education. One of the cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage. The NLL is a centre of research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. Since the very outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography, the massive union catalogue Ancient Prints in Latvian 1525 -1855, received Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99.
The NLL includes several collections of posters, digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, which was formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music, in 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika. lv is the NLLs collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts, Latvia has a tradition of Song and Dance Festivals organized every four years. The historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another collection of the National Library of Latvia. One of the architects is Gunārs Birkerts. It opened its doors to visitors in 2014, today the NLL building is a dominant landmark on the Riga cityscape. It is used for a variety of purposes and hosted a debate chaired by the BBCs Jonathan Dimbleby on 14 March 2016
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
J. Russel Robinson
Joseph Russel Robinson was an American ragtime and dixieland jazz pianist and a composer of jazz and popular tunes. Robinson, whose name appeared as J. Russel Robinson, was born in Indianapolis and he started publishing ragtime compositions in his teens, his early hits included Sapho Rag and Eccentric. With his drummer brother John he toured the Southern United States in the early 1910s including a stay in New Orleans. He turned out hundreds of piano recordings for the US Music Company in Chicago. He was known for his blues and jazz influenced playing style. His style has been described as having a swinging, shimmying style with many right hand only blues breaks, in October 1918, he joined W. C. Handys publishing company Pace and Handy, supplying new arrangements and lyrics for popular editions of tunes like The Memphis Blues in the 1920s, Robinson joined the Original Dixieland Jazz Band when pianist Henry Ragas died in the Spanish Flu Pandemic in 1919. Also in 1919, he co-wrote the song Though Were Miles and Miles Apart with W.
C and he played piano with various popular and blues singers in phonograph recording sessions, accompanying singers such as Annette Hanshaw, Lucille Hegamin, Marion Harris, and Lizzie Miles. On some of his accompaniments to African American singers the accompaniment was listed on the labels as being by Spencer Williams. Margie has been recorded by Louis Armstrong, Ray Charles, Benny Goodman, Jim Reeves, Al Jolson, Cab Calloway, Gene Krupa, according to Lewis Porter in John Coltrane, His Life and Music, Margie was a specialty of John Coltrane. Other Robinson compositions include Jazzola, How Many Times, swing, Mr. Charlie, Sapho Rag, Two Time Dan, St. in 1933, I Got a New Deal in Love, Yeah Man. Pan Yan, Hopeless Blues, Mary Lou, Dynamite Rag, Cornfield Rag, Minstrel Man Rag, Meet Me at No Special Place, Alhambra Syncopated Waltzes, in 1916, he co-wrote the song Ole Miss Rag with W. C. Robinson was a member of the ODJB until it broke up in 1923 and his composition Meet Me in No Special Place was recorded in 1947 by Nat King Cole.
Robinson wrote the song for the movie Portrait of Jennie. Movies were released based on his two compositions Margie and Mary Lou, the Margie television series which ran from 1961 to 1962 used his music as the theme. He composed Rhythm King with Jo Trent, under the pseudonym Joe Hoover, Robinson died of cancer in Palmdale in 1963 after a brief illness, during which he completed two new songs for Mermaid Tavern. List of ragtime composers Biography Free scores by J. Russel Robinson in the Choral Public Domain Library
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database that is similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the placed on the Compact Disc Database. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become an open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their works, and the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, and these entries are maintained by volunteer editors who follow community written style guidelines. Recorded works can store information about the date and country. As of 26 July 2016, MusicBrainz contained information about roughly 1.1 million artists,1.6 million releases, end-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC. As with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge for maintaining and reviewing the data, besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint.
A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this, in 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatables patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching. This feature attracted many users and allowed the database to grow quickly, however, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions. This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, tRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND, some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought. The Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský, while AcoustID and Chromaprint are not officially MusicBrainz projects, they are closely tied with each other and both are open source.
Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second, additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns. The AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity, since 2003, MusicBrainzs core data are in the public domain, and additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL, the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, in December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions, Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education, BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria. no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the operation for research. As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norways higher education, all their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines, since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries.
The target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries. BIBSYS is an administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS, BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply
Sidney Bechet was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. He was one of the first important soloists in jazz and was perhaps the first notable jazz saxophonist and his playing is characterized by forceful delivery, well-constructed improvisations, and a distinctive wide vibrato. Bechets erratic temperament hampered his career and not until the late 1940s did he earn wide acclaim, Bechet was born in New Orleans in 1897 to a middle-class Creole of color family. His older brother Leonard Victor Bechet was a full-time dentist and a part-time trombonist, Sidney quickly learned to play several musical instruments kept around the house, mostly by teaching himself, he soon decided to specialize in clarinet. At the age of six, he started playing along with his brothers band at a birthday party. Later in his youth, Bechet studied with such renowned Creole clarinetists as Lorenzo Tio, Big Eye Louis Nelson Delisle, soon after, Bechet began to play in many New Orleans ensembles, using the improvisational techniques of the time.
He performed in parades with Freddie Keppards celebrated brass band, the Olympia Orchestra, in 1911–12, Bechet performed with Bunk Johnson in the Eagle Band of New Orleans, and in 1913–14, with King Oliver in the Olympia Band. Bechet spent his childhood and adolescence in New Orleans, but from 1914 to 1917 he was touring and traveling, going as far north as Chicago, in the spring of 1919, Bechet traveled to New York City, where he joined Will Marion Cooks Syncopated Orchestra. Soon after, the orchestra traveled to Europe, almost immediately upon arrival, the group was warmly received, and Bechet was especially popular, attracting attention near and far. While in London, Bechet discovered the straight soprano saxophone and quickly developed a style quite unlike his warm and his saxophone sound could be described as emotional and large. He often used a very broad vibrato, similar to what was common among some New Orleans clarinetists at the time, Bechet was convicted of assaulting a woman and was imprisoned in London from September 13 to 26,1922.
He was deported to the United States, leaving Southampton on November 3, on July 30,1923, he began recording, it is some of his earliest surviving studio work. The session was led by Clarence Williams, a pianist and songwriter, better known at time for his music publishing. Bechet recorded Wild Cat Blues and Kansas City Man Blues, Wild Cat Blues is in a multithematic ragtime tradition, with four 16-bar themes, and Kansas City Man Blues is a 12-bar blues. He interpreted and played each uniquely, with outstanding creativity and innovation for the time, on September 15,1925, Bechet and other members of the Revue Nègre, including Josephine Baker, sailed to Europe, arriving at Cherbourg, France, on September 22. The revue opened at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, Paris, on October 2, Bechet toured Europe with various bands, reaching as far as Russia in mid-1926. In 1928, he led his own band at the famous Bricktops Club in Montmartre. Bechet was jailed for 11 months in Paris when a passerby was wounded during a shoot-out