A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force of the living. In European folklore, vampires were undead beings that visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighborhoods they inhabited while they were alive, they wore shrouds and were described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 19th century. Vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures. Local variants in Eastern Europe were known by different names, such as shtriga in Albania, vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. In modern times, the vampire is held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.
Porphyria was linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been discredited. The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of "The Vampyre" by John Polidori. Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend though it was published after Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's 1872 novel Carmilla; the success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, television shows, video games. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in 1745. Vampires had been discussed in French and German literature. After Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing vampires".
These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received widespread publicity. The English term was derived from the German Vampir, in turn derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian vampir; the Serbian form has parallels in all Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Macedonian вампир, Bosnian: vampir / вампир, Croatian vampir and Slovak upír, Polish wąpierz, upiór, Ukrainian упир, Russian упырь, Belarusian упыр, from Old East Slavic упирь. The exact etymology is unclear. Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *ǫpyrь and *ǫpirь. Another less widespread theory is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch". Czech linguist Václav Machek proposes Slovak verb "vrepiť sa", or its hypothetical anagram "vperiť sa" as an etymological background, thus translates "upír" as "someone who thrusts, bites". An early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise "Word of Saint Grigoriy", dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries, where pagan worship of upyri is reported.
The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Ancient Greeks, Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity known today as the vampire originates exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and public executions of people believed to be vampires, it is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were reported as bloated in appearance, ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour.
Blood was seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was open. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, its teeth and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature. Although vampires were described as undead, some folk tales spoke of them as living beings; the causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse, jumped over by an animal a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was at risk. In Russian
German-speaking Community of Belgium
The German-speaking Community of Belgium or Eastern Belgium is one of the three federal communities of Belgium. Covering an area of 854 km2 within the province of Liège in Wallonia, it includes nine of the eleven municipalities of East Cantons. Traditionally speakers of Low Dietsch and Moselle Franconian varieties, the local population numbers over 75,000—about 0.70% of the national total. Bordering the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the area has its own parliament and government at Eupen. Although in the Belgian province of Luxembourg many of the inhabitants in the border region next to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg speak Luxembourgish, a West Central German language, they are not considered part of the German-speaking Community; the German-speaking Community of Belgium is composed of the German-speaking parts of the lands that were annexed in 1920 from Germany. In addition, in contemporary Belgium there are some other areas where German is or has been spoken that belonged to Belgium before 1920, but they are not officially considered part of the German-speaking Community of Belgium: Bleiberg-Welkenraedt-Baelen in northeastern province of Liège and Arelerland.
However, in these localities, the German language is declining due to the expansion of French. The area known today as the East Cantons consists of the German-speaking Community and the municipalities of Malmedy and Waimes, which belong to the French Community of Belgium; the East Cantons were part of the Rhine Province of Prussia in Germany until 1920, but were annexed by Belgium following Germany's defeat in World War I and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles. Thus they became known as the cantons rédimés, "redeemed cantons"; the peace treaty of Versailles demanded the "questioning" of the local population. People who were unwilling to become Belgians and wanted the region to remain a part of Germany were required to register themselves along with their full name and address with the Belgian military administration, headed by Herman Baltia, many feared reprisals or expulsion for doing so. In the mid-1920s, there were secret negotiations between Germany and the kingdom of Belgium that seemed to be inclined to sell the region back to Germany as a way to improve Belgium's finances.
A price of 200 million gold marks has been mentioned. At this point, the French government, fearing for the complete postwar order, intervened at Brussels and the Belgian-German talks were called off; the new cantons had been part of Belgium for just 20 years when, in 1940, they were retaken by Germany in World War II. The majority of people of the east cantons welcomed this. Following the defeat of Germany in 1945, the cantons were once again annexed by Belgium, as a result of alleged collaboration with Nazi Germany an attempt was made to de-Germanize the local population by the Belgian and Walloon authorities. In the early 1960s, Belgium was divided into four linguistic areas, the Dutch-speaking Flemish area, the French-speaking area, the bilingual capital of Brussels, the German-speaking area of the east cantons. In 1973, three communities and three regions were granted internal autonomy; the legislative Parliament of the German-speaking Community, Rat der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft, was set up.
Today the German-speaking Community has a fair degree of autonomy in language and cultural matters, but it still remains part of the region of predominantly French-speaking Wallonia. There has been much argument in the past few years that the German-speaking Community should become its own region, an ongoing process with the permanent transfer with the previous accord of some competences concerning social policy, conservation of sites and monuments, environment protection policy, the financing of municipalities, among other things from the Walloon Region. One of the proponents of full regional autonomy for the German-speaking Community is Karl-Heinz Lambertz, the minister-president from 1999 to 2014. Regional autonomy for spatial planning, city building and housing should be considered, according to the government of the German-speaking Community; the German-speaking Community has its own government, appointed for five years by its own parliament. The Government is headed by a Minister-President, who acts as the "prime minister" of the Community, is assisted by the Ministry of the German-speaking Community.
The 2014–2019 government is formed by four Ministers: Oliver Paasch, Minister-President and Minister for Local Government Isabelle Weykmans, Vice-Minister-President and Minister for Culture and Tourism Harald Mollers, Minister for Education Antonios Antoniadis, Minister for Social Affairs The German-speaking Community consists of the following nine municipalities:. The population figures are those on 1 January 2017. In 1989, there was a call for arms of the Community. In the end the coat of arms of the Community was designed by merging the arms of the Duchy
George Orson Welles was an American actor, director and producer who worked in theatre and film. He is remembered for his innovative work in all three: in theatre, most notably Caesar, a Broadway adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. While in his twenties Welles directed a number of high-profile stage productions for the Federal Theatre Project, including an adaptation of Macbeth with an African American cast and the political musical The Cradle Will Rock. In 1937 he and John Houseman founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented a series of productions on Broadway through 1941. Welles found national and international fame as the director and narrator of a 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds performed for his radio anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air, it caused widespread panic because many listeners thought that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was occurring. Although some contemporary sources say these reports of panic were false and overstated, they rocketed Welles to notoriety.
His first film was Citizen Kane, which he co-wrote, produced and starred in as Charles Foster Kane. Welles followed up Citizen Kane with twelve other feature films, the most acclaimed of which include The Magnificent Ambersons, The Lady from Shanghai, Touch of Evil, The Trial, Chimes at Midnight and F for Fake. With a development spanning fifty years, Welles' final film, The Other Side of the Wind, was released in 2018. Welles was an outsider to the studio system and directed only thirteen full-length films in his career, he struggled for creative control on his projects early on with the major film studios in Hollywood and in life with a variety of independent financiers across Europe, where he spent most of his career. Many of his films were either edited or remained unreleased, his distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots and long takes. He has been praised as "the ultimate auteur".
In 2002 Welles was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute polls among directors and critics. Known for his baritone voice, Welles was an actor in radio and film, a Shakespearean stage actor and magician noted for presenting troop variety shows in the war years. George Orson Welles was born May 6, 1915, in Kenosha, son of Richard Head Welles and Beatrice Ives Welles, he was named after his paternal great-grandfather, influential Kenosha attorney Orson S. Head, his brother George Head. An alternative story of the source of his first and middle names was told by George Ade, who met Welles's parents on a West Indies cruise toward the end of 1914. Ade was traveling with a friend, Orson Wells, the two of them sat at the same table as Mr. and Mrs. Richard Welles. Mrs. Welles was pregnant at the time, when they said good-by, she told them that she had enjoyed their company so much that if the child were a boy, she intended to name it for them: George Orson. Welles's birth announcement and a picture of him as a young boy are among George Ade's papers at Purdue University.
Despite his family's affluence, Welles encountered hardship in childhood. His parents separated and moved to Chicago in 1919, his father, who made a fortune as the inventor of a popular bicycle lamp, became an alcoholic and stopped working. Welles's mother, a pianist, played during lectures by Dudley Crafts Watson at the Art Institute of Chicago to support her son and herself. Beatrice died of hepatitis in a Chicago hospital on May 10, 1924, just after Welles's ninth birthday; the Gordon String Quartet, which had made its first appearance at her home in 1921, played at Beatrice's funeral. After his mother's death, Welles ceased pursuing music, it was decided that he would spend the summer with the Watson family at a private art colony in Wyoming, New York, established by Lydia Avery Coonley Ward. There he played and became friends with the children of the Aga Khan, including the 12-year-old Prince Aly Khan. In what Welles described as "a hectic period" in his life, he lived in a Chicago apartment with both his father and Dr. Maurice Bernstein, a Chicago physician, a close friend of both his parents.
Welles attended public school before his alcoholic father left business altogether and took him along on his travels to Jamaica and the Far East. When they returned they settled in a hotel in Grand Detour, owned by his father; when the hotel burned down and his father took to the road again."During the three years that Orson lived with his father, some observers wondered who took care of whom", wrote biographer Frank Brady."In some ways, he was never a young boy, you know," said Roger Hill, who became Welles's teacher and lifelong friend. Welles attended public school in Madison, enrolled in the fourth grade. On September 15, 1926, he entered the Todd Seminary for Boys, an expensive independent school in Woodstock, that his older brother, Richard Ives Welles, had attended ten years before until he was expelled for misbeha
Daughters of Darkness
Daughters of Darkness (in France, Les Lèvres Rouges, in Belgium, Le Rouge aux Lèvres and in the Netherlands, Dorst Naar Bloed is a 1971 Belgian horror film, directed by Harry Kümel. It is an erotic vampire film. A married young couple and Valerie, are on their honeymoon, they check into a grand hotel on the Ostend seafront in Belgium, intending to catch the cross-channel ferry to England, though Stefan seems oddly unenthused at the prospect of introducing his new bride to his mother. It is off-season, so the couple are alone in the hotel. Alone, that is, until the sun sets and a mysterious Hungarian countess, Elizabeth Báthory arrives in a vintage Bristol driven by her "secretary", Ilona; the middle-aged concierge at the hotel swears that he saw the Countess at the same hotel when he was a little boy. The pair may have a connection to three separate gruesome murders of young girls that occurred in Bruges the previous week. On a day trip and Valerie witness the aftermath of a fourth. At the hotel, the Countess becomes obsessed with the newlyweds and the resulting interaction of the four people leads to sadism and murder.
First Ilona Stefan the Countess dies, leaving Valerie, now transformed into a creature similar to the Countess, stalking new victims. Director Kumel, interviewed by Mark Gatiss for the BBC documentary Horror Europa said that he deliberately styled Delphine Seyrig's character after Marlene Dietrich and Andrea Rau's after Louise Brooks to deepen the filmic resonance of his own movie; because the vampire character of Elizabeth Bathory is a demagogue, Kumel dressed her in the Nazi colours of black and red. In commenting on both the film's mordant sense of humour and the director's painterly eye in the composition of several scenes, Gatiss drew forth the comment from Kumel that he considers the film Belgian due to the influence of Surrealism and Expressionism. Extensive external shooting was done at the Royal Galleries of Ostend, a seaside neoclassical arcade on the beach at Ostend. Interior shooting was done at the Hotel Astoria and other exteriors at the Tropical Gardens, Meise; the critic Camille Paglia writes in Sexual Personae, "A classy genre of vampire film follows a style I call psychological high Gothic.
It begins in Coleridge's medieval Christabel and its descendants, Poe's Ligeia and James's The Turn of the Screw. A good example is Daughters of Darkness, starring Delphine Seyrig as an elegant lesbian vampire. High gothic is ceremonious. Evil has become world-weary, hierarchical glamour. There is no bestiality; the theme is eroticized western power, the burden of history."According to the critic Geoffrey O'Brien: Lesbian vampires made frequent incursions in the early 1970’s—in movies ranging from hardcore pornographic to dreamily aesthetic — as the Gothic horror movie took to flaunting its psychosexual subtexts. Daughters of Darkness leans flamboyantly toward the artistic end of the spectrum, with Delphine Seyrig sporting Marienbad-like costumes and the Belgian director conjuring up images of luxurious decadence replete with feathers and long, winding hotel corridors. At the film’s core, however, is a unpleasant evocation of a war of nerves between Seyrig’s vampire and the bourgeois newlyweds into whose honeymoon she insinuates herself.
Jaded age preys cunningly on narcissistic youth, seductiveness and cruelty become indistinguishable as Seyrig forces the innocents to become aware of their own capacity for monstrous behavior. If Fassbinder had made a vampire movie it might have looked something like this. In the early 2010s, Time Out conducted a poll with several authors, directors and critics who have worked within the horror genre to vote for their top horror films. Daughters of Darkness placed at number 90 on their top 100 list. Daughters of Darkness at AllMovie Daughters of Darkness on IMDb Daughters of Darkness at Rotten Tomatoes Daughters of Darkness at the TCM Movie Database
Hubert Leon Lampo was a Flemish writer, one of the founders of magic realism in Flanders. His most famous book is De komst van Joachim Stiller, in which a mysterious person, named Joachim Stiller, appears as a redeemer, under circumstances reminiscent of the death of Jesus. Other themes that occur in Lampo's work are the myths of the Holy Grail. Hubert Lampo: Arthur and the Grail. Photogr. by Pieter Paul Koster. London, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1988. ISBN 0-283-99705-2 Hubert Lampo: The coming of Joachim Stiller. Transl. by Marga Emlyn-Jones. New York, Twayne Publishers, 1974. ISBN 0-8057-3416-3 Hubert Lampo:'The contemporary novel in Dutch'. In: The contemporary novel in Belgium. Brussels, 1970. No ISBN Flemish literature Short biography Bibliography
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website