Rolex Monterey Motorsports Reunion
The Rolex Monterey Motorsports Reunion is an annual event held at WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca in Monterey, California. Its purpose is to provide an event, it takes place over the course of one weekend every mid-August. It was first established by Steve Earle in 1974 as the Monterey Historic Automobile Races. Earle organized the meeting for his friends to race their cars at Laguna Seca; the event acts as a part of Monterey Car Week, which includes the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance and other events. 550 cars participate in the event. The 2017 event took place August 17–20; the first company to sponsor the event was the Chrysler Corporation. The event added a sponsorship from Rolex; the Chrysler sponsorship was replaced with one from Toyota, who sponsored the event from 2006 to 2008. Although celebrities and professional drivers do attend, the Reunion is not a professional event, has no awards or prizes for finishing position; each Saturday and Sunday afternoon race has a Rolex Award winner voted by committee.
Two of the morning races each day honor a Bonham's Cup winner chosen. There are special Awards for best paddock display, best Ford-powered car, outstanding craftsmanship, etc; the highest honor is the Rolex Spirit of Monterey Award, A Rolex watch and original Bill Patterson painting, presented to the entrant who best embodies the spirit of the event in his presentation and competition drive. The Reunion has been featured in Autoweek magazine, it was featured in the September 2008 issue. The 2003 event was featured in an issue of Popular Mechanics. Popular Mechanics documented the 2000 event; the 2009 event was featured. The 2010 event was featured in an issue of Track; the 2004 event was featured in an article on the R&T website. For many years television network Speed Channel provided coverage of the event. For a few years the coverage consisted of several different episodes featuring the major groups. In years the event was abridged to one episode combining behind-the-scenes coverage with coverage of select races.
The races covered were some of the GT groups for better interest. If the featured a one-time race group, that race may be covered; the Reunion was for awhile covered by Fox Sports 1, which replaced Speed in August 2013. In recent years the Reunion has been livestreamed by Motor Trend magazine, with the coverage being shown on YouTube. Various race groups from multiple eras and types of automobile racing are featured at the Monterey Reunion; the groups contain vehicles that competed against one another during that point in history. The schedule will feature combined-class races, such as the sports racing cars competing alongside the GT cars. While these two groups race they do not compete against each other, much like in professional racing; the event featured a mixed "GT and production cars" race group in which professionally raced grand tourers competed against unmodified sports cars of the same era. The unmodified cars have since been phased out; the Sonoma Historic Motorsports Festival, a former sister event held at Sonoma Raceway, continues to include the production cars.
In the past the prewar groups were divided into two types: single-seater. The latter has since been merged with the racing cars; the sports and racing cars were merged and are now combined with the touring cars. The Reunion features special or expanded race groups in an attempt to generate greater interest from its spectators; these one-time groups have included Grand National and Winston Cup Series stock cars, an under two liter Trans Am Series race group, a Formula Atlantic group. Single-marque spec groups have been featured. In 2011 an all Jaguar XKE race was featured to commemorate that model's fiftieth anniversary; the same was done in 2012 for the Shelby Cobra, featuring small block AC Cobras racing against the big block Shelby 427 Cobras. In 2013 an all Porsche 911 "Weissach Cup" was featured to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the 911. In 1975, the event introduced the tradition of honoring a "featured marque" each year; this tribute is done through various ways. These include an increased number of entered vehicles from that marque, special displays of the marque's history and some of the brand's vehicles, sometimes spec races only featuring vehicles from the marque being tributed.
The event will have special one-time tributes. These have included Can Am team Chaparral Cars and racing legend Juan Manuel Fangio; because of the high value of many of the cars used, the Reunion committee has established a severe punishment for avoidable contact. The driver convicted will be unable to participate in any further events, but can appeal the judgement one year after the incident. In the prewar groups the drivers can be seen waving as a signal to other drivers to pass; this is to avoid any costly damage to the vehicles. Although the event features many groups of different types of racecars, it does not place entrants in their most appropriate groups. For example, a 2.1 liter Morgan can be placed in an under two liter class despite being over the specified displacement. This is done due to the over two liter groups featuring vehicles with at least five liters. Certain postwar cars have been known to compete with the prewar cars due to technological similarities; some drivers will enter themselves in the wrong class either as a late entry or if they were unable to q
Jimmy Murphy (racing driver)
James Anthony Murphy was an American race car driver who won the 1921 French Grand Prix, the 1922 Indianapolis 500, the American Racing Championship in 1922 and 1924. Muphy was born in San Francisco, California, on Minna Street, between 7th and 8th, in September 1894, his parents were Irish immigrants who owned a fuel and feed store which fronted on Mission Street behind the family home on Minna. This area of San Francisco was called "South of the Slot" by locals in those days, comprised a sprawling ghetto of Irish immigrants and their children who made up the majority of the local labor force. Murphy's mother died during fire. Murphy's father left him in the care of his cousin, San Francisco firefighter Lt. Tom Murphy, his wife Catherine. There are no records as to the whereabouts or fate of Murphy's father after 1906. Murphy lived with Tom and Catherine and their five children in a house in the Hayes Valley neighborhood of San Francisco until late 1907, when Murphy's mother's brother-in-law, Judge Martin O'Donnell of Vernon, sent for Jimmy to come live with him.
In Southern California Murphy attended Huntington Park High School and commuted to and from school on a motorcycle given him by Judge O'Donnell. He became an expert rider and mechanic and, a few months short of graduation, opened a garage with a friend, developing a clientele of motorcycle and automobile owners from the Los Angeles area. Murphy began his racing career as a riding mechanic, back in the days when racing cars carried a driver and a "mechanician." He rode in winning driver Eddie O'Donnell's Duesenberg at the 1916 Corona road race, their car achieving an average speed of 85 miles per hour, a terrifying speed for those early days. Murphy rode with some of America's greatest drivers of the time, including Ralph DePalma, Harry Hartz, Eddie Rickenbacker, Peter DePaolo and Tommy Milton. After the war, Murphy's career as a driver was spotted, but he showed promise to those who knew "the racing game." Through the influence of Duesenberg's Number One driver, Tommy Milton, Murphy was given a factory car to drive in the inaugural race at the Beverly Hills Speedway, a superfast, 1.125-mile high banked, wooden speedway.
To everyone surprise, Murphy won that February 1920 race. He went on to win and became a popular champion on the circuit. In 1921, as part of a team of Duesenbergs sponsored by French immigrant Albert Champion, he became the only American to have won a Grand Prix race in a all-American car, by winning the French Grand Prix at Le Mans; the next time an American driver would win a Grand Prix in an American-built car would be 46 years when Dan Gurney won the 1967 Belgian Grand Prix. Additionally, in 1967 Gurney became the second American driving an American built car to win at LeMans when he won LeMans that year also. So since the 1921 French Grand Prix was raced on the LeMans course, Gurney was the second American driver to win LeMans driving an American built vehicle; the feat of an all-American Grand Prix victory has not been repeated, nor it is to be. Murphy's mechanic in that race was none other than Ernie Olsen who rode with Murphy in the 1922 Indianapolis 500. Murphy’s victory was not a hollow one as he was facing the best European teams from England with young gun Henry Segrave driving a 1921 Grand Prix car and France led by the experienced Jean Chassagne.
In 1922, Murphy won the Indianapolis 500, in the Le Mans winning car, modified for the Indy race and was powered by a Miller engine. He became National Champion that year. Murphy won the final Universal Trophy Cup Race, beating Milton, at both Tacoma Speedway and the Uniontown Speedway board track in 1922. In 1923, Murphy placed second in the National Championship missing several races to go to Europe and race for Los Angeles race car builder, Harry Miller, he placed third in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza that year, in a race whose Grand Marshal was Benito Mussolini. Mussolini gave Jimmy two German Shepherd dogs. Murphy's success continued in 1924. Murphy finished third in the Indy 500, by the last weeks of the season, he had accumulated an unbeatable lead in the points toward the Championship. Murphy died in a race promoted by a friend, at the Syracuse, New York fairgrounds dirt track on September 15, 1924, he was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1998. Although not an accomplished dirt racer, he agreed to appear at a race promoted by a friend, at the Syracuse, New York fairgrounds dirt track on September 15, 1924.
As he charged for the lead late in the race, his car slid sideways and crashed through the inside wooden rail. A large piece of the rail was pushed through Jimmy's chest, killing him instantly. Murphy was buried in the O'Donnell family plot, his death made headlines across the country. His funeral was attended by most of the great drivers and racing entrepreneurs and promoters of the time. In a precedent-setting move, the American Automobile Association's Competition Board awarded the 1924 National Championship posthumously, to Murphy. At the funeral, Fred J. Wagner, Chief Starter for the AAA's Contest Board, said in his eulogy, like every other moral quality is not instinctive, it must be acquired. Jimmy Murphy, as no other, possessed th
A PT boat was a torpedo-armed fast attack vessel used by the United States Navy in World War II. It was small and inexpensive to build, valued for its maneuverability and speed but hampered at the beginning of the war by ineffective torpedoes, limited armament, comparatively fragile construction that limited some of the variants to coastal waters; the PT boat was different from the first generation of torpedo boat, developed at the end of the 19th century and featured a displacement hull form. These first generation torpedo boats rode low in the water, displaced up to 300 tons, had a top speed of 25 to 27 kn. During World War I Italy, the US and UK developed the first high-performance motor torpedo boats and corresponding torpedo tactics, but these projects were all disbanded with the Armistice. World War II PT boats continued to exploit some of the advances in planing hull design borrowed from offshore powerboat racing and were able to grow in size due to advancements in engine technology.
During World War II, PT boats engaged enemy warships, tankers and sampans. As gunboats they could be effective against enemy small craft armored barges used by the Japanese for inter-island transport. Several saw service with the Philippine Navy, where they were named "Q-boats", most after President Manuel L. Quezon. Primary anti-ship armament was four 2,600 pound Mark 8 torpedoes. Launched by 21-inch Mark 18 torpedo tubes, each bore a 466-pound TNT warhead and had a range of 16,000 yards at 36 knots. Two twin M2.50 cal machine guns were mounted for general fire support. Some boats shipped a 20 mm Oerlikon cannon. Propulsion was via a trio of Packard 4M-2500 and 5M-2500 supercharged gasoline-fueled, liquid-cooled marine engines. Nicknamed "the mosquito fleet" – and "devil boats" by the Japanese – the PT boat squadrons were hailed for their daring and earned a durable place in the public imagination that remains strong into the 21st century. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, W. Albert Hickman devised the first procedures and tactics for employing fast maneuverable seaworthy torpedo motorboats against capital ships, presented his proposal to Rear Admiral David W. Taylor, the Chief of the US Navy's Bureau of Construction and Repair.
In September 1914, Hickman completed plans for a 50-foot Sea Sled torpedo boat and submitted these to the Navy in hopes of obtaining a contract. While favorably received, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels rejected the proposal since the US was not at war, but Hickman was advised to submit his plans and proposal to the British Admiralty, done the following month, his plan was promptly rejected by the Admiralty, so Hickman built and launched his own financed 41-foot Sea Sled capable of carrying a single 18" Whitehead Mark 5 torpedo. In February 1915, this Hickman sea sled demonstrated 35 kn speeds in rough winter seas off Boston to both US and foreign representatives but again, he received no contracts; the Admiralty representative for this sea sled demonstration was Lieutenant G. C. E. Hampden. In the summer of 1915, Lieutenants Hampden and Anson approached John I. Thornycroft & Company about developing a small high speed torpedo boat, this effort led to the Coastal Motor Boat which first went into service in April 1916.
Meanwhile, in August 1915, the General Board of the United States Navy approved the purchase of a single experimental small torpedo boat that could be transportable. This contract for C-250 ended up going to Greenport Basin and Construction Company, of Greenport, NY; when it was delivered and tested in the summer of 1917, it was not deemed a success, so a second boat of the sea sled design was ordered from Hickman in either late 1917 or early 1918. Using his previous design from September 1914 and the previous unsuccessful bid for C-250, the new boat C-378 was completed and tested just in time to be cancelled by the Armistice. With a full loaded weight of 56,000 pounds, C-378 made a top speed of 37 kn with 1400 HP, maintained an average speed of 34.5 kn in a winter northeaster storm with 12 to 14 foot seas, which would still be considered exceptional 100 years later. The Sea Sled would not surface again as a torpedo boat topic until 1939, but would continue to be used by both the Army and Navy as rescue boats and seaplane tenders during the 20s and 30s.
In 1922, the US Navy reconsidered using small internal combustion engine powered torpedo boats. As a result, two types of British Royal Navy Coastal Motor Boats were obtained for testing; the larger boat was used for experiments until 1930. In 1938, the U. S. Navy renewed their investigation into the concept by requesting competitive bids for several different types of motor torpedo boats, but excluded Hickman's Sea Sled; this competition led to eight prototype boats built to compete in two different classes. The first class was for 54-foot boats, the second class was for 70-foot boats; the resulting PT boat designs were the product of a small cadre of respected naval architects and the Navy. On 11 July 1938, invitations to builders and designers were issued with prizes awarded for the winning PT boat designs given out on 30 March 1939. In an important note after winning the design competition for the smaller PT boat, George Crouch wrote that Hickman's Sea Sled design would be far superior "in either rough or smooth water to that of the best possible V-bottom or hard chine design".
Earlier when Sea Sl
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Water speed record
The World Unlimited water speed record is the recognised fastest speed achieved by a water-borne vehicle. The current record is 511 km/h - achieved by Australian Ken Warby in the Spirit of Australia in 1978; the record is one of the sporting world's most hazardous competitions. Two official attempts to beat the 1978 record have resulted in the death of the driver; the record is ratified by the Union Internationale Motonautique. Until 1911 the world water speed records were held by steam-powered, propeller-driven vehicles, 1885, Nathanael Herreshoff's Stiletto: 42.2 km/h, 1893, William B. Cogswell's Feiseen: 50.9 km/h, 1897, Charles Algernon Parsons' Turbinia: 62.9 km/h, 1903, Charles R. Flint's Arrow: 72.5 km/h. In 1911 a 12 m stepped planing hull, Dixie IV, designed by Clinton Crane, became the first gasoline powered vessel to break the water speed record. Beginning in 1908 Alexander Graham Bell and engineer Frederick W. "Casey" Baldwin began experimenting with powered watercraft. In 1919, with Baldwin piloting their HD-4 hydrofoil, a new world water speed record of 114.0 km/h was set on Bras d'Or Lake at Baddeck, Nova Scotia.
In 1920, Garfield Wood set a new water speed record of 120.492 km/h on the Detroit River, using a new boat called Miss America. In the following twelve years, Wood broke the record five times. Increased public interest generated by the speeds achieved by Wood and others led to an official speed record being ratified in 1928; the first person to try a record attempt was George. On 4 September 1928, he drove Miss America VII to 149.40 km/h on the Detroit River. The next year, Gar Wood took the same boat up a waterway Indian Creek, Miami Beach and reached 149.86 km/h. Like the land speed record, the water record was destined to become a scrap for national honour between Britain and the USA. American success in setting records spurred Castrol Oil chairman Lord Wakefield to sponsor a project to bring the water record to Britain. Famed land speed racer and racing driver Sir Henry Segrave was hired to pilot a new boat, Miss England. Although the boat wasn't capable of beating Wood's Miss America, the British team did gain experience, put into an improved boat.
Miss England II was powered by two Rolls-Royce aircraft engines and seemed capable of beating Wood's record. On 13 June 1930 Segrave piloted Miss England II to a new record of 158.94 km/h average speed during two runs on Windermere, in Britain's Lake District. Having set the record, Segrave set off on a third run to try to improve the record further. During the run, the boat struck an object in the water and capsized, with both Segrave and his co-driver receiving fatal injuries. Following Segrave's death, Miss England II was repaired. Kaye Don was chosen as the new driver for 1931. However, during this time, Gar Wood recaptured the record for the U. S. at 164.41 km/h. A month on Lake Garda, Don got the record back with 177.387 km/h. In February, 1932 Wood responded. In response to the continued American challenge, the British team built a new boat, Miss England III; the design was an evolution of the predecessor, with a squared-off stern and twin propellers being the main improvements. Don took the new boat to Loch Lomond, Scotland, on 18 July 1932, improved the record first to 188.985 km/h to 192.816 km/h on a second run.
Determined to have the last word over his great rival, Gar Wood built another new Miss America. Miss America X was 12 metres long. On 20 September 1932 Wood broke the 200 km/h barrier, it would prove the end of an era. Don declined to attempt any further records, Miss England III went to the National Maritime Museum in London, where it remains on display. Wood opted to scale down his involvement in racing and returned to running his businesses. Somewhat both record-breakers lived into their 90s. Wood died in 1971, Don in 1985. Wood's last record would be one of the final records for a single-keel boat. In June 1937 Malcolm Campbell, the world-famous land speed record breaker, drove Blue Bird K3 to a new record of 203.31 km/h at Lake Maggiore. Compared to the massive Miss America X, K3 was a much more compact craft, it had one engine to X's four. Despite his success, Campbell was unsatisfied by the small increase in speed, he commissioned a new Blue Bird to be built. Blue Bird K4 was a ‘three pointer’ hydroplane.
Unlike conventional powerboats, which have a single keel, with an indent, or ‘step’, cut from the bottom to reduce drag, a hydroplane has a concave base with two sponsons fitted to the front, a third point at the rear of the hull. When the boat increases in speed, most of the hull lifts out of the water and runs on the three contact points; the positive effect is a reduction in drag. If the hydroplane's angle of attack is upset at speed, the craft can somersault into the air, or nose-dive into the water. Campbell's new boat was a success. In 1939, on the eve of the Second World War, he took it to Coniston Water and increased his record by 18 km/h, to 228.11 km/h. The return of peace in 1945 brought with it a new form of power for the record breaker – the jet engine. Campbell renovated Blue Bird K4 with a De Havilland Goblin jet engine; the result was a curious-looking craft
Four Wheel Drive
The Four Wheel Drive Auto Company, more known as Four Wheel Drive, was a pioneering American company that developed and produced all-wheel drive vehicles. It was founded in 1909 in Clintonville, Wisconsin, as the Badger Four-Wheel Drive Auto Company by Otto Zachow and William Besserdich; the first production facility was built in 1911 and was designed by architect Wallace W. DeLong of Appleton Wisconsin. Zachow and Besserdich developed and built the first successful four-wheel drive car, the "Battleship", in 1908, its success led to the founding of the company. "Badger" was dropped from the name in 1910. Besserdich and Zachow's patented full time four wheel drive system combined a lockable center differential with double-Y constant velocity universal joints for steering. In modern terms the Battleship would be considered All Wheel Drive as all FWD products featured full-time four wheel drive with a lockable center differential; the success of the four-wheel drive in early military tests prompted the company to switch from cars to trucks.
In 1916 the U. S. Army ordered 147 Model B three ton trucks for the Pancho Villa Expedition; the U. S. Army ordered 15,000 FWD Model B three ton trucks as the "Truck, 3 ton, Model 1917" during the World War I with over 14,000 delivered. In two world wars, U. S. and allied armies depended on such four-wheel drive vehicles. Numerous FWD model B trucks, both military and civilian, survive in working condition. S. Army truck in working condition is on display at the Fort MacArthur Military Museum, San Pedro, Los Angeles, California. Early FWD vehicles were made with a track width of 4 feet 8 1⁄2 inches so they could be used on a standard gauge railway line by changing the wheels; the FWD Model B was produced under license by four additional manufacturers during World War I: Peerless Motor Company, Ohio. A Canadian subsidiary was set up in conjunction with Dominion Truck of Kitchener, Ontario by 1919. A British subsidiary was set up at Slough in 1921. In 1926, the British FWD known as the Quad, was produced with a larger 70 bhp engine.
A relationship with premier race car constructor Harry Miller resulted in the Four Wheel Drive Miller that competed at the Indianapolis 500 in 1931 and later. This car was intended to demonstrate that the advantages FWD's lockable center differential were not limited to off-road driving. One example survives and has competed in premier vintage race car meets such as the Goodwood Festival of Speed. "The Last Great Miller" by Griffith Borgeson gives a complete history of this landmark car. In 1932, AEC took a controlling interest in the British company and began to use more standard AEC components in the Slough-built vehicles. To distinguish these from imported U. S. FWD vehicles, they were marketed under the name Hardy. Production ceased about 1936, but AEC exploited its experience with all-wheel drive in its Second World War Matador and Marshall vehicles. In 1958, the company's name was changed to FWD Corporation. In 1963, FWD acquired Seagrave Fire Apparatus who moved from their old location in Columbus, Ohio, to their current location at FWD in Clintonville, Wisconsin.
Many tower ladders in the 1990s using Seagrave chassis were branded as FWD. They used Baker Aerialscopes for the boom which FWD had acquired over the years along with Almonte Fire Trucks. Randolph Lenz, Chairman of FWD's parent company, Corsta Corp. became embroiled in a Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation suit and in 2003 all assets of FWD. FWD Corporation, Baker Aerialscope, Almonte Fire Trucks were sold to an investment group headed by former American LaFrance executive James Hebe. Today, the Seagrave Fire Apparatus group is a flagship company of ELB Capital Management. G-numbers, Luella Bates. First licensed woman truck driver employed by the Four Wheel Drive Auto Co. 1918-1922. Http://www.eliason-snowmobile.com/ Early product https://archive.org/details/americasmunitio01deptgoog Early vehicles http://www.landships.freeservers.com/new_pages/fwd_truck_info.htm Liberty truck http://www.mace-b.com/38TMW/Missiles/MM-1.htm Teracruzer
Ole Evinrude, born Ole Andreassen Aaslundeie was a Norwegian-American entrepreneur, known for the invention of the first outboard motor with practical commercial application. Ole Evinrude was born in Hunndalen in Oppland, Norway; the Evinrude surname, which he adopted in the United States, is an oeconym from the Evenrud farm in Vestre Toten, where his mother was born. In October 1881, his father emigrated to America, followed the next year by Evinrude, his mother and two siblings. Three additional siblings were born in America; the family settled on a farm in Ripley Lake near Wisconsin. At age sixteen, Evinrude went to Madison, where he worked in machinery stores and studied engineering on his own, he became a machinist while working at various machine tool firms in Milwaukee and Chicago. In 1900, Evinrude co-founded the custom engine firm Evinrude. In 1907, he invented the first practical and reliable outboard motor, built of steel and brass, had a crank on the flywheel to start the two-cycle engine.
In 1907 he had built his first gasoline-powered outboard motor, two years Evinrude Motor Company was founded in Milwaukee. The simplest type of engine the company produced was a 2-stroke internal combustion engine, powered by a mixture of gasoline and oil. Evinrude reported that his invention was inspired by rowing a boat on Okauchee Lake, a small lake outside Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on a hot day to get ice cream for his girlfriend, Bess. By 1912, the firm employed 300 workers. Evinrude let two motorcycle-mad teens tinker in his Milwaukee-based machine shop. Ole Evinrude formed Evinrude Outboard Motors, which he sold in 1913 in order to look after his sick wife. In 1919, Evinrude invented a lighter two-cylinder motor. Having sold his part in Clemick & Evinrude, he founded the Elto Outboard Motor Company. Although Elto faced stiff competition from other companies, such as the Johnson Motor Company of South Bend, Evinrude's company survived through acquisitions forming the Outboard Marine Corporation.
His wife Bess died in 1933, at only 48 years old, Ole Evinrude died the following year, 57 years old. They were both buried at Pinelawn Cemetery in Wisconsin. After Evinrude died, his son, Ralph Evinrude, took over day-to-day management of the company rising to chairman of the board; the company is now called Evinrude Outboard Motors, is owned by Bombardier Recreational Products. Bjork, Kenneth. "Ole Evinrude and the Outboard Motor". Norwegian-American Studies and Records. 12: 167–177. Carstensen, Fred. "Evinrude, Ole," American National Biography Online, Feb. 2000. Jacobson, Bob. Ole Evinrude and His Outboard Motor. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 2009. Lambrecht, Ralph E.. "A Wisconsin Legend: Ole Evinrude and his Outboard Motor," Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 16–27. Brief biography Ole Evinrude at Find a Grave