Janet Ann Napolitano is an American politician and university administrator who served as the 21st Governor of Arizona from 2003 to 2009 and the United States Secretary of Homeland Security from 2009 to 2013, under President Barack Obama. She has been president of the University of California system since September 2013, shortly after she resigned as Secretary of Homeland Security. Prior to her election as governor, she served as Attorney General of Arizona from 1999 to 2003, she was the 23rd person to serve in that office. Napolitano is the 1977 Truman Scholar from New Mexico, she has been the first woman to serve in several offices, including Attorney General of Arizona, Secretary of Homeland Security, president of the University of California. Forbes ranked her as the world's ninth most powerful woman in 2012. In 2008, she was cited by The New York Times to be among the women most to become the first female President of the United States; some political commentators had suggested a possible candidacy in the 2016 election.
She was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2018. Janet Napolitano was born on November 29, 1957, in New York City, the daughter of Jane Marie and Leonard Michael Napolitano, the dean of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, her father was of Italian descent and her mother had German and Austrian ancestry. Napolitano is a Methodist, she is the oldest of three children. She was raised in Pittsburgh and Albuquerque, New Mexico, where she graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque in 1975 and was voted Most Likely to Succeed. Napolitano attended Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, where she graduated Phi Beta Kappa, won a Truman Scholarship, studied political science, she was named valedictorian of her graduating class. After graduation, she went to work as an analyst for the United States Senate Committee on the Budget. In 1978, she studied for a term at the London School of Economics as part of Santa Clara's exchange programme through IES Abroad, she received her Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia School of Law.
After law school she served as a law clerk for Judge Mary M. Schroeder of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, joined Schroeder's former firm and Roca located in Phoenix. Napolitano was named a partner of the firm in 1989. In 1991, while a partner at Lewis and Roca LLP, Napolitano served as an attorney for Anita Hill. Anita Hill testified in the U. S. Senate that U. S. Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas had sexually harassed her ten years earlier when she was his subordinate at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In 1993, Napolitano was appointed by President Bill Clinton as United States Attorney for the District of Arizona; as U. S. Attorney, she was involved in the investigation of Michael Fortier of Kingman, Arizona, in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing, she ran for and won the position of Arizona Attorney General in 1998. During her tenure as attorney general, she focused on consumer protection issues and improving general law enforcement. While still serving as attorney general, she spoke at the 2000 Democratic National Convention just three weeks after having a mastectomy.
Napolitano recalls. "Work and family helped me focus on other things while I battled the cancer," says Napolitano. "I am grateful for all the support I had from family and Arizonans." In 2002, Napolitano narrowly won the gubernatorial election with 46 percent of the vote, succeeding Republican Jane Dee Hull and defeating her Republican opponent, former congressman Matt Salmon, who received 45 percent of the vote. She was Arizona's third female governor and the first woman in the United States to be elected governor to succeed another elected female governor, she was the first Democrat popularly elected to the governorship since Bruce Babbitt left office in 1987, the first female governor of Arizona to be elected outright. She spoke at the 2004 Democratic Convention, after some considered her to be a possible running mate for presidential candidate Sen. John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election but Kerry selected Sen. John Edwards instead. In November 2005, Time magazine named her one of the five best governors in the U.
S. As Governor, Napolitano set records for total number of vetoes issued. In 2005, she set a single session record of 58 vetoes, breaking Jane Dee Hull's 2001 record of 28; this was followed in June 2006, less than four years into her term, when she issued her 115th veto and set the all-time record for vetoes by an Arizona governor. The previous record of 114 vetoes was set by Bruce Babbitt during his nine years in office. By the time she left office, the governor had issued 180 vetoes. Napolitano steered to passage the creation of voluntary full day kindergarten, where Arizona had only funded half-day programs. Continuing her focus on education, Napolitano created a literacy program and acquired funding for an increase in teacher salaries, she spearheaded significant investments in higher education, including funding a Phoenix campus for the University of Arizona College of Medicine, while building the state’s rainy day fund to more than $650 million, which at the time was the most ever. Napolitano played a leading role in securing the Super Bowl in Glendale, AZ, expanding the number of teams in the Cactus League and investing in tourism and economic development initiatives.
She was one of the first Governors to call for the National Guard at the border after declaring a state emergency related to the federal government’s failure to secure the border. In November 2006
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright is an American politician and diplomat. She is the first female United States Secretary of State in U. S. history, having served from 1997 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton. Along with her family, Albright immigrated to the United States in 1948 from Czechoslovakia, her father, diplomat Josef Korbel, settled the family in Denver, she became a U. S. citizen in 1957. Albright graduated from Wellesley College in 1959 and earned a PhD from Columbia University in 1975, writing her thesis on the Prague Spring, she worked as an aide to Senator Edmund Muskie before taking a position under Zbigniew Brzezinski on the National Security Council. She served in that position until the end of President Jimmy Carter's singular term in 1981. After leaving the National Security Council, Albright joined the academic faculty of Georgetown University and advised Democratic candidates regarding foreign policy. After Clinton's victory in the 1992 presidential election, she helped assemble his National Security Council.
In 1993, Clinton appointed her to the position of U. S. Ambassador to the United Nations, she held that position until 1997, when she succeeded Warren Christopher as Secretary of State, serving until Clinton left office in 2001. Albright has served as chair of the Albright Stonebridge Group since 2009, is the Michael and Virginia Mortara Endowed Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service. In May 2012, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U. S. President Barack Obama. Secretary Albright serves as a director on the board of the Council on Foreign Relations. Born Marie Jana Korbelová in 1937 in the Smíchov district of Prague, she is the daughter of Anna and Josef Korbel, a Czech diplomat. At the time of her birth, Czechoslovakia had been independent for less than 20 years, having gained independence from the Austria-Hungary empire after World War I, her father was a supporter of the early Czech democrats, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Beneš.
Marie Jana had a younger brother John. When Marie Jana was born, her father was serving as a press-attaché at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Belgrade; the signing of the Munich Agreement in September 1938 and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia by Adolf Hitler's troops forced the family into exile because of their links with Beneš. In 1941, Josef and Anna converted from Judaism to Catholicism. Marie Jana and her siblings were raised in the Roman Catholic faith. In 1997, Albright said her parents never told her or her two siblings about their Jewish ancestry and heritage; the family moved to Britain where her father worked for Beneš's Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Her family first lived on Kensington Park Road in Notting Hill, but moved to Beaconsfield Walton-on-Thames, on the outskirts of London, they kept a large metal table in the house, intended to shelter the family from the recurring threat of Nazi air raids. While in England, Marie Jana was one of the children shown in a documentary film designed to promote sympathy for all war refugees in London.
After the defeat of the Nazis in the European Theatre of World War II and the collapse of Nazi Germany and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the Korbel family returned to Prague. They were given a luxurious apartment in the Hradčany district.. Korbel was appointed as Czechoslovakian Ambassador to Yugoslavia, the family moved to Belgrade. Yugoslavia was governed by the Communist Party, Korbel was concerned his daughter would be exposed to Marxism in a Yugoslav school, she was taught by a governess and sent to the Prealpina Institut pour Jeunes Filles finishing school in Chexbres, on Lake Geneva in Switzerland. She learned to speak French while in Switzerland and changed her name from "Marie Jana" to "Madeleine"; the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took over the government in 1948, with support from the Soviet Union. As an opponent of communism, Korbel was forced to resign from his position, he obtained a position on a United Nations delegation to Kashmir. He sent his family to the United States, by way of London, to wait for him when he arrived to deliver his report to the U.
N. Headquarters located in Lake Success, New York. Albright's family emigrated from the United Kingdom on the SS America, departing Southampton on November 5, 1948, arriving at Ellis Island in New York Harbor on November 11, 1948; the family settled in Great Neck on Long Island. Korbel applied for political asylum, arguing that as an opponent of Communism, he was under threat in Prague. With the help of Philip Moseley, a professor of Russian at Columbia University in New York City, Korbel obtained a position on the staff of the political science department at the University of Denver in Colorado, he became dean of the university's school of international relations and taught future U. S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. In 2008 the school was named as the Josef Korbel School of International Studies in his honor. Albright spent her teen years in Denver, in 1955 graduated from the Kent Denver School in Cherry Hills Village, a suburb of Denver, she was its first president. She attended Wellesley College, in Wellesley, Massachusetts, on a full scholarship, majoring in political science, graduated in 1959.
The topic of her senior thesis was former Czechoslovaki
Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio is an American politician, serving as the 109th Mayor of New York City. Prior to his first election to the position of Mayor, he served as New York City's public advocate from 2010 to 2013. Born in Manhattan, he graduated from New York University and Columbia University before a brief stint as a campaign manager for Charles Rangel and Hillary Clinton, he started his career as an elected official by serving on the New York City Council representing the 39th district in Brooklyn from 2002 to 2009. His tenure as public advocate saw a reformation of various educational and campaign finance policies, he was elected Mayor of New York City in the landslide 2013 election and retained his office in 2017, another landslide election. He initiated new de-escalation training for officers, reduced prosecutions for cannabis possession, implemented the usage of police body cameras, ended the post-9/11 surveillance program of Muslim residents, he passed free universal Pre-K in the city, although his effort to start a millionaire tax was rejected by New York governor Andrew Cuomo.
De Blasio attempted to install an unprecedented rent-freeze citywide for rent-stabilized apartments in 2015. A self-identified populist, de Blasio has called attention to what he refers to as a stark level of economic inequality in New York City, what he described as a "tale of two cities" during his first campaign, he has publicly supported a liberal and progressive discourse on the city's economy, urban planning, public education, police relations, privatization. De Blasio has maintained mixed approval rates throughout his tenure. Bill de Blasio was born on May 1961 in Manhattan's Doctors Hospital in New York City, he was born to Warren Wilhelm as their third son. De Blasio has two brothers and Donald, thirteen and eight years his senior, respectively, his father was of German ancestry, his mother was of Italian heritage. His maternal grandfather, was from the city of Sant'Agata de' Goti and his grandmother, was from Grassano, Matera, his paternal uncle, Donald George Wilhelm Jr. worked for the Central Intelligence Agency in Iran and secretly wrote Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's memoir.
Maria de Blasio attended Smith College, served in the Office of War Information during World War II and authored The Other Italy: The Italian Resistance in World War II. His father, a Yale University graduate, worked as a contributing editor at Time Magazine and served in World War II, he enlisted in the U. S. Army in was sent to the Pacific War. During the 82-day Battle of Okinawa, a grenade detonated below his left foot leaving him with an avulsion fracture. After receiving a Purple Heart, he married Maria in 1945, became a budget analyst for the federal government. During the 1950s–-at the height of the Red Scare–-both Maria and Warren were accused of having a "sympathetic interest in Communism". In 1966, the family moved to Cambridge, where he began kindergarten. Although he was given the name Warren Wilhelm Jr at birth by his parents, he was called "Bill" or "Billy" growing up and in his personal life, his father became a heavy drinker. His parents divorced. Recalling his early childhood, de Blasio said "my mother and father broke up early on in the time I came along, I was brought up by my mother's family—that's the bottom line—the de Blasio family."
His father committed suicide while suffering from incurable lung cancer when he was 18. De Blasio graduated from Cambridge Rindge and Latin School in 1979 where he served in student government and was affectionately known to peers as "Senator Provolone"; when he was 22, he adopted his mother's surname because his father was "largely absent," and he wanted to embrace his Italian heritage. He hyphenated it to Warren de Blasio-Wilhelm in 1983, formally adopted the name Bill de Blasio in December 2001, he received a Bachelor of Arts from New York University, majoring in metropolitan studies, a program in urban studies, received a Master of International Affairs from Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs. He is a 1981 Harry S. Truman Scholar, his first job was part of the Urban Fellows Program for the New York City Department of Juvenile Justice in 1984. In 1987, shortly after completing graduate school at Columbia, de Blasio was hired to work as a political organizer by the Quixote Center in Maryland.
In 1988, he traveled with the Quixote Center to Nicaragua for 10 days to help distribute food and medicine during the Nicaraguan Revolution. De Blasio was an ardent supporter of the ruling socialist government, the Sandinista National Liberation Front, at that time opposed by the Reagan administration. After returning from Nicaragua, de Blasio moved to New York City, where he worked for a nonprofit organization focused on improving health care in Central America, he continued to support the Sandinistas in his spare time, joining a group called the Nicaragua Solidarity Network of Greater New York, which held meetings and fundraisers for the Sandinista political party. De Blasio's introduction to city politics came in 1989, when he worked as a volunteer coordinator for David Dinkins' mayoral campaign. Following the campaign, de Blasio was an aide in City Hall. In 1990, he described himself as an advocate for democratic socialism when asked about his goals for society. U. S. Representative Charles Rangel tapped de Blasio to be his campaign manager for his successful 1994 re-election bid.
In 1997, he was appointed to serve as the regional director for th
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was the 33rd president of the United States from 1945 to 1953, succeeding upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt after serving as vice president, he implemented the Marshall Plan to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, established the Truman Doctrine and NATO. Truman was elected to the United States Senate in 1934 and gained national prominence as chairman of the Truman Committee aimed at waste and inefficiency in wartime contracts. Soon after succeeding to the presidency he authorized the first and only use of nuclear weapons in war. Truman's administration renounced isolationism, he rallied his New Deal coalition during the 1948 presidential election and won a surprise victory that secured his own presidential term. Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948; when Communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he gained United Nations approval for the large policy action known as the Korean War. It saved South Korea but the Chinese intervened, driving back the UN/US forces and preventing a rollback of Communism in North Korea.
On domestic issues, bills endorsed by Truman faced opposition from a conservative Congress, but his administration guided the U. S. economy through the post-war economic challenges. In 1948 he submitted the first comprehensive civil rights legislation and issued Executive Orders to start racial integration in the military and federal agencies. Allegations of corruption in the Truman administration became a central campaign issue in the 1952 presidential election and accounted for Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower's electoral victory against Democrat Adlai Stevenson II. Truman's financially difficult retirement was marked by the founding of his presidential library and the publication of his memoirs; when he left office, Truman's presidency was criticized, but scholars rehabilitated his image in the 1960s and he is ranked as one of the best presidents. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, on May 8, 1884, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman, his namesake was Harrison "Harry" Young.
His middle initial "S" honors Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. A brother, John Vivian, was born soon followed by sister Mary Jane. Truman's ancestry is English and less Scotch-Irish, German or French. John Truman was a livestock dealer; the family lived in Lamar until Harry was ten months old, when they moved to a farm near Harrisonville, Missouri. The family next moved to Belton, in 1887 to his grandparents' 600-acre farm in Grandview; when Truman was six, his parents moved to Independence, so he could attend the Presbyterian Church Sunday School. He did not attend a traditional school. While living in Independence, he served as a Shabbos goy for Jewish neighbors, doing tasks for them on Shabbat that their religion prevented them from doing on that day. Truman was interested in music and history, all encouraged by his mother, with whom he was close; as president, he solicited political as well as personal advice from her. He rose at five every morning to practice the piano, which he studied more than twice a week until he was fifteen.
Truman worked as a page at the 1900 Democratic National Convention in Kansas City. After graduating from Independence High School in 1901, Truman enrolled in Spalding's Commercial College, a Kansas City business school, he made use of his business college experience to obtain a job as a timekeeper on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, sleeping in hobo camps near the rail lines. He took on a series of clerical jobs, was employed in the mail room of The Kansas City Star. Truman and his brother Vivian worked as clerks at the National Bank of Commerce in Kansas City, he returned to the Grandview farm in 1906, where he lived until entering the army in 1917 after the beginning of the Great War. During this period, he courted Bess Wallace. Truman said he intended to propose again, but he wanted to have a better income than that earned by a farmer. To that end, during his years on the farm and after World War I, he became active in several business ventures, including a lead and zinc mine near Commerce, Oklahoma, a company that bought land and leased the oil drilling rights to prospectors, speculation in Kansas City real estate.
Truman derived some income from these enterprises, but none proved successful in the long term. Truman is the only president since William McKinley not to earn a college degree. In addition to having attended business college, from 1923 to 1925 he took night courses toward an LL. B. at the Kansas City Law dropped out after losing reelection as county judge. He was informed by attorneys in the Kansas City area that his education and experience were sufficient to receive a license to practice law. However, he did not pursue it. While serving as president in 1947, Truman applied for a license to practice law. A friend, an attorney began working out the arrangements, informed Truman that his application had to be notarized. By the time Truman received this information he had changed his mind, so he never sought notarization. After rediscovery of Truman's application, in 1996 the Missour
Arne Starkey Duncan was the United States Secretary of Education from 2009 through December 2015. While his tenure as Secretary was marked by varying degrees of opposition from both social conservatives and teachers unions, he enjoyed strong support from the US president who appointed him, Barack Obama. Conservatives and some parents resisted Duncan's push for all U. S. states to adopt the Common Core Standards to determine what students had learned, most US teachers unions disliked his emphasis on the use of data from student tests to evaluate teachers and schools. Despite antagonism to the changes Duncan had introduced, Obama praised his work at the Department of Education by saying, "Arne has done more to bring our educational system – sometimes kicking and screaming – into the 21st century than anybody else."Duncan served as CEO of the Chicago Public Schools from 2001 to 2009. He is a senior fellow at the University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy and a board member for Communities In Schools and Community X. Duncan was raised in Hyde Park, a Chicago neighborhood encompassing the University of Chicago.
He is the son of Starkey Davis Duncan Jr.. His father was a psychology professor at the university and his mother runs the Sue Duncan Children's Center, an after-school program serving African-American youth in the nearby Kenwood neighborhood. Duncan attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools and Harvard College, where he played on the basketball team and graduated magna cum laude in 1987 with a bachelor's degree in sociology, his senior thesis, for which he took a year's leave to do research in the Kenwood neighborhood, was entitled "The values and opportunities of the urban underclass". After graduating, Duncan played professional basketball for several years until 1991. In 1992, childhood friend and investment banker John W. Rogers, Jr. appointed Duncan director of the Ariel Education Initiative, a program mentoring children at one of the city's worst-performing elementary schools and assisting them as they proceeded further in the education system. After the school closed in 1996, Duncan and Rogers were instrumental in re-opening it as a charter school, Ariel Community Academy.
In 1999, Duncan was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff for former Chicago Public Schools CEO Paul Vallas. Mayor Richard M. Daley appointed Duncan to serve as Chief Executive Officer of the Chicago Public Schools on June 26, 2001. Opinions vary on Duncan's success as CEO. Duncan was appointed U. S. Secretary of Education by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the Senate on January 20, 2009. One of Duncan's initiatives as secretary has been a $4 billion Race to the Top competition, it asks states to vie for federal education dollars by submitting proposals that include reforms such as expanding charter schools and judging teachers on how well their students do on standardized tests. Illinois Senator Dick Durbin condemned the Bush-Kennedy charter schools for Washington, D. C. and Duncan and President Obama got. Speaker of the House Boehner got. In March 2011, Duncan said 82 percent of the nation's public schools could be failing by the following year under the standards of the No Child Left Behind law.
The projection amounted to a startling spike from previous data, which showed that 37 percent of schools were on track to miss targets set by the law. "Four out of five schools in America would not meet their goals under by next year", Duncan said in his statement. On July 4, 2014, the National Education Association, the largest teacher's union in the United States, passed a resolution of "no confidence" in Duncan's leadership of the Department of Education and asked for his resignation. On July 13, 2014, the American Federation of Teachers approved a resolution calling for Education Secretary Arne Duncan to resign if he does not improve under a plan to be implemented by President Barack Obama; the "improvement plan" would require that Secretary Duncan enact the equity and funding recommendations of the Equity Commission's "Each and Every Child" report. On October 2, 2015, Duncan announced he would be stepping down at the close of 2015, to be succeeded by John King Jr; the media stated his tenure had been marked by a "willingness to plunge head-on into the heated debate about the government's role in education.".
In March 2016, Duncan announced he would join the Palo Alto-based education group Emerson Collective as a managing partner. His 2018 book, How Schools Work: An Inside Account of Failure and Success From One of the Nation’s Longest-Serving Secretaries of Education, details his work pushing forward the Common Core standard and discusses examples of students falling far below the education level needed to pursue college that instigated this policy push. While in Australia, Duncan met Karen Leanne Duncan, a native of Tasmania, their children are Ryan. While at Harvard, Duncan co-captained the varsity basketball team and was named a first team Academic All-American. From 1987 to 1991, Duncan played professional basketball in Australia, with teams including Melbourne's Eastside Spectres, of Australia's National Basketball League. Duncan participated in the 2012