The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. Like the more common soprano B♭ clarinet, it is pitched in B♭, but it plays notes an octave below the soprano B♭ clarinet. Bass clarinets in other keys, notably C and A exist, but are rare. Bass clarinets perform in orchestras, wind ensembles/concert bands in marching bands, play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular. Someone who plays a bass clarinet is called a bass clarinetist. Most modern bass clarinets are straight-bodied, with a small upturned silver-colored metal bell and curved metal neck. Early examples varied in some having a doubled body making them look similar to bassoons; the bass clarinet is heavy and is supported either with a neck strap or an adjustable peg attached to its body. While Adolphe Sax imitated its upturned metal bell in his design of the larger saxophones, the two instruments are fundamentally different. Bass clarinet bodies are most made of grenadilla or plastic resin, while saxophones are made of metal.
More all clarinets have a bore, the same diameter along the body. This cylindrical bore differs from the saxophone's conical one and gives the clarinet its characteristic tone, causing it to overblow at the twelfth compared with the saxophone's octave. A majority of modern bass clarinets, like other clarinets in the family, have the Boehm system of keys and fingering. However, bass clarinets are manufactured in Germany with the Oehler system of keywork, most known as the'German" system in the US, because it is used in Germany and Austria, as well as Eastern Europe and Turkey. Most modern Boehm system bass clarinets have an "extension" key allowing them to play to the E♭; this key was added to allow easy transposition of parts for the rare bass clarinet pitched in A, but it now finds significant use in concert band and other literature. A significant difference between soprano and bass clarinet key work is a key pad played by the left-hand index finger with a vent that may be uncovered for certain high notes.
This allows a form of "half-hole" fingering that allows notes in higher registers to be played on the instrument. In addition, older bass clarinets have two register keys, one for middle D♯ and below, the other for middle E and higher. Newer models only have one, mechanically performing the role of two separate register keys. Many professional and advanced bass clarinetists own instruments with extensions down to a C (sounding B♭ identical to the bassoon's lowest B♭, two octaves below written middle C. At concert pitch this note is the B♭ below the second ledger line below the bass staff or B♭1 in scientific pitch notation. Overall, the instrument sounds an octave lower than the B♭ soprano clarinet; as with all wind instruments, the upper limit of the range depends on the quality of the instrument and skill of the clarinetist. According to Aber and Lerstad, who give fingerings up to written C7, the highest note encountered in modern solo literature is the E below that; this gives the bass clarinet a usable range of up to four octaves, quite close to the range of the bassoon.
The bass clarinet has been used in scoring for orchestra and concert band since the mid-19th century, becoming more common during the middle and latter part of the 20th century. A bass clarinet is not always called for in orchestra music, but is always called for in concert band music. In recent years, the bass clarinet has seen a growing repertoire of solo literature including compositions for the instrument alone, or accompanied by piano, orchestra, or other ensemble, it is used in clarinet choirs, marching bands, in film scoring, has played a minor, but persistent, role in jazz. The bass clarinet has an appealing, earthy tone quite distinct from other instruments in its range, drawing on and enhancing the qualities of the lower range of the soprano and alto instrument; the earliest solo passages for bass clarinet—indeed, among the earliest parts for the instrument—occur in Mercadante's 1834 opera Emma d'Antiochia, in which a lengthy solo introduces Emma's scene in Act 2. Two years Giacomo Meyerbeer wrote an important solo for bass clarinet in Act 4 of his opera Les Huguenots.
French composer Hector Berlioz was one of the first of the Romantics to use the bass clarinet in his large-scale works such as the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Op. 15, the Te Deum, Op. 22, the opera Les Troyens, Op. 29. French composers to use the instrument included Maurice Ravel, who wrote virtuosic parts for the bass clarinet in his ballet Daphnis et Chloé, La valse, his orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition; the operas of Richard Wagner make extensive use of the bass clarinet, beginning with Tannhäuser. He incorporated the instrument into the wind section as both a solo and supporting instrument. Wagner pioneered in exploiting the instrument's dark, somber tone to
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Yamaha Corporation is a Japanese multinational corporation and conglomerate with a wide range of products and services, predominantly musical instruments and power sports equipment. It is the world's largest piano manufacturing company; the former motorcycle division became independent from the main company in 1955, forming Yamaha Motor Co. Ltd, although Yamaha Corporation is still the largest shareholder. Nippon Gakki Co. Ltd. was established in 1887 as a piano and reed organ manufacturer by Torakusu Yamaha in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka prefecture and was incorporated on October 12, 1897. The company's origins as a musical instrument manufacturer are still reflected today in the group's logo—a trio of interlocking tuning forks. After World War II, company president Genichi Kawakami repurposed the remains of the company's war-time production machinery and the company's expertise in metallurgical technologies to the manufacture of motorcycles; the YA-1, of which 125 were built in the first year of production, was named in honour of the founder.
It was a 125cc, single cylinder, two-stroke, street bike patterned after the German DKW RT125. In 1955, the success of the YA-1 resulted in the founding of Yamaha Motor Co. Ltd. splitting the motorcycle division from the company. In 1954 the Yamaha Music School was founded. Yamaha has grown to become the world's largest manufacturer of musical instruments, as well as a leading manufacturer of semiconductors, audio/visual, computer related products, sporting goods, home appliances, specialty metals and industrial robots. In 1988, Yamaha shipped the world's first CD recorder. Yamaha purchased Sequential Circuits in 1988, it bought a majority stake of competitor Korg in 1987, bought out by Korg in 1993. In the late 1990s, Yamaha released a series of portable battery operated keyboards under the PSS and the PSR range of keyboards; the Yamaha PSS-14 and PSS-15 keyboards were upgrades to the Yamaha PSS-7 and were notable for their short demo songs, short selectable phrases, funny sound effects and distortion and crackly sounds progressing on many volume levels when battery power is low.
In 2002, Yamaha closed down its archery product business, started in 1959. Six archers in five different Olympic Games won gold medals using their products, it acquired German audio software manufacturers from Pinnacle Systems. In July, 2007, Yamaha bought out the minority shareholding of the Kemble family in Yamaha-Kemble Music Ltd, Yamaha's UK import and musical instrument and professional audio equipment sales arm, the company being renamed Yamaha Music U. K. Ltd in autumn 2007. Kemble & Co. Ltd, the UK piano sales & manufacturing arm was unaffected. On December 20, 2007, Yamaha made an agreement with the Austrian Bank BAWAG P. S. K. Group BAWAG to purchase all the shares of Bösendorfer, intended to take place in early 2008. Yamaha intends to continue manufacturing at the Bösendorfer facilities in Austria; the acquisition of Bösendorfer was announced after the NAMM Show in Los Angeles, on January 28, 2008. As of February 1, 2008, Bösendorfer Klavierfabrik GmbH operates as a subsidiary of Yamaha Corp.
Yamaha Corporation is widely known for their music teaching programme that began in the 1950s. Yamaha electronics have proven to be successful and respected products. For example, the Yamaha YPG-625 was awarded "Keyboard of the Year" and "Product of the Year" in 2007 from The Music and Sound Retailer magazine. Other noteworthy Yamaha electronics include the SHS-10 Keytar, a consumer-priced keytar which offered MIDI output features found on much more expensive keyboards. Other companies in the Yamaha group include: Bösendorfer Klavierfabrik GmbH, Austria. Yamaha Motor Company Yamaha Fine Technologies Co. Ltd. Yamaha Golf Cart Company Yamaha Livingtec Corporation Yamaha Metanix Corporation Yamaha Music Communications Co. Ltd. Yamaha Pro Audio Kandō is a Japanese word used by Yamaha Corporation to describe their corporate mission. Kandō in translation describes the sensation of profound excitement and gratification derived from experiencing supreme quality and performance; some reasonable English synonyms are "emotionally touching" or "emotionally moving".
The Yamaha Music Foundation is an organization established in 1966 by the authority of the Japanese Ministry of Education for the purpose of promoting music education and music popularization. It continued a program of music classes begun by Yamaha Corporation in 1954. Yamaha expanded into product groups; the first venture into each major category is listed below. 1897 Keyboard instruments 1903 Furniture 1914 Harmonicas 1922 Audio equipment 1942 Guitars 1955 Yamaha Motor Company 1959 Sporting goods 1959 Music schools 1961 Metal alloys 1965 Band instruments 1967 Drums 1971 Semiconductors 1984 Industrial robots 2001 Yamaha Entertainment Group 2010 Applications Yamaha announced the singing synthesizer Vocaloid for the first time at the German fair Musikmesse on March 5–9, 2003. Yamaha began to get involved with the sale and production of Vocaloid applications themselves with Lily being the first, their involvement continued
The A-flat clarinet is a member of the clarinet family and sounding a perfect fourth higher than the E♭ clarinet. The A♭ is rare, but less common, obsolete instruments in high C, B♭, A♮ are listed by Shackleton; some writers call the A♭ and these other instruments octave clarinets, sopranino clarinets, or piccolo clarinets. The boundary between the octave and soprano clarinets is not well-defined, the rare instruments in G and F might be considered as either. Shackleton, along with many early twentieth-century composers, uses the term "piccolo clarinet" to refer to the E♭ and D clarinets as well; this designation is less common today, with the E♭ and D instruments more designated soprano clarinets. The term "piccolo clarinet" is used by some recent music software for the A♭ clarinet; the A♭ clarinet is pitched a minor seventh higher than the B♭ clarinet. Its lowest note, E, sounds as the same as many concert flutes. Clarinets pitched in A♭ appeared in European wind bands in Spain and Italy, at least through the middle of the 20th century, are called for in the stage-band parts for several operas by Verdi.
Cecil Forsyth associated the high instruments with Austria saying, "Clarinets in F, in A♭ are used abroad. The latter instrument is employed in the Austrian military bands." A famous example of extensive use of a high clarinet in a Viennese small ensemble was the Schrammel quartet, consisting of two violins, a bass guitar, G clarinet, played by Georg Dänzer, during the 1880s. The A♭ clarinet is not uncommon in clarinet choir arrangements—for instance, those of Lucien Cailliet, including Mozart's Marriage of Figaro overture—though the instrument is optional or cued in other voices. There are parts for A♭ clarinet in Béla Bartók's Scherzo for Piano and Orchestra, op. 2 and in John Tavener's Celtic Requiem. Several chamber works of Hans-Joachim Hespos employ the A♭ clarinet, including the wild go which features soprano sarrusophone, tárogató. Hespos uses the A♭ clarinet in the orchestral work Interactions. Matthijs Vermeulen's Symphony Nr. 4 has a part for A♭ clarinet. At least three manufacturers produce A♭ clarinets: L. A. Ripamonti, Orsi Instruments and Schwenk and Seggelke.
Leblanc had produced A♭ clarinets prior to their acquisition by Conn-Selmer in 2004, but has since ceased production. Ripamonti produces both French system A ♭ clarinets. Schwenk and Seggelke make German system clarinets in A high G. Nicholas Shackleton. "Clarinet", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, grovemusic.com. Schwenk and Seggelke's A♭ clarinet page
Antoine-Joseph "Adolphe" Sax was a Belgian inventor and musician who created the saxophone in the early 1840s, patenting it in 1846. He invented the saxotromba and saxtuba, he played the clarinet. Antoine-Joseph Sax was born on 6 November 1814, in Dinant, in what is now Belgium, to Charles-Joseph Sax and his wife Marie-Joseph. While his given name was Antoine-Joseph, he was referred to as Adolphe from childhood, his father and mother were instrument designers themselves, who made several changes to the design of the French horn. Adolphe began to make his own instruments at an early age, entering two of his flutes and a clarinet into a competition at the age of 15, he subsequently studied performance on those two instruments as well as voice at the Royal Conservatory of Brussels. Sax faced many near-death experiences. Over the course of his childhood, he: fell from a height of three floors, hit his head on a stone and could stand afterwards, at the age of three, drank a bowl full of vitriolized water and swallowed a pin, burnt himself in a gunpowder explosion, fell onto a hot cast-iron frying pan, burning his side, survived poisoning and suffocation in his own bedroom where varnished items were kept during the night, was hit on the head by a cobblestone, fell into a river and survived.
His mother once said. His neighbors called him "little Sax, the ghost". After leaving the Royal Conservatory of Brussels, Sax began to experiment with new instrument designs, while his parents continued to make conventional instruments to bring in money. Adolphe's first important invention was an improvement of the bass clarinet design, which he patented at the age of 24. Sax began working on a new set of instruments. Hector Berlioz was so enamoured of them that he arranged in February 1844 for one of his pieces to be played on Sax's new instruments; these were valved bugles, although he had not invented the instrument itself, his examples were much more successful than those of his rivals and became known as saxhorns. They came in seven different sizes, paved the way for the creation of the flugelhorn. Today, saxhorns are sometimes used in concert bands and, orchestras; the saxhorn laid the groundwork for the modern euphonium. Sax developed the saxotromba family, valved brass instruments with narrower bore than the saxhorns, in 1845, though they survived only briefly.
The use of saxhorns spread rapidly. The saxhorn valves were accepted as state-of-the-art in their time and remain unchanged today; the advances made by Adolphe Sax were soon followed by the British brass band movement which adopted the saxhorn family of instruments. The Jedforest Instrumental Band formed in 1854 and The Hawick Saxhorn Band formed in 1855, within the Scottish Borders, a decade after saxhorn models became available; the period around 1840 saw Sax inventing the clarinette-bourdon, an early unsuccessful design of contrabass clarinet. Around this time he developed the instrument for which he is best known: the saxophone which he patented on 28 June 1846; the saxophone was invented for use in military bands. By 1846 Sax had designed a full range of saxophones. Composer Hector Berlioz wrote approvingly of the new instrument in 1842, but despite his support, saxophones never became standard orchestral instruments. However, their ability to play technical passages like woodwinds and project loudly like brass instruments led them to be included in military bands in France and elsewhere.
The saxophone was Sax's signature accomplishment and created his reputation more than any other. This helped secure him a job teaching at the Paris Conservatory in 1857. Sax continued to make instruments in life and presided over the new saxophone program at the Paris Conservatory. Rival instrument makers both attacked the legitimacy of his patents and were sued by Sax for patent infringement; the legal back-and-forth continued for over 20 years. He was driven into bankruptcy three times: in 1852, 1873, 1877. Sax made a full recovery. In 1894 Sax died in complete poverty in Paris and was interred in section 5 at the Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris. Other invented instruments In his birthplace Dinant in Belgium the Mr Sax's House is dedicated to his life and saxophones. 1849: Awarded the Chevalier rank of the Legion of Honour. 1867: 1e Grand Prix de la Facture Instrumentale at the 1867 Paris International Exposition 2015: Google Doodle commemorated his 201st birthday. Haine, Malou, ed. Adolphe Sax, Bruxelles University Thiollet, Jean-Pierre, Mule & Co, Paris: H & D, ISBN 2-914266-03-0 Horwood, Adolphe Sax 1814–1894 — His Life and Legacy, Egon Publishers Ltd.
ISBN 0 905858 18 2 Ingham, Richard, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Saxophone, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521596664 Cottrell, Stephen; the Saxophone. Yale University Press. P. 33. ISBN 9780300190953. Retrieved 8 November 2015. Pictures of saxophones made by Adolphe and Adolphe Edouard Sax Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sax, Antoine Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Adolphe Sax at Find a Grave
The clarinette d'amour is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. In comparison with the B♭ and A soprano clarinets, the clarinette d'amour had a similar shape and construction, but was larger pitched in G. However, it had proportionally smaller tone holes and bore, a pear-shaped or sometimes globular bell similar to that of the cor anglais, it first appeared around the middle of the 18th century and was popular in central Europe, but was regarded as obsolete by the mid 19th century. It has been conjectured that the basset horn, which shares the features of low pitch and small bore, was developed from the clarinette d'amour. Oboe d'amore F. Geoffrey Rendall; the Clarinet. 2nd ed. London: Ernest Benn, 1957