South West England
South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, consists of the counties of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Cornwall, as well as the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live in South West England; the region includes much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex. The largest city is Bristol. Other major urban centres include Plymouth, Gloucester, Exeter, Bath and the South East Dorset conurbation which includes Bournemouth and Christchurch. There are eight cities: Salisbury, Wells, Gloucester, Exeter and Truro, it includes two entire national parks and Exmoor. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall; the region has by far the longest coastline of any English region. The region is at the first level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes. Key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, local government co-ordination across the region is now undertaken by South West Councils.
The region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Cornwall has its own language and some regard it as a Celtic nation; the South West is known for Cheddar cheese. It is home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, trip hop music and Cornwall's surfing beaches; the region has been home to some of Britain's most renowned writers, including Daphne du Maurier and Agatha Christie, both of whom set many of their works here, the South West is the location of Thomas Hardy's Wessex, the setting for many of his best-known novels. Most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel, it has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles. Much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region's attractiveness to tourists and residents.
Geologically the region is divided into the igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east, the dividing line to the west of the River Exe. Cornwall and West Devon's landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor; these are due to the slate that underlie the area. The highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor. In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park; the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the county's name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by limestone downland; the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the region's dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardy's "Vale of the Little Dairies"; the Southern England Chalk Formation extends into the region, creating a series of high, sparsely populated and archaeologically rich downs, most famously Salisbury Plain, but Cranborne Chase, the Dorset Downs and the Purbeck Hills.
These downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, where they support sheep farming. All of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east; the climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west, it is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the region to rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation.
They experience the highest summer maxima temperatures. Snowfalls are less so in comparison to higher ground, it experiences the lowest wind speeds and sunshine total in between that of the moors. The climate of inland areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region. In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures in winter, it experiences lower maximum temperatures during the summer. Rainfall is the lowest at the coast and snowfall is rarer than the rest of the region. Coastal areas are the windiest parts of the peninsula and they receive the most sunshine; the general coastal climate is more typical the further south-west into the region. Areas of moorland inland such as: Bodmin Moor and Exmoor experience lower temperatures and more precipitation than the rest of the south west (approxima
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Charfield is a village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, south-west of Wotton-under-Edge near the Little Avon River and the villages of Falfield and Cromhall. Charfield is a medium-sized village of about 2,500 residents with three pubs, the Pear Tree, Railway Tavern and The Plough Inn, a convenience store with Post Office and two churches. There are Farm Lees, Longs View, Manor Lane and Woodlands; the school has around 250 students. An electoral ward with the same name exists; this ward starts in the east in Charfield and stretches west to Falfield. The ward's population at the 2011 census was 4,678; the parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council's operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, such as the Memorial Hall and playing field and playground, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning.
Conservation matters and environmental issues are of interest to the council. The parish council is a burial authority, has its own burial ground in nearby Churchend; the Bristol-Birmingham main railway line runs through the village. Charfield railway station closed in January 1965 but still stands, discussions continue about the viability of re-opening it; the costs of re-opening would be shared between Gloucestershire and South Gloucestershire Councils since, although the station would be in South Gloucestershire, the nearby Gloucestershire town of Wotton-under-Edge would be a principal beneficiary. The railway line marks the division of the village between two different telephone areas; the village is on the outer limits of both areas. The village has now been fibre-enabled; the Charfield railway disaster was a fatal train crash which occurred on 13 October 1928. The Leeds to Bristol LMS night mail train crashed under a road bridge near Charfield railway station, killing 15 and injuring 23. Amongst the dead were two children.
Charfield Memorial Hall and Playing Field is in the centre of Charfield. The Hall has been refurbished and the play area upgraded with new equipment. St James' Church, Charfield Charfield Community Website Charfield Parish Council Web Site Charfield Burial Ground
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Alveston in South Gloucestershire, England, is a village, civil parish and former manor inhabited in 2014 by about 3000 people The village lies about 1 mile south of Thornbury and 10 miles north of Bristol. Alveston is twinned with France, it has two hotels, a variety of small shops, several parks and fields, two churches and a Hyundai car dealership. Alveston is the gateway from Thornbury, it is the home of Thornbury Cricket Club and Marlwood secondary school. The civil parish includes the villages of Rudgeway and Earthcott; the Domesday Book of 1086 recorded the following entry for Alveston: In Langelei Hundredum tenuit comes Herald Alwestan ibi erant X hidae in dominio, I carruca, XXIII villi, V bordarii cui XXII carrucae, II servii. Ibi ppos..accrevc.. II carucae, V servos. Reddat XII libri ad pensu. Translated as follows: "In Langeley Hundred Earl Harold held Alveston. There were there 10 hides in demesne, 1 plough-team, 23 villeins, 5 bordars for whom there were 22 plough-teams, 2 serfs. There... 5 serfs.
It returned £12...." This was a large manor, of 35 households in total. As the manor had been held by King Harold it was seized into the royal demesne by William the Conqueror and remained in use as a royal hunting park until 1149. Early in March 1093 King William II was at the royal manor of Alveston awaiting his passage across the River Severn to Wales via the Aust ferry, he was attacked by a serious illness, thought to have been a disorder of the stomach or bowels. He was rushed to Gloucester Castle 25 miles to the north, near which the monks of Gloucester Abbey were relied upon to provide a medical cure, it was believed the illness had been brought on as a result of the king's sinful behaviour and he determined to repent and make amends. This illness contracted at Alveston thus resulted in the issuance of a charter which elaborated the king's coronation pledge, akin to a charter of liberties, he pledged to protect and defend the church, to abolish simony, to abolish unjust laws and deter wrong-doers.
He ordered the release of prisoners, remission of debts and all offences against himself he pardoned. He was confined to his chamber for the whole of Lent, covering the period 2 March to 17 April 1093. On 6 March he consented to appoint Anselm Abbot of Bec as Archbishop of Canterbury, which he had strongly opposed. In 1149 it was granted by Henry Plantagenet heir to the throne of King Stephen to Fulk I FitzWarin, a powerful Marcher Lord from Shropshire. In 1160 Fulk was in charge of arming and provisioning for King Henry II Dover Castle, the second most important fortress in England after the Tower of London. Henry valued his services; the grant was a reward for Fulk's loyalty to the cause of Henry's mother the Empress Matilda in the civil war with "The Usurper" Stephen. Alveston was inherited in 1171 by Fulk's son Fulk II. During the Barons' wars of the reign of King John which led up to Magna Carta signed in 1215, Fulk II's son and heir Fulk III FitzWarin rebelled and the manor escheated to the crown and passed temporarily into the stewardship of Hugh de Nevill.
In 1204 Fulk III regained possession, but on 30 June 1216 King John ordered that Alveston should be seized once again from Fulk III FitzWarin. On 15 January 1230 King Henry III granted the park of Alveston back to Fulk III FitzWarin, Fulk is recorded as having incurred a debt of 300 marks for this grant As a royal favour the king pardoned Fulk 200 marks of this debt. Fulk was in royal favour as in June 1234 he received from the king a gift of 3 deer from the royal Forest of Cannock. In September he received 2 bucks and 8 does from the royal Forest of Braden, near Purton, Wiltshire, to help him to stock his deer park at Alveston. In 1236 Fulk was given another 6 does from Braden and 6 more does from the Forest of Selwood, again to help him stock his park at Alveston. In November 1246 the king gave Fulk 10 does for the same purpose. In 1249 Fulk III became involved in a lengthy legal dispute brought against him by Nicholas Poyntz, his near neighbour from Iron Acton who had accused Fulk of expelling him from the common pasture of Tockington, which adjoined Alveston manor.
Fulk IV FitzWarin fell at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, loyally supporting King Henry III in his struggle against the barons. He left his son and heir a minor, Fulk V. Fulk V was awarded in Wardship by Simon de Montfort, victor of Lewes, to Peter de Montfort, "The Nemesis of the Marcher Lords", he was rescued from this unpleasant position by his warder's death at the Battle of Evesham following which King Henry III re-granted him in wardship to the Fitzwarin's long-time friend Hamo le Strange. In 1273 Fulk V attained his majority of 21 years of age and gained possession of his father's lands including Alveston; the early 14th-century legend, based on a lost 13th-century ancestral romance relates as follows, regarding the donation of Alveston to Fulk by King Henry: "King Henry called Fulk, made him constable of all his host. Thus was Fulk made master over all; the king remained at Gloucester. Jervard had taken the whole march from Chester to Worcester, he had disinherited all the barons of the march.
Sir Fulk, with the king's host, gave many fierce assaults to Jervard.
Aust is a small village in South Gloucestershire, about 10 miles north of Bristol and about 28 miles south west of Gloucester. It is located on the eastern side of the Severn estuary, close to the eastern end of the Severn Bridge, now part of the M48 motorway; the village has a church and a public house. There is a large area of farmland on the river bank, sometimes flooded due to the high tidal range of the Severn. Aust Cliff, above the Severn, is located about 0.5 miles from the village. The civil parish of Aust includes the villages of Littleton-upon-Severn. Aust, on the River Severn, was at one end of an ancient Roman road, its name, may be one of the few English place-names to be derived from the Latin Augusta. The name of Aust is recorded in 793 or 794 as Austan when it was returned to the Church of Worcester after having been taken by King Offa's earl, Bynna. In Domesday, Aust Cliff was recorded as Austreclive, "clive" being a Middle English spelling of cliff. and the estate was held by Turstin FitzRolf in 1066.
In 1368 the area was called Augst, "the short unmistakable form of Augusta. Aust was a village and manor in the parish of Henbury, it was reported as a part of the church of Worcester's Westbury on Trym estate in the Domesday book. About 1100 Winebaud de Ballon gave the church to the Abbey of St. Vincent at Le Mans. In the 14th century, the chapel at Aust was part of the Church of Westbury; the Lollard theologian John Wycliffe is by tradition said to have been prebend of Aust and to have preached there, yet Baker was unable to find any record of such an appointment in the diocesan registers at Worcester, which see held Aust for many centuries. The existing church is dedicated to St John, is built in the Perpendicular Gothic style; the timber roofs and octagonal stone font date from the 15th century, the western church tower, with an embattled parapet, was rebuilt in the Tudor period. The church contains several 18th century marble memorial tablets, the earliest dated 1704 to Sir Samuel Astry; the whole church was restored in 1866 by the firm of Bindon.
The estate at Aust was held from the Bishop of Worcester as part of the extensive feudal barony of Turstin FitzRolf who had acted as standard-bearer to William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. FitzRolf's properties in Gloucestershire were held in capite, including Aust, reverted to the Crown and where granted to Wynebald de Ballon from Maine. Wynebald had a holding at Caerleon on the River Usk near the manor of his brother Hamelin de Ballon of Abergavenny. Both brothers made significant donations to the Abbey of St Vincent at Le Mans, including Wynebald's donation of the church of Aust. A daughter of de Ballon married a man named de Newmarch, their son Henry held the estate of Aust in 1166. John, his son and heir, next held Aust. One of John's daughters and co-heiress married Ralf Russell of Kingston Russell, who held the estate, it passed in moiety through generations of the Russell and Dennis families, through Margret Russell who married Sir Gilbert Denys to her grandson Walt Dennis.
The moiety was purchased by the Astry family, The other moiety of Aust was held by Roger de Acton and was sold to the Astry family. It came into the Astry family in 1652, it was sold several times. In 1801 it was owned by Sacheverell Sitwell of Derbyshire; the village is within a short walking distance of 24hr shops at near-by Severn View services at Aust is a small motorway service area operated by Moto on the M48 motorway near the Severn Bridge. There are Burger King, Costa Coffee located there; the main building is a two-storey stone construction. The service area was listed as the last-known whereabouts of former Manic Street Preachers band member Richey Edwards presumed deceased since 2008; the Severn Bridge, a suspension bridge opened as part of the M4 motorway in 1966, crosses the Severn estuary between Aust and Beachley. It was the first Severn road crossing south of Gloucester, took five years to construct at a cost of £8 million, it replaced the Aust ferry. The Aust Ferry passage across the Severn estuary between Aust and Beachley – known as the Old Passage – was used from antiquity.
In the 12th century, responsibility was granted to the monks of Tintern Abbey, it continued to operate in subsequent centuries. From 1827, a regular steamboat ferry service was established, but it lost much of its trade when a rival service was set up downstream at New Passage in 1863, when the Severn rail tunnel was opened in 1886; the growth of road traffic led to the re-establishment of a ferry between Aust and Beachley in 1926, carrying no more than 17 vehicles each time. Bob Dylan was photographed in 1966 standing outside the ferry ticket office, with the almost-completed Severn Bridge behind; the ferry service closed when the Severn Bridge was opened in September 1966. Aust Cliff SSSI Olveston and Aust website Aust in the Domesday Book