The Tugaloo River is a 45.9-mile-long river bordering the U. S. states of South Carolina. It was named for the Cherokee town of Tugaloo at the mouth of Toccoa Creek, near present-day Toccoa and Travelers Rest in Stephens County, Georgia, it is fed by the Tallulah River and the Chattooga River, which each form an arm of Lake Tugalo, on the edge of Georgia's Tallulah Gorge State Park. The Tugaloo flows out of the lake via Tugaloo Dam, passing into Lake Yonah and through Yonah Dam; the river ends as an arm of Lake Hartwell, as does South Carolina's Seneca River. After flowing out of Lake Hartwell, it is called the Savannah River. Territorial claims to the river and its islands were settled with the Treaty of Beaufort in 1787, as interpreted in the two Georgia v. South Carolina cases before the U. S. Supreme Court in 1922 and 1989; the river is one of the boundaries of the Treaty of New York. The river's watershed is home to some of the most challenging whitewater in the Southeast, luring sport kayakers and canoeists from all over the country.
The name of the river comes from Tugaloo, a Cherokee town, located on the river near the mouth of Toccoa Creek. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Tugaloo River South Carolina DHEC
Georgia's 9th congressional district
Georgia's 9th congressional district is represented by Republican Doug Collins. Catoosa Dade Dawson Fannin Forsyth Gilmer Gordon Habersham Hall Lumpkin Murray Pickens Union White Walker Whitfield Banks Clarke Dawson Elbert Fannin Forsyth Franklin Gilmer Habersham Hall Hart Jackson Lumpkin Madison Pickens Rabun Stephens Towns Union White Nathan Deal resigned his seat on March 21, 2010 in order to run for Governor of Georgia. A special election was held on June 8, 2010. Following redistricting, Tom Graves moved to the newly created 14th district; as of May 2015, there are two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 9th congressional district who are living at this time; the most recent representative to die was Ed Jenkins on January 1, 2012. The most serving representative to die was Charlie Norwood on February 13, 2007. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 9th district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 9th district at GovTrack.us
Interstate 85 in Georgia
Interstate 85 is a major Interstate Highway that travels northeast-to-southwest in the U. S. state of Georgia. It enters the state at the Alabama state line near West Point, Lanett, traveling through the Atlanta metropolitan area and to the South Carolina state line, where it crosses the Savannah River near Lake Hartwell. I-85 connects northern Georgia with Montgomery, Alabama, to the southwest, with South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia to the northeast. Within Georgia, I-85 is designated as the unsigned State Route 403. I-85 in Georgia travels parallel with the route of U. S. Route 29. However, from Atlanta northeast to South Carolina, I-85 ventures away from that route, traveling about halfway between US 29 and the combination of US 23 and US 123. Within the City of Atlanta, I-85 has a concurrency with I-75 known as the "Downtown Connector". After splitting from Downtown Connector, it is known as Northeast Expressway until its junction with I-285. I-85 enters the state of Georgia from Alabama via twin bridges over the Chattahoochee River, it skirts the town of West Point, with Kia's multibillion-dollar plant located adjacent to the freeway just east of West Point.
After leaving West Point, I-85 enters the LaGrange area, the first large town in Georgia on its route to the northeast. Northeast of LaGrange, I-85 has an interchange with the long spur freeway, I-185, to the Columbus, Georgia Metropolitan Area; this is the only connection between the Interstate Highway System. From LaGrange, I-85 heads northeastward towards Atlanta. Before reaching Atlanta, the highway runs through a widened stretch that includes six to eight lanes between exits 35 and 77, passing near the suburbs of Moreland, Fairburn, Union City, College Park and East Point as well as intersecting I-285 at its southwest end in of the most complex interchanges in the country, meanwhile providing access to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. I-85 runs along the northwestern boundary of the airport, providing access to the domestic terminal. I-75 services the International Terminals of the airport, which are located on the east side of the airport. At the southwestern edge of Atlanta's city limits, I-85 merges with I-75 to form the Downtown Connector, 12 to 14 lanes wide.
At the southern edge of downtown Atlanta, this freeway has an interchange with the major east-west Interstate Highway, I-20. The two freeways skirt the eastern edge of downtown, running due north, passing through the Georgia Tech campus and the Atlantic Station section of Atlanta before the two highways split, with I-75 exits via the right three lanes and heads northwest while I-85 uses the left three lanes and heads northeast. Heading northbound after the Brookwood Interchange with I-75, I-85 is routed along a ten lane wide viaduct from the Buford Highway Connector to State Route 400. Continuing northeast of Atlanta, I-85 continues through the northeastern suburbs, bypassing Chamblee and Doraville, where there is another intersection with I-285; the Interstate travels through the northeastern suburbs of Atlanta, including Lilburn, Lawrenceville. The Interstate has freeway interchanges with SR 316 in Duluth and I-985 in Suwanee, which provides a link to Gainesville. I-85 leaves the Atlanta area, continuing to travel through rural northeast Georgia.
At Lake Hartwell—which was formed by the damming of the Savannah River—I-85 crosses into South Carolina. I-85 has the first express lanes in Georgia, located in DeKalb counties. From Chamblee–Tucker Road to Old Peachtree Road, travelers that utilize the converted 15.5-mile lanes will be charged a toll varying from 10 to 90 cents per mile, depending on traffic conditions and usage. Though not signed on the freeway, they are HOT lanes, which means registered transport vehicles, carpools with three or more occupants and buses are exempt from toll charges as long as they are registered as such. Tolls are collected using an electronic toll collection system. All travelers that use the lane must have a Peach Pass sticker to avoid fines. Starting in November 2014, SunPass and NC Quick Pass are interoperable with Peach Pass, allowing motorists with those transponders to use the express lanes. Funds generated from the express lanes will be used to defray the costs of construction and maintenance of the lanes.
Long term revenue allocation is being studied and a decision about future excess revenues will be made in the project process. Proponents for the express lanes say it is to provide commuters with a more reliable, free-flow commute option. Detractors point out that existing infrastructure was reused for the express lanes and that commute times on the non-paying travel lanes have doubled since implementation. Constructed as a four- to six-lane expressway in the 1950s, the stretch of I-85 between the southern merge with I-75 and North Druid Hills Road was reconstructed as part of the Georgia Department of Transportation's Freeing the Freeways program; this project included rebuilding all overpasses, new HOV-ready ramps, a widen
Alice Walker is an American novelist, short story writer and activist. She wrote the novel The Color Purple, for which she won the National Book Award for hardcover fiction, the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, she wrote the novels Meridian and The Third Life of Grange Copeland, among other works. An avowed feminist, Walker coined the term "womanist" to mean "A black feminist or feminist of color" in 1983. Alice Malsenior Tallulah-Kate Walker was born in Eatonton, Georgia, a rural farming town, to Willie Lee Walker and Minnie Tallulah Grant. Both of Walker's parents were sharecroppers, though her mother would work as a seamstress to earn extra money. Walker, the youngest of eight children, was first enrolled in school when she was just four years old at East Putnam Consolidated. At eight years old Walker sustained an injury to her right eye after one of her brothers fired a BB gun; because her family did not have access to a car, Walker did not receive immediate medical attention, causing her to become permanently blind in that eye.
It was after the injury to her eye that Walker began to take up writing. The scar tissue was removed when Walker was 14, but a mark still remains and is described in her essay "Beauty: When the Other Dancer is the Self."Because the schools in Eatonton were segregated, Walker attended the only high school available to blacks: Butler Baker High School. She went on to become valedictorian and enrolled in Spelman College in 1961 after being granted a full scholarship by the state of Georgia for having the highest academic achievements of her class, she found two of her professors, Howard Zinn and Staughton Lynd, to be great mentors during her time at Spelman, but transferred two years later. Walker was offered another scholarship, this time from Sarah Lawrence College in New York, after the firing of her Spelman professor, Howard Zinn, Walker accepted the offer. Walker proceeded to have an abortion. Walker graduated from Sarah Lawrence in 1965. Walker wrote the poems of her first book of poetry, while she was studying in East Africa and during her senior year at Sarah Lawrence College.
Walker would slip her poetry under the office door of her professor and mentor, Muriel Rukeyser, when she was a student at Sarah Lawrence. Rukeyser showed the poems to her agent. Once was published four years by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Following graduation, Walker worked for the New York City Department of Welfare before returning South, she took a job working for the Legal Defense Fund of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Jackson, Mississippi. Walker worked as a consultant in black history to the Friends of the Children of Mississippi Head Start program, she returned to writing as writer-in-residence at Jackson State University and Tougaloo College. In addition to her work at Tougaloo College, Walker published her first novel, The Third Life of Grange Copeland, in 1970; the novel explores the life of Grange Copeland, an abusive, irresponsible sharecropper and father. In the fall of 1972, Walker taught a course in Black Women's Writers at the University of Massachusetts Boston.
In 1973, before becoming editor of Ms. Magazine and fellow Zora Neale Hurston scholar Charlotte D. Hunt discovered an unmarked grave they thought was Hurston's in Ft. Pierce, Florida. Walker had it marked with a gray marker stating ZORA NEALE HURSTON / A GENIUS OF THE SOUTH / NOVELIST FOLKLORIST / ANTHROPOLOGIST / 1901–1960; the line "a genius of the south" is from Jean Toomer's poem Georgia Dusk, which appears in his book Cane. Hurston was born in 1891, not 1901. Walker's 1975 article "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston," published in Ms. Magazine, helped revive interest in the work of this African-American writer and anthropologist. In 1976, Walker's second novel, was published. Meridian is a novel about activist workers in the South, during the civil rights movement, with events that parallel some of Walker's own experiences. In 1982, she published what has become The Color Purple; the novel follows a young, troubled black woman fighting her way through not just racist white culture but patriarchal black culture as well.
The book became a bestseller and was subsequently adapted into a critically acclaimed 1985 movie directed by Steven Spielberg, featuring Oprah Winfrey and Whoopi Goldberg, as well as a 2005 Broadway musical totaling 910 performances. Walker has written several other novels, including The Temple of My Familiar and Possessing the Secret of Joy, she has published a number of collections of short stories and other writings. Her work is focused on the struggles of black people women, their lives in a racist and violent society. In 2000, Walker released a collection of short fiction based on her own life called The Way Forward Is With a Broken Heart, exploring love and race relations. In this book, Walker details her interracial relationship with Melvyn Rosenman Leventhal, a civil rights attorney, working in Mississippi; the couple married on March 17, 1967 in New York City, since interracial marriage was illegal in the South, divorced in 1976. They had a daughter, together in 1969. Rebecca Walker, Alice Walker's only child, is an American novelist, editor and activist.
The Third Wave Foundation, an activist fund, was founded with the help of Rebecca. Her godmother is Alice Walker's mentor and co-founder of Ms. Magazin
For the Department of Energy facility, see Savannah River Site The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. Two tributaries of the Savannah, the Tugaloo River and the Chattooga River, form the northernmost part of the border; the Savannah River drainage basin extends into the southeastern side of the Appalachian Mountains just inside North Carolina, bounded by the Eastern Continental Divide. The river is around 301 miles long, it is formed by the confluence of the Seneca River. Today this confluence is submerged beneath Lake Hartwell; the Tallulah Gorge is located on the Tallulah River, a tributary of the Tugaloo River that forms the northwest branch of the Savannah River. Two major cities are located along the Savannah River: Savannah, Augusta, Georgia, they were nuclei of early English settlements during the Colonial period of American history. The Savannah River is tidal at Savannah proper.
Downstream from there, the river broadens into an estuary before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. The area where the river's estuary meets the ocean is known as "Tybee Roads"; the Intracoastal Waterway flows through a section of the Savannah River near the city of Savannah. The name "Savannah" comes from a group of Shawnee, they destroyed the Westo and occupied established Westo lands at the Savannah River's head of navigation on the Fall Line, near present-day Augusta. These Shawnee were called by several variant names that all derive from their native name, Ša·wano·ki; the local variants included Shawano, Savano and Savannah. Another theory is that the name was derived from the English term "savanna", a kind of tropical grassland, borrowed by the English from Spanish sabana and used in the colonial southeast; the Spanish word was borrowed from the Taino word zabana. Other theories interpret the name Savannah to come from Atlantic coastal tribes, who spoke Algonquian languages, as there are similar terms meaning not only "southerner" but "salt".
Historical and variant names of the Savannah River, as listed by the U. S. Geological Survey, include May River, Westobou River, Kosalu River, Isundiga River and Girande River, among others; the Westobou River was the former name of the Savannah River, derived from the Westo Native American Indians. The Westo were thought to have come from the northeast, pushed out by the more powerful tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, who had acquired firearms through trade; this migration beginning in the late 16th century resulted in the Westo Indians reaching the present area of Augusta, Georgia, in what was to be the 1660s. The Westo used the river for fishing and water supplies, for transportation, for trade, they were strong enough to hold off the Spanish colonists making incursions from Florida. The Carolina Colony needed the Westo alliance during its early years; when Carolinians desired to expand its trade to Charleston, they viewed the Westo tribe as an obstacle. In order to remove the tribe, they sent a group called the Goose Creek Men to arm the Savanna Indians, a Shawnee tribe, who defeated the Westo in the Westo War of 1680.
Following this, the English colonists renamed the river as the Savannah. They founded two major cities on the river during the colonial era: Savannah was established in 1733 as a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean, Augusta is located where the river crosses the Fall Line of the Piedmont; the two large cities on the Savannah served as Georgia's first two state capitals. In the nineteenth century, the sandy river channel changed causing numerous steamboat accidents. During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a blockade around the Confederate states, forcing merchantmen to use specific ports along the coast best suited for this purpose; the harbor at Savannah became one of the busiest ports for blockade runners bringing in supplies for the Confederacy. The Savannah River was significant during the 1950s when construction started on the U. S. government's Savannah River Plant for making tritium for nuclear weapons. In 1956 Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines detected neutrinos with an experiment carried out at the Savannah River Nuclear Plant, after a preliminary experiment at the Hanford Site.
They placed a 10-ton tank of water next to a powerful nuclear reactor engaged in making plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. After shielding the neutrino trap underground and running it for about 100 days over the course of a year, they detected a few synchronized flashes of gamma radiation that signaled the interaction of a few neutrinos with the protons in the water; the neutrinos were not themselves observed, they never have been. Their presence is inferred by an exceedingly rare interaction. One out of every billion billion neutrinos that pass through the water tank hits a proton, producing the telltale burst of radiation. In 1995 Reines was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this accomplishment, but Cowen did not live long enough to share it. Between 1946 and 1985, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers built three major dams on the Savannah for hydroelectricity, flood control, navigation; the J. Strom Thurmond Dam, the Hartwell Dam, the Richard B. Russell Dam and their reservoirs combine in order to form over 120 miles of lakes.
Donnie Thompson named a small subdivision "Westobou Crossing", located in North Augusta, South Carolina. The area of the subdivision is located marks the first natural ford that crosses the Savannah River, thus promoting trade and allowing travel. Many native a
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i