Horse Cave, Kentucky
Horse Cave is a home rule-class city in Hart County, United States. Randall Curry currently serves as Mayor of the city and is assisted by a City Council that is composed of six members, according to Census data, the population of Horse Cave was 2,311 in 2010. The town was settled by Maj. Albert Anderson in the 1840s, the landowner donated land for an L&N station in 1858 on the provision that it be named after nearby Horse Cave. The community around the station developed quickly, so that a post office was erected in 1860, the cave for which the city is named is located on the south side of Main Street. Various explanations are given for its unusual name, the cave has been known as Hidden River Cave, for an underground stream located inside. That stream was used to power a dynamo and, for a while in the late 19th century, Horse Cave was the city in Kentucky apart from Louisville. Around World War I, the only air-conditioned tennis courts in the world were located near the entrance of the cave, the stream provided the towns water supply but mistaken development caused raw sewage to seep into the water and forced the closure of the cave for fifty years.
The stench was so bad in the 1960s that pedestrians typically crossed to the side of Main Street rather than walk near the entrance. The problem has largely solved in recent years. The town changed its name to Caverna in 1869 but the inability to change the name of the station prompted the community to reconsider. Owing to its rail connection, Horse Cave was a major center of agricultural commerce for Hart, Green. Tobacco warehouses provided the majority of the income, since the 1970s, some factories have relocated to the area including, Dart Container Corporation, T Marzetti Company, and Sister Schuberts Bakery. Tourist attractions include Kentucky Down Under/Kentucky Caverns, Hidden River Cave/American Cave Museum, civil War Days are an annual tourist event, during which time parades down Main Street and reenactments of the Battle of Rowletts Station between Horse Cave and Munfordville are staged. A local theatre formerly known as the Horse Cave Theatre and/or the Kentucky Repertory Theatre once operated in Horse Cave but is no longer in business.
Horse Cave was the birthplace of Jack Robert Thompson, the father of noted author and journalist Hunter S. Thompson, Horse Cave is located at 37°10′34″N 85°54′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 3.0 square miles. A large bamboo research station is north of Horse Cave on U. S. Route 31W in Bonnieville and it is said to contain the largest collection of bamboos in the state of Kentucky. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,252 people,977 households, the population density was 758.0 people per square mile
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
War of 1812
Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the wars end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved, the view was shared in much of New England and for that reason the war was widely referred to there as Mr. Madison’s War. As a result, the primary British war goal was to defend their North American colonies, the war was fought in three theatres. Second and naval battles were fought on the U. S. –Canadian frontier, large-scale battles were fought in the Southern United States and Gulf Coast. With the majority of its land and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars, early victories over poorly-led U. S. armies demonstrated that the conquest of the Canadas would prove more difficult than anticipated. Despite this, the U. S. was able to inflict serious defeats on Britains Native American allies, both governments were eager for a return to normality and peace negotiations began in Ghent in August 1814.
This brought an Era of Good Feelings in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism, the war was a major turning point in the development of the U. S. military, with militia being increasingly replaced by a more professional force. The U. S. acquired permanent ownership of Spains Mobile District, the government of Canada declared a three-year commemoration of the War of 1812 in 2012, intended to offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border. At the conclusion of the commemorations in 2014, a new national War of 1812 Monument was unveiled in Ottawa. The war is remembered in Britain primarily as a footnote in the much larger Napoleonic Wars occurring in Europe, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812. This section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States, as Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair.
The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was vindication of American identity. Americans at the time and historians since often called it the United States Second War of Independence, in 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law, the American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton, the British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. The United States view was that Britains restrictions violated its right to trade with others, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man. The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become U. S.
citizens and this meant that in addition to recovering naval deserters, it considered any United States citizens who were born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the reluctance of the United States to issue formal naturalization papers and it was estimated by the Admiralty that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805
Barren County, Kentucky
Barren County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,173, the county was founded on December 20,1798, from parts of Warren and Green Counties. It was named for the Barrens, meadow lands that cover the northern third, Barren County is part of the Glasgow, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Bowling Green-Glasgow, KY Combined Statistical Area. In 2007 Barren County was named the Best Place to Live in Rural America by Progressive Farmer Magazine, Barren County was established in 1798 from land given by Green County and Warren County. Six courthouses have served the county throughout its history, the first built of logs, Barren County, like most of south central Kentucky, was settled by the Scots-Irish, and still bears many cultural aspects that trace back to that heritage. Barren was a prohibition or dry county, until voters overturned the status in September 2016. Before the vote, there were two exceptions to laws against alcohol sales, Cave City, which voted in 2005 to become moist, and voted in 2014 to approve full package sales.
Glasgow, which approved liquor by the drink under the restrictions on November 6,2007. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 500 square miles. Barren River Lake is located in the part of the county. Barren River Lake State Resort Park is located primarily within Barren County, the population density was 78 per square mile. There were 17,095 housing units at a density of 35 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94. 30% White,4. 09% Black or African American,0. 15% Native American,0. 41% Asian,0. 03% Pacific Islander,0. 38% from other races, and 0. 65% from two or more races. 0. 93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,25. 60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 2.91. The age distribution was 24. 20% under the age of 18,8. 20% from 18 to 24,28. 80% from 25 to 44,23. 80% from 45 to 64, the median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 92.70 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,240, males had a median income of $29,860 versus $21,208 for females
Battle of Munfordville
The Battle of Munfordville was an engagement in Kentucky during the American Civil War. Victory there allowed the Confederates to temporarily strengthen their hold on the region, on August 26,1862, Confederate Gen. Braxton Braggs army left Chattanooga and marched north through Sparta, TN and to Glasgow, KY. Pursued by Maj. Gen. Col. John T. Wilder commanded the Union garrison at Munfordville, wilders force was first approached by Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers who marched on Munfordville from Cave City, KY without orders. Upon arriving on September 14, Chalmers demanded a surrender, which was rejected, Chalmers brigade suffered 288 casualties in the attacks before retreating back to Cave City. Braxton Bragg was angry at Chalmers for his unauthorized and injudicious assault, Bragg believed that leaving Munfordville intact would throw a gloom upon the whole army… turn defeat into victory. Thus Braggs army made a march of 25–35 miles the night of September 15–16 to Munfordville. Late on September 16, realizing that Buells forces were near and not wishing to kill or injure innocent civilians, the Confederates sent another demand for surrender.
Wilder entered enemy lines under a flag of truce, and Confederate Maj. Gen. Simon B. Buckner escorted him to view the Confederate strength to convince him resistance was futile, realizing the odds he faced, Wilder agreed to surrender. The formal ceremony took place the day as the paroled federals marched out of Munfordville with new uniforms. Trask, a Confederate soldier, said the federals were well clothed, looked fat and sleek and clean and neat and were in strange contrast to our own hungry and dirty looking rebels. Despite the capture of over 4,000 federals and stores of supplies at Munfordville, the incident is a good example of how Bragg had little overall vision for the campaign and instead simply reacted from event to event. Three places in the National Register of Historic Places are related to the battle, the entire battlefield is listed in the National Register as the Battle of Munfordville Site. The Unknown Confederate Soldier Monument in Horse Cave marks the grave of a Louisiana soldier accidentally killed while clearing timber for the Confederate advance, the Colonel Robert A.
Smith Monument is the only one still on the battlefield. A monument to Colonel Smith exists in Dean Cemetery in his town of Edinburgh. List of battles fought in Kentucky National Park Service battle description Munfordville battlefield preservation CWSAC Report Update - Kentucky
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Hardin County, Kentucky
Hardin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. Its county seat is at Elizabethtown, the county was formed in 1792. Hardin County is part of the Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as the Louisville/Jefferson County—Elizabethtown-Madison, as of the 2010 census, the population was 105,543. Hardin County is known for being the birthplace of former U. S. president Abraham Lincoln, Hardin County was established in 1792 from land given by Nelson County. Hardin was the 15th Kentucky county in order of formation, the county is named for Col. John Hardin, a Continental Army officer during the American Revolution and a brother of the Capt. William Hardin who founded Hardinsburg. Courthouse fires destroyed county records in 1864 and again in 1932, the present courthouse dates from 1934. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 630 square miles. It is the fourth-largest county by area in Kentucky, Hardin County borders nine counties, more than any other county in Kentucky.
As of the census of 2010, there were 105,543 people,39,853 households, the population density was 167.5 per square mile. There were 43,261 housing units at a density of 68.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 80. 5% White,11. 6% Black or African American,0. 5% Native American,2. 0% Asian,0. 2% Pacific Islander,1. 5% from other races, and 3. 5% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 5. 0% of the population,24. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the family size was 3.04. The age distribution was 25. 97% under 18,9. 93% from 18 to 24,27. 50% from 25 to 44,25. 60% from 45 to 64, the median age was 35.0 years. For every 100 females there were 100.41 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.54 males. Complete economic data from the 2010 Census has not yet been released, according to the 2010 Census, the median income for a household in the county was $43,421, and the median income for a family was $55,151.
The per capita income for the county was $23,744, remaining economic data is from the 2000 Census. At that time, males had an income of $30,743 versus $22,688 for females
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
LaRue County, Kentucky
LaRue County is a county located in the center of the U. S. state of Kentucky, outside the Bluegrass Region and larger centers of population. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,193 and its county seat is Hodgenville, a city best known as the birthplace of United States President Abraham Lincoln. The county was formed on March 4,1843 from portions of Hardin County and named after John LaRue, LaRue is a prohibition or dry county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 264 square miles. The population density was 51 people per square mile, there were 5,860 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94. 65% White,3. 54% Black or African American,0. 19% Native American,0. 16% Asian,0. 03% Pacific Islander,0. 34% from other races, and 1. 10% from two or more races. 1. 05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,23. 70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.49 and the family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was out with 25. 00% under the age of 18,7. 70% from 18 to 24,28. 20% from 25 to 44,24. 00% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 95.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males, the median income for a household in the county was $32,056, and the median income for a family was $37,786. Males had an income of $30,907 versus $20,091 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,865,15. 40% of the population and 12. 60% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the people living in poverty,18. 90% are under the age of 18 and 16. 40% are 65 or older. The festival is Friday through Sunday, highlights include the Lincoln Look-A-Like contests, rail-splitting competitions, a parade at noon on Saturday, shopping booths and concerts by local talent. Dry county Louisville-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN Combined Statistical Area National Register of Historic Places listings in LaRue County, Kentucky
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2,1890. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time, the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, the total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing. The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the right answer was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in America, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850. The 1890 census announced that the region of the United States no longer existed. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement, by 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line. This prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis, the original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available.
Almost all the schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington. Some 25% of the materials were presumed destroyed and another 50% damaged by smoke, the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21,1933, and the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935. The other censuses for which information has been lost are the 1800 and 1810 enumerations. Mayo-Smith, The Eleventh Census of the United States
1940 United States Census
The census date of record was April 1,1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved and this census introduced sampling techniques, one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939, the 1940 census collected the following information, In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original sheets were microfilmed. As required by Title 13 of the U. S. Code, non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Also, aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, on April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration.
The records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release, several organizations are compiling indices, why the huge interest in the 1940 Census. 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder. com