The Hahnenkamm is a mountain in Europe, directly southwest of Kitzbühel in the Kitzbühel Alps of Austria. The elevation of its summit is 1,712 metres above sea level; the Hahnenkamm is part of the ski resort of Kitzbühel, hosts the annual World Cup alpine ski races, the Hahnenkammrennen. The most famous slope on the Hahnenkamm is the classic downhill course, the Streif, regarded as the most demanding race course on the World Cup circuit; the course features technical, "fall-away" turns, many with limited visibility. It contains several flat gliding sections preceded by difficult turns, placing a premium on both technical and gliding skills. A run on the mountain's northeast face, the Streif course, is in the shade in January, it is overcast and coupled with fog, the result being "flat" lighting which compounds the course's difficulty. The Hahnenkammrennen are the annual races, held since 1931 and a fixture of the men's World Cup since its inception in the 1967 season; the races were held in March, sometimes in early February.
Beginning in 1953, the races at Kitzbühel have been held in mid to late January the week following the Lauberhorn in Wengen, another classic downhill. Since 1959, the race has been broadcast on Austrian television. In 2009, as well as in 2008, the total prize money was €550,000; the Hahnenkamm races are held in the following disciplines: Super-G on the Streifalm, on Friday Downhill on the Streif, on Saturday Slalom on the Ganslernhang, on SundayTraditionally, the winner of the Hahnenkamm race was determined by the combined results of the downhill and slalom competitions. During the World Cup era, the man most to be referred to as Hahnenkammsieger is the winner of the prestigious downhill race; the Super-G made its debut at Kitzbühel 24 years ago in 1995, returned as a regular event in 2000, scheduled the day before the downhill. Because of challenging weather conditions in January at the top of the mountain, the downhill course is not run in its entirety. In the decade of 2000–09, the Streif full course was run in only four of the ten years.
This eliminates one of the most exciting jumps in ski racing, the Mausefalle, seconds from the top of the course. The competitors reach high speeds out of the starting gate on the Startschuss and fly up to 80 m off the steep jump. Upon landing the racers experience a severe compression followed by a sharp left turn negotiated unsuccessfully. Speeds entering the turn are 75–80 mph. In 2006, morning fog at the top of the course forced race organizers to lower the start 115 m to the middle of the Karusell, below the Mausefalle; this shortened the length of the course by 347 m. The downhill race was cancelled in 2005 and 2007. In 2008, strong upwinds at the Mausefalle caused race officials to lower the start 50 m, shortening the course by 100 m; this eliminated most of its instantaneous speed. Though Didier Cuche won the race, the 2008 edition is best remembered for the high-speed crash of Scott Macartney on the Zielsprung, seconds before the finish, as well as Bode Miller tying for second with Mario Scheiber after riding the safety fencing in the Steilhang section.
The full course returned in 2009, for the first time in five years, with Didier Défago of Switzerland winning the race. In addition to having the fastest time, he had the highest speed on the Zielschuss at 88.4 mph. It was the second consecutive downhill victory for Défago, it was last accomplished by Stephan Eberharter of Austria in 2002 and had been 17 years since a Swiss racer won both. The final training run on Thursday saw the serious crash of Swiss racer Daniel Albrecht, again at the Zielsprung, it resulted in a three-week coma and Albrecht's absence from the World Cup circuit for the remainder of the 2009 season and the entire 2010 season. The full course was run in 2010 under clear skies and again won by Didier Cuche, who had won the Super-G the previous day; the only significant crash was by former champion Michael Walchhofer, who twisted into the net fence at the final left turn, less than 20 seconds from the finish. Cuche's downhill victory was his third on the Streif, his first was in 1998 on a Friday "extra" race.
The Zielsprung was moderated in 2010 due to the serious accidents the previous two years. In 2011, Didier Cuche won the Hahnenkamm downhill for the fourth time to tie the record with Franz Klammer. A year and two days after announcing his retirement at the end of the season, Cuche claimed his third consecutive downhill victory at Kitzbühel and a record fifth total. Dominik Paris claimed the title in 2013 to become the second winner from Italy and the first in fifteen years. Due to lack of snow in 2014, the lower course was altered; the dramatic Querfahrt sidehill traverse and speed-inducing Zielschuss were bypassed. This reduced the finishing speed. Hannes Reichelt was the first winner from Austria in eight years. Upper mountain fog in 2015 forced the start to the lowest in history. Kjetil Jansrud of Norway won
Franz Klammer is a former champion alpine ski racer from Austria. Klammer overwhelmingly dominated the downhill event for four consecutive World Cup seasons, he was the gold medalist at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, winning the downhill at Patscherkofel by a margin of 0.33 seconds with a time of 1:45.73. He won 25 World Cup downhills, including four on the Hahnenkamm at Kitzbühel, he holds the record for the most victories on the full course at Kitzbühel. Born into a farming family in Mooswald, community Fresach and like many alpine farm boys, Klammer skied to school each winter day, his home village did not have any ski lifts, so as a child he climbed up the pasture behind his house to ski downhill. Klammer started racing at the late age of 14, competing in the winter whilst working on the family farm during the summer after he dropped out of school, he had a tough struggle to make the Austrian ski team, traditionally dominated by the states of Tyrol and Salzburg. He made his World Cup debut at the age of 19 in 1972 at the Val Gardena downhill: he finished ninth in the training run for the race, but could only manage 32nd place on race day due to nerves.
He spent 13 seasons on the World Cup circuit, from December 1972 to March 1985. Klammer is married to Eva since 1979: the couple met in 1975 when he was in Tunisia at a fitness camp with the Austrian ski team, they have two daughters and Stephanie. Klammer first showed signs of promise in the second half of the 1973 World Cup season, finishing second in the St. Anton downhill behind Bernhard Russi of Switzerland, the reigning Olympic and World Cup downhill champion. Klammer, age 19, followed this up with a third at St. Moritz and a third in the giant slalom at Mont Sainte-Anne; the following season he finished second in the downhill standings behind Roland Collombin of Switzerland, his nemesis that season. After beating Collombin and Russi at Schladming in December 1973 under terrible conditions, Collombin bested him at Garmisch and Wengen. In December 1974, Collombin fell at Val-d'Isère; this time Collombin broke his back in a training run ending his promising career. Klammer won that race and every other downhill that 1975 season, except Megève, where one of his skis came off.
In the Olympic test event at Patscherkofel at Innsbruck in January 1975, Klammer had defeated defending Olympic champion Bernhard Russi of Switzerland, the runner-up, by nearly a half-second. Entering the 1976 Winter Olympics, the 22-year-old Klammer was the favorite to take the gold medal in the downhill at Innsbruck in his native Austria, he was the defending World Cup downhill champion, had won the three previous downhills in January at Wengen and Kitzbühel, won the previous year's race on the same Patscherkofel course. Starting in 15th position, Klammer was the last of the top seeds, knew that Russi had set a blistering pace and led by over a half-second. Klammer took heavy risks on the treacherous piste, skied on the edge of disaster, won by 0.33 seconds to the delight of the Austrian fans. A dozen years earlier on the same course in 1964, Egon Zimmermann posted a 2:18.16 to win the gold medal. Although he dominated the downhill event in World Cup competition, the overall title remained elusive, because the technical specialists had two events in which to earn points whereas a speed specialist had only one.
The second speed event, the Super G, was not a World Cup event until December 1982, at the twilight of Klammer's World Cup career. At the end of the 1975 season, despite having won 8 of 9 downhills, he finished third for the overall World Cup title; the final event was Klammer lost in the first round. Italy's Gustav Thöni defeated Sweden's Ingemar Stenmark in the finals and won his fourth overall title in five years. Klammer won the World Cup downhill title five times: 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1983. In the 1975 season he won 8 of 9 World Cup downhill races, including his first of three consecutive victories on the prestigious Streif on the Hahnenkamm at Kitzbühel, he won a fourth in 1984, at the age of 30. After his fourth consecutive season title in downhill in 1978, he began a prolonged slump until the end of the 1981 season, he may have been affected by his brother's spinal cord injury in a downhill race, as well as a change of ski supplier. Unable to make the strong four-member Austrian downhill team for the 1980 Olympics, Klammer could not defend his Olympic title at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid.
Rather than retire, he worked hard at a comeback. The following season he regained the World Cup Downhill title, his fifth, followed by the 1984 victory at Kitzbuehel, his fourth on the Hahnenkamm. At the 1984 Olympics in Sarajevo, Klammer finished a disappointing tenth on a less-than-challenging course on Bjelašnica; the race was won by the brash Bill Johnson of the U. S. an excellent glider, who had won his first World Cup race on a shortened course at Wengen. Johnson had promising training runs and publicly predicted his Olympic victo
Tyrol is a federal state in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol, it is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck; the state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide strip. The larger territory is called the smaller area is called East Tyrol; the neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg stands to the east, while on the south Tyrol has a border with the Italian province of South Tyrol, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2, Tyrol is the third-largest state in Austria. Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins to the German state of Bavaria. East Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Carinthia to the east and Italy's Province of Belluno to the south; the state's territory is located within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass.
The highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m, making it the highest mountain in Austria. In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Noricum. From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes. In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tyrol Castle, achieved imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138, their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right; when the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. In 1271, the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it to his committal possessions around Gorizia.
The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck; the Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500. In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol, but Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Andreas Hofer led the Tyrolean Rebellion against the Bavarian occupiers. South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814. Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland of Austria-Hungary from 1867; the County of Tyrol extended beyond the boundaries of today's state, including North Tyrol and East Tyrol. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain.
Since November 1918 it was occupied by 20,000–22,000 soldiers of the Italian Army. After World War II, Tyrol was governed by France until Austria regained independence again in 1955; the capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, for its medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Ischgl and St. Anton; the 15 largest towns in Tyrol are: Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B. C. Tyrol had one of the most important north-south links of the Via Claudia Augusta. Roman roads crossed the Tyrol from the Po Plain in present-day Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in present South Tyrol over the Brenner and following the northern Wipp valley to Hall. From there roads branched along the River Inn; the Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today. The Porta Claudia, built in the early 17th century is a fortification that underlines the importance of the road in the Early Modern Period.
Today Tyrol has international road and air connections. Innsbruck Airport is Tyrol's international airport. In addition there are several smaller airports in various places such as St. Johann in Tirol, Höfen in the Außerfern or Langkampfen. Many ÖPNV companies operate a common tariff scheme as part of the Tyrol Transport Association; the state is divided into nine districts. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are: North Tyrol: Landeck District, Reutte District, Imst District, Innsbruck-Land, Innsbruck Stadt Schwaz District, Kufstein District, Kitzbühel District, East Tyrol: Lienz District, Tyrol History of Tyrol North Tyrol East Tyrol Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Reutte is a market town in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It is the administrative center of the Reutte district. Reutte is located on the Lech, has a population of 6704. Adjacent municipalities and villages are: Breitenwang, Ehenbichl and Pflach. Reutte is located on a Roman road leading from Italy to Germany; the Tyrolean Salt Road from Hall in Tirol to Lake Constance crossed the entire district of Außerfern. Reutte was declared a market town by Sigmund in 1489; this was confirmed by Maximilian I who added some further rights. The people of Reutte commemorate this with an annual festival on the first Saturday in August. From 1692 the painter Paul Zeiller had a workshop in Reutte that became an art school, his son Johann Jakob Zeiller and cousin Franz Anton Zeiller both received their first lessons there. During the period when Austria belonged to Germany there was an outpost of Dachau concentration camp near Reutte, called “Plansee Breitenwald”. In April 1945, American troops of the 44th Infantry Division reached Reutte.
The American soldiers had been told to expect heavy attacks but in fact there was no special resistance by Axis forces at all. Reutte was the place where German engineers from Peenemünde surrendered to the United States Army on 3 May 1945, among them Wernher von Braun; as Reutte is connected with other major parts of the Tyrol only by the Fern Pass, international transport and economic connections to the EU to Germany, are becoming important. The coat of arms of Reutte shows three fir trees on three hills, representing the abundance of available timber in the region.. The background of red and white stripes stands for the republic. Reutte is linked to Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Kempten, Allgäu by train services operated by Deutsche Bahn. Reutte is a popular holiday resort and its proximity to the famous Bavarian Castles and the Ehrenberg ruins make Reutte a cultural destination as well as a skiing destination. Esashi in Japan has been Reutte's twin town since 1991. Reutte travel guide from Wikivoyage
Liechtenstein the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe. The principality is a constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to Austria to the east and north, it is Europe's fourth-smallest country, with an area of just over 160 square kilometres and a population of 37,877. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz, its largest municipality is Schaan, it is the smallest country to border two countries. Economically, Liechtenstein has one of the highest gross domestic products per person in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity, it was once known as a billionaire tax haven, but is no longer on any blacklists of uncooperative tax haven countries. An Alpine country, Liechtenstein is mountainous, making it a winter sport destination; the country has a strong financial sector centered in Vaduz. 20,000 people commute to work in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is a member of the United Nations, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, although not a member of the European Union, it participates in both the Schengen Area and the European Economic Area.
It has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland. The oldest traces of human existence in what is now Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era. Neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BCE; the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age, from around 450 BCE—possibly under some influence of both the Greek and Etruscan civilisations. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii. In 58 BCE, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, therefore bringing the region under close control of the Roman Republic. By 15 BCE, Tiberius—destined to be the second Roman emperor—with his brother, conquered the entirety of the Alpine area. Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia; the area was maintained by the Roman military, who maintained large legionary camps at Brigantium, near Lake Constance, at Magia. A Roman road which ran through the territory was created and maintained by these groups.
In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450 CE. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps by the end of the 8th century, with Liechtenstein located at the eastern edge of Alemannia. In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis I's victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504; the area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony, until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 CE, following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein was under the possession of East Francia, it would be reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire, around 1000 CE. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German began to gain ground in the territory. In 1300, an Alemannic population—the Walsers, who originated in Valais—entered the region and settled.
The mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect into the present century. By 1200, dominions across the Alpine plateau were controlled by the Houses of Savoy, Zähringer and Kyburg. Other regions were accorded the Imperial immediacy that granted the empire direct control over the mountain passes; when the Kyburg dynasty fell in 1264, the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I extended their territory to the eastern Alpine plateau that included the territory of Liechtenstein. This region was enfeoffed to the Counts of Hohenems until the sale to the Liechtenstein dynasty in 1699. In 1396 Vaduz gained imperial immediacy; the family, from which the principality takes its name came from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria which they had possessed from at least 1140 until the 13th century. The Liechtensteins acquired land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria; as these territories were all held in feudal tenure from more senior feudal lords various branches of the Habsburgs, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag.
Though several Liechtenstein princes served several Habsburg rulers as close advisers, without any territory held directly from the Imperial throne, they held little power in the Holy Roman Empire. For this reason, the family sought to acquire lands that would be classed as unmittelbar or held without any intermediate feudal tenure, directly from the Holy Roman Emperor. During the early 17th century Karl I of Liechtenstein was made a Fürst by the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias after siding with him in a political battle. Hans-Adam I was allowed to purchase the minuscule Herrschaft of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had the political status required: no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor. On 23 January 1719, after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed terri
Super giant slalom, or super-G, is a racing discipline of alpine skiing. Along with the faster downhill, it is regarded as a "speed" event, in contrast to the technical events giant slalom and slalom, it debuted as an official World Cup event during the 1983 season and was added to the official schedule of the World Championships in 1987 and the Winter Olympics in 1988. Much like downhill, a super-G course consists of set gates that racers must pass through; the course is set so that skiers must turn more than in downhill, though the speeds are still much higher than in giant slalom. Each athlete only has one run to clock the best time. In the Olympics, super-G courses are set on the same slopes as the downhill, but with a lower starting point. Super-G was run as a World Cup test event during the 1982 season, with two men's races and a women's race that did not count in the season standings. Approved by the International Ski Federation that summer, it was first run at the World Cup level in December 1982 at Val-d'Isère, France.
The first official women's super-G was run a month in early January 1983, with consecutive events at Verbier, Switzerland. The first winner was Irene Epple of West Germany, Cindy Nelson of the United States won the next day on a different course; these were the only two races for women in super-G during the 1983 season. The event was not universally embraced during its early years, which included a boycott by two-time defending overall champion Phil Mahre in December 1982. For the first three seasons, super-G results were added into the giant slalom discipline for the season standings, it was added to the World Championships in 1987, held at Switzerland. Swiss skiers Pirmin Zurbriggen and Maria Walliser won gold medals to become the first world champions in the event. Super-G made its Olympic debut in 1988 in Calgary, where Franck Piccard of France and Sigrid Wolf of Austria took gold at Nakiska. Hermann Maier of Austria is regarded as the greatest male super-G racer, with 24 World Cup victories and five World Cup titles.
He won the world championship in 1999 and an Olympic gold medal in 1998, three days after a crash in the downhill. Maier's proficiency in super-G was attributed to his thorough course inspection and his aggressive course tactics. A serious motorcycle accident in August 2001 nearly resulted in an amputation of his lower right leg and sidelined him for the 2002 season, including the 2002 Olympics. After his return to the World Cup circuit in January 2003, Maier won eight more World Cup super-G events and his fifth season title in 2004. Aksel Lund Svindal of Norway is second on the list with 15 wins in World Cup super-G races, Pirmin Zurbriggen third with his 10 wins. Svindal won Olympic gold in 2010 and his fifth season title in 2014, while Zurbriggen won four consecutive season titles and the first world championship in 1987. Another notable specialist was Kjetil André Aamodt of Norway, a triple gold medalist in Olympic super-G races, winning in 1992, 2002 and 2006. Aamodt won two world championship medals in the discipline.
Marc Girardelli of Luxembourg, a five-time overall World Cup champion, won nine World Cup super-G events. He won season titles in every discipline except super-G. Girardelli was the silver medalist in the super-G at the 1987 World Championships and the 1992 Olympics. On the women's side, Lindsey Vonn of the U. S. has won five season titles. Katja Seizinger of Germany won five season titles in the 1990s, with 16 World Cup wins in the discipline. While neither won gold in the super-G in the Olympics, they both won a world title, Vonn in 2009 and Seizinger in 1993. Renate Götschl of Austria won 17 World Cup events in super-G, three season titles, two medals in the world championships; the vertical drop for a Super-G course must be between 350–650 m for men, 350–600 m for women, 250–450 m for children. In the Olympic Winter Games, FIS World Ski Championships, FIS World Cups, minimums are raised to 400 m for both men and women. Courses are at least 30 m in width, but sections with lower widths are permissible if the line and terrain before and after allow it.
Higher widths can be required if deemed necessary. Gates must be between 6 m and 8 m in width for open gates, between 8 m and 12 m in width for vertical gates; the distance between turning poles of successive gates must be at least 25 m. The number of direction changes must be at least 7% of the course drop in meters. In an attempt to increase safety, the 2004 season saw the FIS impose minimum ski lengths for the super-G for the first time: to 205 cm for men, 200 cm for women; the minimum turning radius was increased to 45 m for the 2014 season. Men The following table contains the men's Super-G World Cup podiums since the first edition in 1986. Women Men Women WOG - Winter Olympic Games, WCH - FIS World Ski Championships FIS-Ski.com - results of first World Cup Super G race - Val-d'Isère- Dec-1982