A cog is a type of ship that first appeared in the 10th century, was used from around the 12th century on. Cogs were clinker-built of oak, an abundant timber in the Baltic region of Prussia; this vessel was fitted with a square-rigged single sail. These vessels were associated with seagoing trade in medieval Europe the Hanseatic League in the Baltic Sea region, they ranged from about 15 to 25 meters in length with a beam of 5 to 8 meters, the largest cog ships could carry up to about 200 tons. Cogs were a type of round ship, characterized by a flush-laid flat bottom at midships but shifted to overlapped strakes near the posts, they had full lapstrake, or clinker, planking covering the sides starting from the bilge strakes, double-clenched iron nails for plank fastenings. The keel, or keelplank, was only thicker than the adjacent garboards and had no rabbet. Both stem and stern posts were straight and rather long, connected to the keelplank through intermediate pieces called hooks; the lower plank hoods terminated in rabbets in the hooks and posts, but upper hoods were nailed to the exterior faces of the posts.
Caulking was tarred moss, inserted into curved grooves, covered with wooden laths, secured by metal staples called sintels. The cog-built structure could not be completed without a stern-mounted hanging central rudder, a unique northern development. Cogs could be rowed short distances. In the 13th century they received decks. Cogs are first mentioned in Muiden near Amsterdam; these early cogs were influenced by the Norse Knarr, the main trade vessel in northern Europe at the time, used a steering oar, as there is nothing to suggest a stern rudder in northern Europe until about 1240. Current archaeological evidence points to the Frisian coast or Western Jutland as the possible birthplace of this type of vessel; the transformation of the cog into a true seagoing trader came not only during the time of the intense trade between West and East, but as a direct answer to the closure of the western entrance to the Limfjord. For centuries, Limfjord in northern Jutland offered protected passage between the North Sea and the Baltic.
Due to unusual geographical conditions and strong currents, the passage was filling with sand and was blocked by the 12th century. This change produced new challenges. Bigger ships that could not be pulled across the sand bars had to sail around the Jutland peninsula and circumnavigate the dangerous Cape Skagen to get to the Baltic; this resulted in major modifications to old ship structures, which can be observed by analyzing evolution of the earliest cog finds of Kollerup and Kolding. The need for spacious and inexpensive ships led to the development of the first workhorse of the Hanseatic League, the cog; the new and improved cog was no longer a simple Frisian coaster but a sturdy seagoing trader, which could cross the most dangerous passages. Fore and stern castles would be added for defense against pirates, or to enable use of these vessels as warships, such as used at the Battle of Sluys; the stern castle afforded more cargo space below by keeping the crew and tiller up, out of the way.
Around the 14th century, the cog reached its structural limits, resulting in the desperate need for a quick replacement. The replacement, the hulk existed but awaited reconditioning. Although there is no evidence that hulks descended from the cogs, it is clear that a lot of technological ideas were adapted from one to the other and vice versa; the transition from cogs to hulks was not linear. According to some interpretations, both vessels coexisted for many centuries but followed diverse lines of evolution; the most famous cog still in existence today is the Bremen cog, depicted at left. It dates from the 1380s and was found in 1962. In 1990, well-preserved remains of a Hanseatic cog were discovered in the estuary sediment of the Pärnu River in Estonia; the Pärnu Cog has been dated to 1300. In 2012, a cog preserved from the keel up to the decks in the silt was discovered alongside two smaller vessels in the river IJssel in the city of Kampen, in the Netherlands; the ship, dating from the early 15th century, was suspected to have been deliberately sunk into the river to influence its current.
Little was expected to be found in the wreck, but during excavation and recovery in February 2016, an intact brick dome oven and glazed tiles were found in the galley as well as a number of other artifacts about the vessel. Medieval ships Knarr Bass, George F. 1972. A History of Seafaring: Based on Underwater Archaeology. Thames and Hudson Ltd, ISBN 0-500-01077-3 Description and pictures of cogs The sailing properties of the Hanse cog in comparison with other cargo sailships Pictures of the Kampen cog replica High resolution photos
Pope Celestine III
Pope Celestine III, born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope, he was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191 and he ruled the church for six years, nine months, nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran. Considered by the Roman Curia as an expert on Spain, Bobone conducted two legatine missions to Spain in and as the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. Celestine crowned the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI on the day after his election in 1191 with a ceremony symbolizing his absolute supremacy, as described by Roger of Hoveden, after Henry VI promised to cede Tusculum. In 1192 he threatened to excommunicate King Tancred of Sicily, forcing him to release his aunt Empress Constance, wife of Henry VI and a contender of Sicilian crown, captured by Tancred in 1191, to Rome to exchange for his recognition of Tancred while put pressure on Henry, but Constance was released by German soldiers on borders of the Papal States before reaching Rome the following summer.
He subsequently nearly excommunicated the same Henry VI for wrongfully keeping King Richard I of England in prison. He placed Pisa under an interdict, lifted by his successor Innocent III in 1198, he condemned King Alfonso IX of León for his marriage to Theresa of Portugal on the grounds of consanguinity. In 1196, he excommunicated him for allying with the Almohad Caliphate while making war on Castile. Following his marriage with Berengaria of Castile, Celestine excommunicated Alfonso and placed an interdict over León. In 1198, Celestine confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order. Celestine would have resigned the papacy and recommended a successor shortly before his death, but was not allowed to do so by the cardinals. List of popes Baaken, K.."Zur Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III." Deutsches Archiv, 41, 1985, pp. 203-211. Clarke, Peter D; the interdict in the thirteenth century: a question of collective guilt, Oxford University Press, 2007. Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages Volume IV, part 2, pp. 625-638.
Lower, Michael. "The Papacy and Christian Mercenaries of Thirteenth-Century North Africa". Speculum; the University of Chicago Press. Vol. 89, No. 3 JULY. Moore, John Clare, Pope Innocent III: to root up and to plant, BRILL, 2003. Mann, Horace K; the Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume X, pp. 383-441. Sikes, Thomas Burr, History of the Christian Church, from the first to the fifteenth century, Eliott Stock, 1885; the New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, Cambridge University Press, 2004. Urban, The Teutonic Knights, Greenhill Books, 2003. Pope Celestine III: Diplomat and Pastor, ed. Damian J. Smith, John Doran, Ashgate Publishing, 2008. Initial text from the 9th edition of an old encyclopedia
Lüneburg called Lunenburg in English, is a town in the German state of Lower Saxony. It is located about 50 km southeast of another Hanseatic city and belongs to that city's wider metropolitan region; the capital of the district which bears its name, it is home to 77,000 people. Lüneburg's urban area, which includes the surrounding communities of Adendorf, Bardowick and Reppenstedt, has a population of around 103,000. Lüneburg has been allowed to use the title "Hansestadt" in its name since 2007, in recognition of its membership in the former Hanseatic League. Lüneburg is home to Leuphana University. Lüneburg lies on the river Ilmenau, about 30 kilometres from its confluence with the Elbe; the river is featured in its song. To the south of the town stretches the 7,400-square-kilometre Lüneburg Heath which emerged as a result of widespread tree-felling, forest fires and grazing; the tradition that the heath arose from centuries of logging undertaken to meet the constant need of the Lüneburg salt works for wood is not confirmed.
More the heath was formed by clearances during the Bronze Age. The old town of Lüneburg lies above a salt dome, the town's original source of prosperity. However, the constant mining of the salt deposits over which the town stands has resulted in the sometimes gradual, sometimes pronounced, sinking of various areas of the town. On the western edge of the town is the Kalkberg, a small hill and former gypsum quarry. There are several towns and urban areas around Lüneburg in all directions: The motto Mons, Fons characterised the development of the town from the 8th century as it coalesced from three, four, areas of settlement; these areas were the refuge castle on the — at that time higher — Kalkberg, together with its adjoining settlement, the village of Modestorpe between the bridge over the river Ilmenau and the large square, Am Sande, the saline with its walled settlement for the work force. Not until the 13th century was the river port settlement built between the market place and the Ilmenau.
The resulting shape of the town thus formed did not change until its expansion in the late 19th century and it is still visible today. Lüneburg's six historic town gates were the Altenbrücker Tor, the Bardowicker Tor, the Rote Tor, the Sülztor, the Lüner Tor and the Neue Tor. Lüneburg has the following Stadtteile: Altstadt, Ebensberg, Goseburg-Zeltberg, Häcklingen, Kreideberg, Lüne, Mittelfeld, Neu Hagen, Oedeme, Rotes Feld, Schützenplatz and Wilschenbruch. Jüttkenmoor, Klosterkamp, Bülows Kamp, In den Kämpen, Krähornsberg, Schäferfeld and Zeltberg are the names of individual blocks within a single Stadtteil; the houses in the historic quarter between the Lüneburg Saltworks and the Kalkberg were built above a salt dome, excavated by the saltworks and which extended to just below the surface of the ground. As a result of the increasing quantities of salt mined with improved technical equipment after 1830, the ground began to sink by several metres; this resulted in the so-called Senkungsgebiet or "subsidence area".
The houses there and the local church had to be demolished. Because of this subsidence, because salt mining was unprofitable, the saltworks were closed in 1980. Today, only small amounts of brine are extracted for the health spa in the Lüneburg Thermal Salt Baths. One side of the saltworks now houses a supermarket; the subsidence has been monitored at about 240 stations since 1946 every two years. The land has not quite stopped subsiding yet, but it is stable enough that new construction has taken place on it, several historic buildings, damaged or demolished have been restored; the subsidence can still be seen today. Those who walk from Am Sande to the end of the Grapengießerstraße can sense the degree of subsidence for themselves: the hollow in front of them was at the same level as the Grapengießerstraße; this depression extends as far as the Lambertiplatz square. In the Frommestraße, another sign of earth movements caused by salt mining may be seen: the Tor zur Unterwelt, where two cast iron doors have been pushed on top of one another.
Near the church St. Michaelis, other consequences of the subsidence can be seen in its sloping columns and the west wing of the nave. Current subsidence movements can be seen in the road known as Ochtmisser Kirchsteig; the first signs of human presence in the area of Lüneburg date back to the time of Neanderthal Man: 56 axes, estimated at 150,000 years old, were uncovered during the construction in the 1990s of the autobahn between Ochtmissen and Bardowick. The site of the discovery at Ochtmissen was a Neanderthal hunting location where huntsmen skinned and cut up the animals they had caught; the area was certainly not continuously inhabited at that time, due
Imperial immediacy was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular principalities, individuals such as the Imperial knights, were declared free from the authority of any local lord and placed under the direct authority of the Emperor, of the institutions of the Empire such as the Diet, the Imperial Chamber of Justice and the Aulic Council. The granting of immediacy began in the Early Middle Ages, for the immediate bishops and cities the main beneficiaries of that status, immediacy could be exacting and meant being subjected to the fiscal and hospitality demands of their overlord, the Emperor. However, with the gradual exit of the Emperor from the centre stage from the mid-13th century onwards, holders of imperial immediacy found themselves vested with considerable rights and powers exercised by the emperor; as confirmed by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the possession of imperial immediacy came with a particular form of territorial authority known as territorial superiority.
In today's terms, it would be understood as a limited form of sovereignty. Several immediate estates held the privilege of attending meetings of the Reichstag in person, including an individual vote: the seven Prince-electors designated by the Golden Bull of 1356 the other Princes of the Holy Roman Empire secular: Dukes, Landgraves et al. ecclesiastical: Prince-Bishops, Prince-Abbots and Prince-Provosts. They formed the Imperial Estates, together with 100 immediate counts, 40 Imperial prelates and 50 Imperial Cities who only enjoyed a collective vote. Further immediate estates not represented in the Reichstag were the Imperial Knights as well as several abbeys and minor localities, the remains of those territories which in the High Middle Ages had been under the direct authority of the Emperor and since had been given in pledge to the princes. At the same time, there were classes of "princes" with titular immediacy to the Emperor but who exercised such privileges if at all. For example, the Bishops of Chiemsee and Seckau were subordinate to the prince-bishop of Salzburg, but were formally princes of the Empire.
Additional advantages might include the rights to collect taxes and tolls, to hold a market, to mint coins, to bear arms, to conduct legal proceedings. The last of these might include the so-called Blutgericht through which capital punishment could be administered; these rights varied according to the legal patents granted by the emperor. As pointed out by Jonathan Israel in 1528 the Dutch province of Overijssel tried to arrange its submission to Emperor Charles V in his capacity as Holy Roman Emperor rather than as his being the Duke of Burgundy. If successful, that would have evoked Imperial immediacy and would have put Overijssel in a stronger negotiating position, for example given the province the ability to appeal to the Imperial Diet in any debate with Charles. For that reason, the Emperor rejected and blocked Overijssel's attempt. Disadvantages might include direct intervention by imperial commissions, as happened in several of the south-western cities after the Schmalkaldic War, the potential restriction or outright loss of held legal patents.
Immediate rights might be lost if the Emperor and/or the Imperial Diet could not defend them against external aggression, as occurred in the French Revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The Treaty of Lunéville in 1801 required the emperor to renounce all claims to the portions of the Holy Roman Empire west of the Rhine. At the last meeting of the Imperial Diet in 1802–03 called the German Mediatisation, most of the free imperial cities and the ecclesiastic states lost their imperial immediacy and were absorbed by several dynastic states; the practical application of the rights of immediacy was complex. Such contemporaries as Goethe and Fichte called the Empire a monstrosity. Voltaire wrote of the Empire as something neither Holy nor Roman, nor an Empire, in comparison to the British Empire, saw its German counterpart as an abysmal failure that reached its pinnacle of success in the early Middle Ages and declined thereafter. Prussian historian Heinrich von Treitschke described it in the 19th century as having become "a chaotic mess of rotted imperial forms and unfinished territories".
For nearly a century after the publication of James Bryce's monumental work The Holy Roman Empire, this view prevailed among most English-speaking historians of the Early Modern period, contributed to the development of the Sonderweg theory of the German past. A revisionist view popular in Germany but adopted elsewhere argued that "though not powerful politically or militarily, was extraordinarily diverse and free by the standards of Europe at the time". Pointing out that people like Goethe meant "monster" as a compliment in modern understanding, The Economist has called the Empire "a great place to live... a union with which its subjects identified, whose loss distressed them greatly" and praised its cultural and religious diversity, saying that it "allowed a degree of liberty and diversity, unimaginable in the neighbouring kingdoms" and that "ordinary folk, including women, had
Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein
The Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein were titles of the Frankish Empire. The dynastic family came from the County of Schauenburg near Rinteln on the Weser in Germany. Together with its ancestral possessions in Bückeburg and Stadthagen, the House of Schauenburg ruled the County of Schauenburg and the County of Holstein; the comital titles of Holstein were subject to the liege lord, the Dukes of undivided Saxony till 1296, thereafter the Dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg. The County of Schaumburg originated as a medieval county, founded at the beginning of the 12th century, it was named after Schauenburg Castle, near Rinteln on the Weser, where the owners started calling themselves Lords of Schauenburg. Adolf I became the first Lord of Schauenburg in 1106. In 1110, Adolf I, Lord of Schauenburg was appointed by Lothair, Duke of Saxony to hold Holstein and Stormarn, including Hamburg, as fiefs. In a battle with Denmark, Adolf III became prisoner of the king Valdemar II, to whom he had to give Holstein in exchange for his freedom.
In 1227 Adolf III's son, Adolf IV, recovered the lost lands from Denmark. Subsequently, the House of Schaumburg were counts of Holstein and its partitions Holstein-Itzehoe, Holstein-Kiel, Holstein-Pinneberg, Holstein-Plön, Holstein-Segeberg] and Holstein-Rendsburg and through the latter at times the dukes of Schleswig. After 1261 the jointly ruling brothers Gerhard I and the elder John I divided the Counties of Holstein and Schauenburg. Gerhard I received the Counties of Holstein-Itzehoe and Schaumburg, whereas John received the County of Holstein-Kiel. After the death of John I, his sons Adolphus V and John II reigned jointly in Holstein-Kiel. In 1273 they partitioned John II continued ruling over Kiel. After the death of Adolphus V, Holstein-Segeberg was reincorporated into Holstein-Kiel. After Gerhard I's death in 1290 his three younger sons partitioned Holstein-Itzehoe and Schaumburg into three branches, with Adolph VI the Elder, the third brother, getting Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg south of the Elbe, the second brother Gerhard II the Blind getting Holstein-Plön, the fourth Henry I receiving Holstein-Rendsburg.
The eldest brother John was Canon at the Hamburg Cathedral. After the death of Gerhard II his sons Gerhard IV and his younger half-brother John III the Mild inherited and ruled in Holstein-Plön together. In 1316 the brothers militarily seized the possessions of John II the One-Eyed in Holstein-Kiel, whose sons had been killed. John III the Mild, before a second-born co-ruling count in Plön received Kiel from the deposed John II the One-Eyed, a cousin of his father Gerhard II the Blind. Gerhard IV continued ruling Holstein-Plön as sole count. After the death of John III's nephew Gerhard V, Count of Holstein-Plön in 1350, who had succeeded Gerhard IV, the Plön line became extinct and John III re-inherited their possessions. In 1390 his son Adolphus IX ruling since 1359 Kiel including Plön, died without issue and thus Nicholas of Holstein-Rendsburg and his nephews Albert II and Gerhard VI succeeded to the territories of Holstein-Kiel and Holstein-Plön. In 1390 the Holstein-Rendsburg line had assembled the larger part of the partitioned Holstein counties, to wit Kiel, Plön and Segeberg, but not Holstein-Pinneberg, which existed until 1640.
Members of the Rendsburg family branch were also titled as Counts of Holstein after 1390. For the Pinneberg family branch residing in the County of Schaumburg, the titling after Schaumburg started to prevail. In 1397 after the death of their uncle Nicholas, with whom the nephews Albert II and the elder Gerhard VI had jointly ruled Holstein-Rendsburg, they partitioned Holstein-Segeberg from Holstein-Rendsburg, with Albert receiving the new branch county in return for waiving his co-rule in Rendsburg. After Albert's death in 1403 Segeberg reverted to Rendsberg. In 1459, with the death of Adolphus XI, the Rendsburg branch was extinct in the male line and the nobility of Holstein-Rendburg and of Schleswig assigned the succession to his sister's son King Christian I of Denmark, House of Oldenburg. After King Christian I of Denmark, House of Oldenburg had been chosen as heir to the County of Holstein-Rendsburg Christian ascended to the comital throne in 1460. In 1474 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, elevated Christian I from Count of Holstein-Rendsburg to Duke of Holstein.
For his succession in the Duchy of Holstein see List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein#House of Oldenburg. The Schauenburg line in the Counties of Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg persisted until its extinction in the male line in 1640; this line is known as Holstein-Schauenburg. The Counts were elevated to Princes of Schaumburg in 1619/1620, the Dukes of Holstein opposed the transition of that title to the County of Holstein-Pinneberg. After the death in 1640 of Count Otto V without children, the rule of the House of Schaumburg ended in Holstein; the County of Holstein-Pinneberg was merged under Christian IV with his royal share in the Duchy of Holstein, now part of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. For Christian IV and his successors see List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein#House of Oldenburg The Principality of Schaumburg proper, was partitioned among the agnatic Schauenburg heirs into three parts, one incorporated into the Principality of Lüneburg of the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, the second becoming the County of Schaumburg-Lippe and the third continuing the name County of Schaumburg, ruled in personal union by Hesse-Cassel.
All the three are n
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VI, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was King of Sicily, he was his consort Beatrix of Burgundy. In 1186 he was married to Constance of Sicily, the posthumous daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. Henry, still stuck in the Hohenstaufen conflict with the House of Welf, had to enforce the inheritance claims by his wife against her nephew Count Tancred of Lecce. Based on an enormous ransom for the release of King Richard I of England, he conquered Sicily in 1194. Henry was born in autumn 1165 at the Valkhof pfalz of Nijmegen to Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrix of Burgundy. At the age of four, his father had him elected King of the Romans during the Hoftag in Bamberg at Pentecost 1169, Henry was crowned on 15 August at Aachen Cathedral, he accompanied his father on his Italian campaign of 1174-76 against the Lombard League, whereby he was educated by Godfrey of Viterbo and associated with minnesingers like Friedrich von Hausen, Bligger von Steinach, Bernger von Horheim.
Henry was fluent in Latin and, according to the chronicler Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, was "distinguished by gifts of knowledge, wreathed in flowers of eloquence, learned in canon and Roman law". He was a patron of poets and poetry, he certainly composed the song Kaiser Heinrich, now among the Weingarten Song Manuscripts. According to his rank and with Imperial Eagle, a scroll, he is the first and foremost to be portrayed in the famous Codex Manesse, a 14th-century songbook manuscript featuring 140 reputed poets. In one of those he describes a romance that makes him forget all his earthly power, neither riches nor royal dignity can outweigh his yearning for that lady. Having returned to Germany in 1178, Henry supported his father against insurgent Duke Henry the Lion, he and his younger brother Frederick received the knightly accolade at Mainz in 1184. The emperor had entered into negotiations with King William II of Sicily to betroth his son and heir with William's aunt Constance by 1184. Constance 30-year-old, was said to have been confined in Santissimo Salvatore, Palermo as a nun since childhood to keep celibacy due to a prediction that "her marriage would destroy Sicily", but as William's marriage had remained childless, she was his sole legitimate heir, after the latter's death in November 1189, Henry had the opportunity of adding the Sicilian crown to the imperial one.
He and Constance were married on 27 January 1186 in Milan. In the Hohenstaufen conflict with Pope Urban III, Henry moved to the March of Tuscany, with the aid of his liensman Markward von Annweiler devastated the adjacent territory of the Papal States. Back in Germany, he took the reins of the Empire from his father, who had died while on the Third Crusade in 1190. Henry tried to secure his rule in the Low Countries by elevating Count Baldwin V of Hainaut to a margrave of Namur, at the same time he tried to reach a settlement with rivalling Duke Henry of Brabant. Further difficulties arose when the exiled Welf duke Henry the Lion returned from England and began to subdue large estates in his former Duchy of Saxony. A Hohenstaufen campaign to Saxony had to be abandoned when King Henry received the message of the death of King William II of Sicily on 18 November 1189; the Sicilian vice-chancellor Matthew of Ajello pursued the succession of Count Tancred of Lecce and gained the support of the Roman Curia.
To assert his own rights in the inheritance dispute, Henry supported Tancred's rival Count Roger of Andria and made arrangements for a campaign to Italy. The next year he concluded a peace agreement with Henry the Lion at Fulda and moved farther southwards to Augsburg, where he learned that his father had died on crusade attempting to cross the Saleph River near Seleucia in the Kingdom of Cilicia on 10 June 1190. While he sent an Imperial army to Italy, Henry stayed in Germany to settle the succession of Louis III, Landgrave of Thuringia, who had died on the Third Crusade, he had planned to seize the Thuringian landgraviate as a reverted fief, but Louis' brother Hermann was able to reach his enfeoffment. The next year, the king followed his army across the Alps. In Lodi he negotiated with Eleanor of Aquitaine, widow of King Henry II of England, to break the engagement of her son King Richard with Alys, a daughter of late King Louis VII of France, he hoped to deteriorate English-French relations and to isolate Richard, who had offended him by backing Count Tancred in Sicily.
Eleanor acted cleverly. Henry entered into further negotiations with the Lombard League cities and with Pope Celestine III on his Imperial coronation, ceded Tusculum to the Pope. At Easter Monday on 15 April 1191, in Rome and his consort Constance were crowned Emperor and Empress by Celestine; the crown of Sicily, was harder to gain, as the Sicilian nobility had chosen Count Tancred of Lecce as their king. Henry began his work campaigning in Apulia and besieging Naples, but he encountered resistance when Tancred's liensman Margaritus of Brindisi came to the city's defence, harassed
Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign. The word stems from the Latin substantivation of the adjective regalis, "regal", itself from rex, "king", it is sometimes used in regale. The term can refer to rights and privileges enjoyed by any sovereign regardless of title An example is the right to mint coins with one's own effigy. In many cases in feudal societies and weak states, such rights have in time been eroded by grants to or usurpations by lesser vassals; some emblems, symbols, or paraphernalia possessed by rulers are a visual representation of imperial, royal or sovereign status. Some are shared with divinities, either to symbolize a god's role as, king of the Pantheon or to allow mortal royalty to resemble, identify with, or link to a divinity; the term crown jewels is used for regalia items designed to lend luster to occasions such as coronations. They feature some combination of precious materials, artistic merit, symbolic or historical value.
Crown jewels may have been designated at the start of a dynasty, accumulated through many years of tradition, or sent as tangible recognition of legitimacy by some leader such as the pope to an emperor or caliph. Each culture each monarchy and dynasty within one culture, may have its own historical traditions, some have a specific name for its regalia, or at least for an important subset, such as: The Honours of Scotland The Nigerian Royal Regalia The Three Sacred Treasures of the Emperor of Japan The Imperial Regalia of the emperors and kings of the Holy Roman EmpireBut some elements occur in many traditions. Crowns and variations Cap of Maintenance Armills—bracelets coronation mantle Gloves Barmi or barmas, a detachable silk collar with medallions of precious material sewn to it, as used in Moscovy Rings, symbolizing the monarch's "marriage" to the state. Seals, such as the Heirloom Seal of the Realm, represented imperial authority under the Mandate of Heaven in China. Regalia can stand for other attributes or virtues, i.e. what is expected from the holder.
Thus the Imperial Regalia of Japan known as the Three Sacred Treasures of Japan as follows: The sword, Kusanagi represents valor The jewel or necklace of jewels, Yasakani no magatama, represents benevolence The mirror, Yata no kagami, located in the Ise Shrine in Mie Prefecture, represents wisdomSince 690, the presentation of these items to the emperor by the priests at the shrine are a central part of the imperial enthronement ceremony. As this ceremony is not public, the regalia are by tradition only seen by the emperor and certain priests, no known photographs or drawings exist; some regalia objects are used in the formal ceremony of enthronement/coronation. They can be associated with an office or court sinecure that enjoys the privilege to carry, present and/or use it at the august occasion, sometimes on other formal occasions, such as a royal funeral; such objects, with or without intrinsic symbolism, can include Anointing utensils: Sacred ampulla containing the ointment. Spoon for the same ointment.
Alternatively, the monarchies of Norway and Sweden have an anointment horn. A Bible used for swearing in the monarch as the new sovereign. Cage with a bird for wren hunting in Celtic ceremonies. Coronation stone e.g. Stone of Scone or Lia Fáil. Apart from the sovereign himself, attributes can be used for close relatives who are allowed to share in the pomp. For example, in Norway the queen consort and the crown prince are the only other members of the royal family to possess these attributes and share in the sovereign's royal symbolism. In the Roman Empire the colour Tyrian purple, produced with an expensive Mediterranean mollusk extract, was in principle reserved for the Imperial Court; the use of this dye was extended to various dignitaries, such as members of the Roman senate who wore stripes of Tyrian purple on their white togas, for whom the term purpuratus was coined as a high aulic distinction. In late Imperial China, the colour yellow was reserved for the emperor, as it had a multitude of meanings.
Yellow was a symbol of gold, thus wealth and power, since it was the colour that symbolized the center in Chinese cosmology, it was the perfect way to refer to the emperor, always in the middle of the universe. Peasants and noblemen alike were forbidden to wear robes made out of yellow, although they were allowed to use the colour sparingly. Umbrella / canopy Fan Standard Mace Music, such as A fanfare or other specific piece of music Reserved instruments, such as silver trumpets, or in India the Nakkara drum The ceremonial Nobat orchestra is a formal requirement for a valid Malaysian coronation. Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings tertiary (and sometimes second