United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
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University of Montana
The University of Montana is a public research university in Missoula, Montana. UM is its second largest campus; the University’s mission focuses on integrating the liberal arts and sciences into undergraduate and professional studies. UM reported 10,962 undergraduate and graduate students in fall 2018; the University of Montana ranks 17th in the nation and fifth among public universities in producing Rhodes Scholars, with 28 such scholars. The University of Montana has 11 Truman Scholars, 14 Goldwater Scholars and 40 Udall Scholars to its name; the University of Montana's Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library houses the earliest authorized edition of the Lewis and Clark journals. An act of Congress of February 18, 1881 dedicated 72 sections in Montana Territory for the creation of the University. Montana was admitted to the Union on November 8, 1889, the Montana Legislature soon began to consider where the state's permanent capital and state university would be located. To be sure that the new state university would be located in Missoula, the city's leaders made an agreement with the standing capital of Helena that Missoula would stay out of the bidding for the new capital and would support Helena over its leading competitor, Anaconda.
The cities' bids were supported by the rival "Copper Kings," William A. Clark and Marcus Daly, respectively. Missoula won the legislative vote for the new university at the Third Montana Legislative Assembly in February 1893; the University was formally opened in 1895. While plans for a university campus were progressing, classes were temporarily held at nearby Willard School; the South Missoula Land Company, owned by A. B. Hammond, Richard Eddy and Marcus Daly, joined with the Higgins family in donating land for the new campus. In June 1898 the cornerstone for A. J. Gibson designed University Hall was laid and Missoula became "the University City." The University of Montana comprises eleven full colleges and schools: College of Humanities & Sciences. A. Franke College of Forestry and Conservation; the Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences is divided into five academic departments and the Institute of Educational Research and Service. In 1914, the University of Montana School of Law became a member of The Association of American Law Schools and in 1923, the School received accreditation from the American Bar Association.
The W. A. Franke College of Forestry and Conservation offers five undergraduate majors and five Master's of Science and three PhDs. Applicants For the fall 2017 term, 6,182 students applied to the University of Montana. Ninety-three percent were accepted; the entering freshman class had an average high school GPA of 3.55, the middle 50% range of SAT scores were 540-650 for reading and writing, 520-620 for math, while the ACT Composite range was 21–26. The original plan of the University campus was designed by one of its first professors, Frederich Scheuch, who called for the central oval to be surrounded by immediate and future University buildings. Although Scheuch's plan called for all building entrances to face the center of the Oval, forming a radiating building pattern, buildings were constructed with three-story in the Renaissance Revival style, with hipped roofs and Spanish green roof tiles; the first set of buildings were set up around the oval in 1895. Since that time, various campus plans and architectural styles have been used.
Today the campus consists of 220 acres and is bordered to the east by Mount Sentinel and the north by the Clark Fork River. The main campus comprises 64 buildings, including nine residence halls and various athletic venues, including Washington–Grizzly Stadium, a 26,500-seat football stadium and the Adams Center, a 7,500-seat multi-purpose arena where the university's basketball teams play. Landmarks include: The OvalA 3 acres swath of grass running east to west, marking the traditional center of the university. Today it is divided into quadrants by two intersecting brick-laid paths, though the oval was solid grass and forbidden to be crossed by students. A double row of trees was planted around the oval on Arbor Day 1896, but many of the trees have since died and are in the process of being replanted; the original gravel driveway that once surrounded the Oval has been replaced by sidewalk. The original master plan of the university called for all buildings to face the center of the oval, but this plan proved difficult and a new plan was created in 1935.
On the western extreme of the Oval is a life-sized grizzly bear statue created by ceramic artist and sculptor Rudy Autio in 1969. The bronze statue took one year to create. Many photographs of the university picture the bear with the Oval, University Hall, Mount Sentinel's'M' in the background; the "M" trailA 3/4 mile long trail with 13 switchbacks that rises 620 feet from the University of Montana at the base of Mount Sentinel. The trail offers sweeping views of the city below. There is debate of. Around 1908, members of the Forestry Club forged a zigzag trail up the mountain and students carried up stones to shape the symbol of the University of Montana. Originall
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more the ability to perform aspects of sports and daily activities. Physical fitness is achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, sufficient rest. Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, to meet emergency situations. Fitness is defined as the state of being fit. Around 1950 consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term "fitness" increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten; the modern definition of fitness describes either a person or machine's ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations.
This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness that has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries. Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to persons who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i.e. endurance or strength. A well-rounded fitness program improves a person in all aspects of fitness compared to practicing only one, such as only cardio/respiratory endurance or only weight training. A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual focuses on one or more specific skills, on age- or health-related needs such as bone health. Many sources cite mental and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness; this is presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical and mental fitness. Physical fitness can prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging. Working out can help some people sleep better and alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals.
Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines, which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases; the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were created by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. This publication recommends that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically. For substantial health benefits, adults should participate in at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, preferably, it should be spread throughout the week.
New guidelines in the United Kingdom include the following points: The intensity at which we exercise is key, light activity such as strolling and housework is unlikely to have much positive impact on the health of most people. For aerobic exercise to be beneficial it must make you sweat; the more exercise, the better. Everyone should do a minimum of 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise but, the minimum for health benefits. If you can go beyond 150 minutes, you’ll gain more health benefits. Sedentary time is bad for your health for those who are achieving 150 minutes of exercise a week; these guidelines, are now much more in line with those used in the US include recommendations for muscle-building and bone strengthening activities such as lifting weights and yoga.<https://www.nhs.uk/news/lifestyle-and-exercise/major-new-exercise-guidelines-announced/> The US guidelines continue: For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 150 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.
Additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount. Adults should do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits. Cardiorespiratory fitness can be measured using VO2 max, a measure of the amount of oxygen the body can uptake and utilize. Aerobic exercise, which improves cardiorespiratory fitness, involves movement that increases the heart rate to improve the body's oxygen consumption; this form of exercise is an important part of all training regiments ranging from professional athletes to the everyday person. It helps increase stamina. Examples are: Jogging -- Running at a gentle pace; this form of exercise is great for maintaining weight. Elliptical training – This is a stationary exercise machine used to perform walking, or running without causing excessive stress on the joints; this form of exercise is perfect for people with achy hips and ankles.
Walking – Moving at a regular pace for a short, medium or long distance. Treadmill training – Many treadmills have programs set up that offer numerous different workout plans. One effective cardiovascular activity would be to switch between walking. Warm up first by walking and switch off between walking f
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Medical diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit; the information required for diagnosis is collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. One or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis is challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin, by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong, thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed. This involves the correlation of various pieces of information followed by the recognition and differentiation of patterns; the process is made easy by a sign or symptom, pathognomonic. Diagnosis is a major component of the procedure of a doctor's visit.
From the point of view of statistics, the diagnostic procedure involves classification tests. The first recorded examples of medical diagnosis are found in the writings of Imhotep in ancient Egypt. A Babylonian medical textbook, the Diagnostic Handbook written by Esagil-kin-apli, introduced the use of empiricism and rationality in the diagnosis of an illness or disease. Traditional Chinese Medicine, as described in the Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon or Huangdi Neijing, specified four diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation-olfaction and palpation. Hippocrates was known to make diagnoses by smelling their sweat. A diagnosis, in the sense of diagnostic procedure, can be regarded as an attempt at classification of an individual's condition into separate and distinct categories that allow medical decisions about treatment and prognosis to be made. Subsequently, a diagnostic opinion is described in terms of a disease or other condition, but in the case of a wrong diagnosis, the individual's actual disease or condition is not the same as the individual's diagnosis.
A diagnostic procedure may be performed by various health care professionals such as a physician, physical therapist, healthcare scientist, dentist, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant. This article uses diagnostician as any of these person categories. A diagnostic procedure does not involve elucidation of the etiology of the diseases or conditions of interest, that is, what caused the disease or condition; such elucidation can be useful to optimize treatment, further specify the prognosis or prevent recurrence of the disease or condition in the future. The initial task is to detect a medical indication to perform a diagnostic procedure. Indications include: Detection of any deviation from what is known to be normal, such as can be described in terms of, for example, physiology, pathology and human homeostasis. Knowledge of what is normal and measuring of the patient's current condition against those norms can assist in determining the patient's particular departure from homeostasis and the degree of departure, which in turn can assist in quantifying the indication for further diagnostic processing.
A complaint expressed by a patient. The fact that a patient has sought a diagnostician can itself be an indication to perform a diagnostic procedure. For example, in a doctor's visit, the physician may start performing a diagnostic procedure by watching the gait of the patient from the waiting room to the doctor's office before she or he has started to present any complaints. During an ongoing diagnostic procedure, there can be an indication to perform another, diagnostic procedure for another concomitant, disease or condition; this may occur as a result of an incidental finding of a sign unrelated to the parameter of interest, such as can occur in comprehensive tests such as radiological studies like magnetic resonance imaging or blood test panels that include blood tests that are not relevant for the ongoing diagnosis. General components which are present in a diagnostic procedure in most of the various available methods include: Complementing the given information with further data gathering, which may include questions of the medical history, physical examination and various diagnostic tests.
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. Diagnostic tests can be used to provide prognostic information on people with established disease. Processing of the answers, findings or other results. Consultations with other providers and specialists in the field may be sought. There are a number of methods or techniques that can be used in a diagnostic procedure, including performing a differential diagnosis or following medical algorithms. In reality, a diagnostic procedure may involve components of multiple methods; the method of differential diagnosis is based on finding as many candidate diseases or conditions as possible that can cause the signs or symptoms, followed by a process of elimination or at least of rendering the entries more or less probable by further medical tests and other processing until, aiming to reach the point where only one candidate disease or condit