A paperback known as a softcover or سعيد, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U. S. there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks." In the U. K. there are A-format, B-format, the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books.
Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, distribute and sell them across the British Isles, principally via the ubiquitous W H Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.
These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, were of a smaller format, 110 mm × 178 mm, aimed at the railway traveller. The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5,000 volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in 1935 when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres.
British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in 1935, initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book-market by releasing ten reprint titles. The first released book on Penguin's 1935 list was André Maurois' Ariel. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations. Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word "paperback". In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, partnering with Simon & Schuster to create the Pocket Books label; the term "pocket book" became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.
De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book. However, the first mass-market, pocket-sized, paperback book printed in the US was an edition of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, produced by Pocket Books as a proof-of-concept in late 1938, sold in New York City. In World War II, the U. S. military distributed some 122 million "Armed Services Editions" paperback novels to the troops, which helped popularize the format after the war. Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses.
This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of 1968 prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the wealthy by imposing that
Entertaining Comics, more known as EC Comics, was an American publisher of comic books, which specialized in horror fiction, crime fiction, military fiction, dark fantasy, science fiction from the 1940s through the mid-1950s, notably the Tales from the Crypt series. EC was owned by Maxwell Gaines and specialized in educational and child-oriented stories. After Max Gaines' death in a boating accident in 1947, his son William Gaines took over the company and began to print more mature stories, delving into genres of horror, fantasy, science-fiction and others. Noted for their high quality and shock endings, these stories were unique in their conscious, progressive themes that anticipated the Civil Rights Movement and dawn of 1960s counterculture. In 1954–55, censorship pressures prompted it to concentrate on the humor magazine Mad, leading to the company's greatest and most enduring success. By 1956, the company ceased publishing all of its comic lines besides Mad; the firm, first known as Educational Comics, was founded by Max Gaines, former editor of the comic-book company All-American Publications.
When that company merged with DC Comics in 1944, Gaines retained rights to the comic book Picture Stories from the Bible, began his new company with a plan to market comics about science and the Bible to schools and churches. A decade earlier, Max Gaines had been one of the pioneers of the comic book form, with Eastern Color Printing's proto-comic book Funnies on Parade, with Dell Publishing's Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics, considered by historians the first true American comic book; when Max Gaines died in 1947 in a boating accident, his son William inherited the comics company. After four years in the Army Air Corps, Gaines had returned home to finish school at New York University, planning to work as a chemistry teacher, he never instead took over the family business. In 1949 and 1950, Bill Gaines began a line of new titles featuring horror, science fiction, military fiction and crime fiction, his editors, Al Feldstein and Harvey Kurtzman, who drew covers and stories, gave assignments to such prominent and accomplished freelance artists as Johnny Craig, Reed Crandall, Jack Davis, Will Elder, George Evans, Frank Frazetta, Graham Ingels, Jack Kamen, Bernard Krigstein, Joe Orlando, John Severin, Al Williamson, Basil Wolverton, Wally Wood.
With input from Gaines, the stories were written by Kurtzman and Craig. Other writers including Carl Wessler, Jack Oleck, Otto Binder were brought on board. EC had success with its fresh approach and pioneered in forming relationships with its readers through its letters to the editor and its fan organization, the National EC Fan-Addict Club. EC Comics promoted its stable of illustrators, allowing each to sign his art and encouraging them to develop idiosyncratic styles; this was in contrast to the industry's common practice, in which credits were missing, although some artists at other companies, such as the Jack Kirby – Joe Simon team, Jack Cole and Bob Kane had been prominently promoted. EC published distinct lines of titles under its Entertaining Comics umbrella. Most notorious were its horror books, Tales from the Crypt, The Vault of Horror and The Haunt of Fear; these titles reveled in a gruesome joie de vivre, with grimly ironic fates meted out to many of the stories' protagonists. The company's war comics Frontline Combat and Two-Fisted Tales featured weary-eyed, unheroic stories out of step with the jingoistic times.
Shock SuspenStories tackled weighty political and social issues such as racism, drug use, the American way of life. EC always claimed to be "proudest of our science fiction titles", with Weird Science and Weird Fantasy publishing stories unlike the space opera found in such titles as Fiction House's Planet Comics. Crime SuspenStories had many parallels with film noir; as noted by Max Allan Collins in his story annotations for Russ Cochran's 1983 hardcover reprint of Crime SuspenStories, Johnny Craig had developed a "film noir-ish bag of effects" in his visuals, while characters and themes found in the crime stories showed the strong influence of writers associated with film noir, notably James M. Cain. Craig excelled in drawing stories of domestic scheming and conflict, leading David Hajdu to observe: To young people of the postwar years, when the mainstream culture glorified suburban domesticity as the modern American ideal-- the life that made the Cold War worth fighting-- nothing else in the panels of EC comics, not the giant alien cockroach that ate earthlings, not the baseball game played with human body parts, was so subversive as the idea that the exits of the Long Island Expressway emptied onto levels of Hell.
Superior illustrations of stories with surprise endings became EC's trademark. Gaines would stay up late and read large amounts of material while seeking "springboards" for story concepts; the next day he would present each premise until Feldstein found one that he thought he could develop into a story. At EC's peak, Feldstein edited seven titles. Artists were assigned stories specific to their styles. Davis and Ingels drew gruesome, supernatural-themed stories, while Kamen and Evans did tamer material. With hundreds of stories written, common themes surfaced; some of EC's more well-known themes include: An ordinary situation given an ironic and gruesome twist as poetic justice for a character's crimes. In "Collection Completed" a man takes up taxidermy; when he kills and stuffs her beloved cat
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States. It was differentiated as those states most dependent on plantations and slave societies during the pre-Civil War period; the Deep South is referred to as the Cotton States, given that the production of cotton was a primary cash crop. The term "Deep South" is defined in a variety of ways: Most definitions include the states Georgia, South Carolina and Louisiana. Texas is sometimes included, due to its history of slavery and as being a part of the Confederate States of America; the eastern part of the state is the westernmost extension of the Deep South. Arkansas is sometimes included or else considered "in the Peripheral or Rim South rather than the Deep South." North Florida is a part of the Deep South region. The seven states that seceded from the United States before the firing on Fort Sumter and the start of the American Civil War, who formed the Confederate States of America. In order of secession they are: South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas.
The first six states to secede were those. The Confederacy included eleven states. A large part of the original "Cotton Belt"; this was considered to extend from eastern North Carolina to South Carolina and through the Gulf States as far west as East Texas, including those parts of western Tennessee and eastern Arkansas in the Mississippi embayment. Some of this is coterminous with the Black Belt referring to upland areas of Alabama and Mississippi with fertile soil, which were developed for cotton under slave labor; the term came to be used for much of the Cotton Belt, which had a high percentage of African-American slave labor. Though used in history books to refer to the seven states that formed the Confederacy, the term "Deep South" did not come into general usage until long after the Civil War ended. Up until that time, "Lower South" was the primary designation for those states; when "Deep South" first began to gain mainstream currency in print in the middle of the 20th century, it applied to the states and areas of Georgia, southern Alabama, Mississippi, north Louisiana, East Texas, all historic areas of cotton plantations and slavery.
This was the part of the South many considered the "most Southern". The general definition expanded to include all of South Carolina, Alabama and Louisiana, taking in bordering areas of East Texas and North Florida. In its broadest application today, the Deep South is considered to be "an area coextensive with the old cotton belt from eastern North Carolina through South Carolina west into East Texas, with extensions north and south along the Mississippi"; the Deep South is home to eight combined statistical areas with populations exceeding 1,000,000 residents, although the inclusion of these cities and exclusion of others is subject to varying geographic definitions of the region. Houston and Atlanta, with the ninth and eleventh largest CSAs in the United States are the Deep South's largest population centers by far. Metropolitan areas with more than 1,000,000 people: Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land, TX CSA Atlanta–Athens–Clarke–Sandy Springs, GA CSA Birmingham–Hoover–Talladega, AL CSA Jacksonville-St. Marys-Palatka, FL-GA CSA New Orleans–Metarie–Hammond, LA–MS CSA Memphis–Forrest City, TN–MS–CSA Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson, SC CSA In the 1980 census, of those people who identified by one European national ancestry, most European Americans identified as being of English ancestry in every Southern state except Louisiana, where more people identified as having French ancestry.
A significant number have Irish and Scots-Irish ancestry. With regards to people in the Deep South who reported only a single European-American ancestry group in 1980, the census showed the following self-identification in each state in this region: Alabama – 857,864 persons out of a total of 2,165,653 people in the state identified as "English," making them 41% of the state and the largest national ancestry group at the time by a wide margin. Georgia – 1,132,184 out of 3,009,484 people identified as "English," making them 37.62% of the state's total. Mississippi – 496,481 people out of 1,551,364 people identified as "English," making them 32.00% of the total, the largest national group by a wide margin. Florida – 1,132,033 people out of 5,159,967 identified "English" as their only ancestry group, making them 21.94% of the total. Louisiana – 440,558 people out of 2,319,259 people identified only as "English," making them 19.00% of the total people and the second-largest ancestry group in the state at the time.
Those who wrote only "French" were 480,711 people out of 2,319,259 people, or 20.73% of the total state population. Texas – 1,639,322 people identified as "English" only out of a total of 7,859,393 people, making them 20.86% of the total people in the state and the largest ancestry group by a large margin. These figures to do not take into account people who identified as "English" and another ancestry group; when the two were added together, people who self identified as being of English with other ancestry, made up an larger portion of southerners. South Carolina was settled earlier than those states classified as the Deep South, its population in 1980 included 578,338 people out of 1,706,966 people in the state who identified as "English" only, making them 33.88% of the total population, the largest national ancestry group by a large margin. The map to the right was prepared by the Census Bureau from the 2000 census. Note: The Census said that areas with
Mad is an American humor magazine founded in 1952 by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines, launched as a comic book before it became a magazine. It was imitated and influential, affecting satirical media, as well as the cultural landscape of the 20th century, with editor Al Feldstein increasing readership to more than two million during its 1974 circulation peak. From 1952 until 2018, Mad published 550 regular issues, as well as hundreds of reprint "Specials", original-material paperbacks, reprint compilation books and other print projects; the magazine's numbering reverted to 1 with its June 2018 issue, coinciding with the magazine's headquarters move to the West Coast. The magazine is the last surviving title from the EC Comics line, offering satire on all aspects of life and popular culture, politics and public figures, its format is divided into a number of recurring segments such as TV and movie parodies, as well as freeform articles. Mad's mascot, Alfred E. Neuman, is the focal point of the magazine's cover, with his face replacing that of a celebrity or character, lampooned within the issue.
Mad began as a comic book published by EC, debuting in August 1952, located in lower Manhattan at 225 Lafayette Street. In the early 1960s, the Mad office moved to 485 Madison Avenue, a location given in the magazine as "485 MADison Avenue"; the first issue was written entirely by Harvey Kurtzman, featured illustrations by Kurtzman, along with Wally Wood, Will Elder, Jack Davis, John Severin. Wood and Davis were the three main illustrators throughout the 23-issue run of the comic book. To retain Kurtzman as its editor, the comic book converted to magazine format as of issue #24; the switchover induced Kurtzman to remain for only one more year, but crucially, the move had removed Mad from the strictures of the Comics Code Authority. After Kurtzman's departure in 1956, new editor Al Feldstein swiftly brought aboard contributors such as Don Martin, Frank Jacobs, Mort Drucker, Antonio Prohías, Dave Berg, Sergio Aragonés; the magazine's circulation more than quadrupled during Feldstein's tenure, peaking at 2,132,655 in 1974.
When Feldstein retired in 1984, he was replaced by the senior team of Nick Meglin and John Ficarra, who co-edited Mad for the next two decades. Long time production artist Lenny “The Beard” Brenner was promoted to Art Director and Joe Raiola and Charlie Kadau joined the staff as junior editors. Meglin retired in 2004, however Ficarra as Executive Editor and Kadau as Senior Editors, Sam Viviano, who had taken over as Art Director in 1999, would continue for the next 13 years. In June 2017, the publishing company, DC Entertainment, announced that Mad would relocate to Burbank, California. None of Mad's veteran New York staff made the move, resulting in a change in editorial leadership and art direction. Bill Morrison succeeded Ficarra in January 2018. However, Morrison's tenure was the shortest of any top editor in Mad's history as he left the magazine in February 2019. To date, Mad has not named a successor. Gaines sold his company in the early 1960s to the Kinney Parking Company, which acquired National Periodicals and Warner Bros. by the end of that decade.
Gaines was named a Kinney board member, was permitted to run Mad as he saw fit without corporate interference. Following Gaines' death, Mad became more ingrained within the Time Warner corporate structure; the magazine was obliged to abandon its long-time home at 485 Madison Avenue, in the mid-1990s it moved into DC Comics' offices at the same time that DC relocated to 1700 Broadway. In 2001, the magazine began running paid advertising; the outside revenue allowed the introduction of improved paper stock. Mad ended its 550-issue/65-year run in Manhattan at the end of 2017, when its offices relocated to DC Entertainment headquarters in Burbank, California; the first issue of Mad under the new editorial team was published as "#1." In its earliest incarnation, new issues of the magazine appeared erratically, between four and seven times a year. By the end of 1958, Mad had settled on an unusual eight-times-a-year schedule, which lasted four decades. Issues would go on sale 7 to 9 weeks before the start of the month listed on the cover.
Gaines felt. Mad began producing additional issues, until it reached a traditional monthly schedule with the January 1997 issue. With its 500th issue, amid company-wide cutbacks at Time Warner, the magazine temporarily regressed to a quarterly publication before settling to six issues per year in 2010. Throughout the years, Mad remained a unique mix of political humor. In November 2017, Rolling Stone wrote, "operating under the cover of barf jokes, Mad has become America’s best political satire magazine." Though there are antecedents to Mad's style of humor in print and film, Mad became a pioneering example of it. Throughout the 1950s, Mad featured groundbreaking parodies combining a sentimental fondness for the familiar staples of American culture—such as Archie and Superman—with a keen joy in exposing the fakery behind the image, its approach was described by Dave Kehr in The New York Times: "Bob Elliott and Ray Goulding on the radio, Ernie Kovacs on television, Stan Freberg on records, Harvey Kurtzman in the early issues of Mad: all of those pioneering humorists and many others realized that the real world mattered less to people than the sea of sounds and images that th
Yokel is one of several derogatory terms referring to the stereotype of unsophisticated country people. The term is only attributed from the early 19th century. In the United States, the term is used to describe someone living in rural areas. Synonyms for yokel include bubba, country bumpkin, chawbacon, redneck and hick. In the UK, yokels are traditionally depicted as wearing the old West Country/farmhand's dress of straw hat and white smock, chewing or sucking a piece of straw and carrying a pitchfork or rake, listening to "Scrumpy and Western" music. Yokels are portrayed as living in rural areas of Britain such as the West Country, East Anglia, the Yorkshire Dales and Wales. British yokels speak with country dialects from various parts of Britain. Yokels are depicted as straightforward, simple and deceived, failing to see through false pretenses, they are depicted as talking about bucolic topics like cows, goats, alfalfa, crops and buxom wenches to the exclusion of all else. Broadly, they are portrayed as unaware of or uninterested in the world outside their own surroundings.
The development of television brought many isolated communities into mainstream British culture in the 1950s and 1960s. The Internet continues this integration, further eroding the town/country divide. In the 21st century British country people are less seen as yokels. In the British TV Show The Two Ronnies, it was asserted that despite political correctness, it is possible to poke fun at yokels as no-one sees themselves as being one. In Scotland, those from the Highlands and Islands, Moray and other rural areas are referred to by urban or lowland Scots as teuchters. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the term is a "by-form" of the personal name Richard and Hob for Robert. Although the English word "hick" is of recent vintage, distinctions between urban and rural dwellers are ancient. According to a popular etymology, hick derives from the nickname "Old Hickory" for Andrew Jackson, one of the first Presidents of the United States to come from rural hard-scrabble roots; this nickname suggested that Jackson was enduring like an old Hickory tree.
Jackson was admired by the residents of remote and mountainous areas of the United States, people who would come to be known as "hicks." Another explanation of the term hick describes a time when hickory nut flour was sold. Tough times, such as the depression, led to the use of hickory nuts as an alternative to traditional grains. People who harvested, processed, or sold hickory products, such as hickory flour, were referred to as "hicks"; the term was generalized over time to include people who lived in rural areas and were not considered as sophisticated as their urban counterparts. Though not a term explicitly denoting lower class, some argue that the term degrades impoverished rural people and that "hicks" continue as one of the few groups that can be ridiculed and stereotyped with impunity. In "The Redneck Manifesto," Jim Goad argues that this stereotype has served to blind the general population to the economic exploitation of rural areas in Appalachia, the South, parts of the Midwest.
The Clampetts, in The Beverly Hillbillies TV series Cousin Eddie Johnson of the National Lampoon's Vacation movies The Hazzard County residents, of The Dukes of Hazzard TV series and the related film Moonrunners The hillbilly residents of Dogpatch, in the Li'l Abner comic strip The Hooterville residents, in the sister TV series Green Acres and Petticoat Junction Rose Nylund, portrayed by Betty White, one of the four lead characters from The Golden Girls TV series, from the midwestern town of St. Olaf and told stories from her time living in St. Olaf The Simpsons animated television series character Cletus Spuckler, referred to in a song in one episode as "Cletus, the Slack-Jawed Yokel" Ronnie Barker and Ronnie Corbett, who portray yokels in BBC1 sketch show The Two Ronnies The nurse Nellie Forbush in musical South Pacific, who describes herself as a "hick" from Little Rock, Arkansas Willie Stark in the 1946 novel All the King's Men, who uses the word hick in his speeches to describe the poor voters and himself, for being fooled by the elite.
He calls upon citizens promising he will be the voice of the hicks. Niko Bellic the main character in GTA IV is called a'yokel' on more than one occasion by one of his employers'Vlad Glebov'. Ike and Addley, characters from the 1980 horror film Mother's Day. Cass Parker, a main character on the Australian television series Prisoner. Larry the Cable Guy, a character played by comedian Daniel Lawrence Whitney. Larry the Cable Guy is confused for being Lawrence's real-life persona, though the confusion is enforced by the fact that Lawrence speaks to the public in his real voice, has used the character in various movies, is credited for his roles under this name. Goad, Jim.. The Redneck Manifesto: How Hillbillies and White Trash Became America's Scapegoats. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-83864-8 The Man from Ironbark, an Australian poem Wiltshire Poems, website has an illustration of the traditional Wiltshire/Somerset smock and floppy hat Yokel, definition at askoxford.com
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Austrian Empire, he qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis, he died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory, his analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression.
On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate and neurotic guilt. In his works, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology and psychotherapy, across the humanities, it thus continues to generate extensive and contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud, he had created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."
Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire, the first of eight children. Both of his parents were in modern-day Ukraine, his father, Jakob Freud, a wool merchant, had two sons and Philipp, by his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jews, although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study, he and Freud's mother, Amalia Nathansohn, 20 years younger and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a rented room, in a locksmith's house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born, he was born with a caul. In 1859, the Freud family left Freiberg. Freud's half brothers emigrated to Manchester, parting him from the "inseparable" playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel's son, John. Jakob Freud took his wife and two children firstly to Leipzig and in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters and a brother were born: Rosa, Adolfine, Alexander.
In 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors, he loved literature and was proficient in German, Italian, English, Hebrew and Greek. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17, he had planned to study law, but joined the medical faculty at the university, where his studies included philosophy under Franz Brentano, physiology under Ernst Brücke, zoology under Darwinist professor Carl Claus. In 1876, Freud spent four weeks at Claus's zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an inconclusive search for their male reproductive organs. In 1877 Freud moved to Ernst Brücke's physiology laboratory where he spent six years comparing the brains of humans and other vertebrates with those of invertebrates such as frogs and lampreys, his research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the 1890s. Freud's research work was interrupted in 1879 by the obligation to undertake a year's compulsory military service.
The lengthy downtimes enabled him to complete a commission to translate four essays from John Stuart Mill's collected works. He graduated with an MD in March 1881. In 1882, Freud began his medical career at the Vienna General Hospital, his research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in 1884 and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, published in 1891. Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital, his time spent in Theodor Meynert's psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology in 1885, a non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna. In 1886, Freud resigned his hospital post and entered private practice specializing in "nervous disorders".
The same year he married Martha Bernay
Art Spiegelman is an American cartoonist and comics advocate best known for his graphic novel Maus. His work as co-editor on the comics magazines Arcade and Raw has been influential, from 1992 he spent a decade as contributing artist for The New Yorker, he is the father of writer Nadja Spiegelman. Spiegelman began his career with the Topps bubblegum card company in the mid-1960s, his main financial support for two decades, he gained prominence in the underground comix scene in the 1970s with short and autobiographical work. A selection of these strips appeared in the collection Breakdowns in 1977, after which Spiegelman turned focus to the book-length Maus, about his relationship with his father, a Holocaust survivor; the postmodern book depicts Germans as cats, Jews as mice, ethnic Poles as pigs, took 13 years to create until its completion in 1991. It won a special Pulitzer Prize in 1992 and has gained a reputation as a pivotal work, responsible for bringing scholarly attention to the comics medium.
Spiegelman and Mouly edited eleven issues of Raw from 1980 to 1991. The oversized comics and graphics magazine helped introduce talents who became prominent in alternative comics, such as Charles Burns, Chris Ware, Ben Katchor, introduced several foreign cartoonists to the English-speaking comics world. Beginning in the 1990s, the couple worked for The New Yorker, which Spiegelman left to work on In the Shadow of No Towers, about his reaction to the September 11 attacks in New York in 2001. Spiegelman advocates for greater comics literacy; as an editor, a teacher at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, a lecturer, Spiegelman has promoted better understanding of comics and has mentored younger cartoonists. Art Spiegelman's parents were Andzia Spiegelman, his father was born Zeev Spiegelman, with the Hebrew name Zeev ben Avraham. Władysław was his Polish name, Władek was a diminutive of this name, he was known as Wilhelm under the German occupation, upon immigration to the United States he took the name William.
His mother was born Andzia Zylberberg, with the Hebrew name Hannah. She took the name Anna upon her immigration to the US. In Spiegelman's Maus, from which the couple are best known, Spiegelman used the spellings "Vladek" and "Anja", which he believed would be easier for Americans to pronounce; the surname Spiegelman is German for "mirror man". In 1937, the Spiegelmans had one other son, who died before Art was born at the age of five or six. During the Holocaust, Spiegelman's parents sent Rysio to stay with an aunt with whom they believed he would be safe. In 1943, the aunt poisoned herself, along with Rysio and two other young family members in her care, so that the Nazis could not take them to the extermination camps. After the war, the Spiegelmans, unable to accept that Rysio was dead, searched orphanages all over Europe in the hope of finding him. Spiegelman talked of having a sort of sibling rivalry with his "ghost brother"—he felt unable to compete with an "ideal" brother who "never threw tantrums or got in any kind of trouble".
Of 85 Spiegelman relatives alive at the beginning of World War II, only 13 are known to have survived the Holocaust. Spiegelman was born Itzhak Avraham ben Zeev in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 15, 1948, he immigrated with his parents to the US in 1951. Upon immigration his name was registered as Arthur Isadore, but he had his given name changed to Art; the family settled in Norristown and relocated to Rego Park in Queens, New York City, in 1957. He imitated the style of his favorite comic books, such as Mad. At Russell Sage Junior High School, where he was an honors student, he produced the Mad-inspired fanzine Blasé, he was earning money from his drawing by the time he reached high school and sold artwork to the original Long Island Press and other outlets. His talent was such that he caught the eyes of United Features Syndicate, who offered him the chance to produce a syndicated comic strip. Dedicated to the idea of art as expression, he turned down this commercial opportunity, he attended the High School of Art and Design in Manhattan beginning in 1963.
He met Woody Gelman, the art director of Topps Chewing Gum Company, who encouraged Spiegelman to apply to Topps after graduating high school. At 15 Spiegelman received payment for his work from a Rego Park newspaper. After he graduated in 1965, Spiegelman's parents urged him to pursue the financial security of a career such as dentistry, but he chose instead to enroll at Harpur College to study art and philosophy. While there, he got a freelance art job at Topps, which provided him with an income for the next two decades. Spiegelman attended Harpur College from 1965 until 1968, where he worked as staff cartoonist for the college newspaper and edited a college humor magazine. After a summer internship when he was 18, Topps hired him for Gelman's Product Development Department as a creative consultant making trading cards and related products in 1966, such as the Wacky Packages series of parodic trading cards begun in 1967. Spiegelman began selling self-published underground comix on street corners in 1966.
He had cartoons published in underground publications such as the East Village Other and traveled to San Francisco for a few months in 1967, where the underground comix scene was just beginning to burgeon. In late winter 1968 Spiegelman suffered a brief but intense nervous breakdown, which cut his