Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Toys Hill is a hamlet which lies within Brasted civil parish in the Sevenoaks district of Kent, England. It lies to the south of Brasted Chart in the parish; the hamlet is situated on the steep scarp slope of the Greensand Ridge, a prominent escarpment principally formed of Lower Greensand sandstone. The escarpment here presents itself as a high, thickly wooded ridge running from west to east, it lies south of the North Downs, separated from the latter by the Vale of Holmesdale, north of the Weald of Kent, from which it is visible from many miles away, for example from Ashdown Forest in the High Weald. The summit of Toys Hill, from which the hamlet takes its name, is 235 metres above mean sea level. Within the hamlet, there are outstanding views of the Weald from a terrace, which includes a sunken well, on Puddledock Lane; the terrace was donated in 1898 by Octavia Hill, one of the founders of the National Trust, who lived at nearby Crockham Hill, it was one of the National Trust's first properties.
The National Trust has since acquired more land at Toys Hill through donations, culminating in 1981 with the acquisition of extensive woodlands through a special appeal, the final acquisition being called the Octavia Hill Woodland. The National Trust's Toys Hill estate now runs to more than 200 acres of woodland; the area has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest because of its abundant wildlife, much of it is recognised as a Grade I site of national importance for nature conservation. Toys Hill took its name in the Middle Ages from a local land-owning family. In 1295, Robert Toys paid 12d to the Manor of Otford for the right to keep pigs in Otford Woods, it is that he or his family gave their name to this area of Brasted Chart. Toys Hill was part of the Common of Brasted Chart, where local people once kept pigs and cattle, gathered peat and firewood and quarried Chertstone for their roads and buildings. Various pits that are visible in the high woods of Toys Hill include pits dug by charcoal burners and chert pits, for quarrying chert, a hard sandstone found in the Lower Greensand formation, extracted for many centuries for local roadstone and building stone.
The dense woodlands that crown Toys Hill and the surrounding plateau were badly affected by the Great Storm of 1987. Toys Hill used to be well known for its groves of ancient beech pollards, dating back to the early days of grazing, but only a few survived the 1987 storm; the woods have since regenerated with sessile oak and birch saplings. Parts of one woodland, Scords Wood, are managed on a non-intervention ‘hands off’ basis, so that natural development after the storm can be studied by Natural England. Toys Hill Toys Hill information at the National Trust
Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actor
The Golden Globe for New Star of the Year – Actor was an award given by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association at their annual Golden Globe Awards. The award was first introduced at the 6th Golden Globe Awards in 1948 where it was given to actor Richard Widmark for his performance in the 1947 film Kiss of Death, it was awarded as the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer – Male until 1975. There were no awards in 1949, between 1954 and 1965 there were multiple winners. From 1976 to 1979, the award was called Best Acting Debut in a Motion Picture – Male. From 1980 to 1983, the award was called New Star of the Year in a Motion Picture – Male. A male actor did not receive the Award in 1982; the final recipient of the award was actor Ben Kingsley for his performance as the title character in the 1982 film Gandhi. The category was discontinued following the 1983 ceremony. Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress Golden Globes Award official website Golden Globes Event History – retro to 1944
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Golden Globe Award
The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year in the Academy Awards; the eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year. The 76th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television in 2018, were held on January 6, 2019; the 77th Golden Globe Awards will take place on January 5, 2020. In 1943, a group of writers banded together to form the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, and, by creating a generously distributed award called the Golden Globe Award, they now play a significant role in film marketing; the 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, were held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at various venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel and the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish a special honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as an international figure within the entertainment industry, the first award was presented to director and producer, Cecil B. DeMille; the official name of the award thus became the Cecil B. DeMille Award. Beginning in 1963, the trophies commenced to be handed out by one or more persons referred to as "Miss Golden Globe", a title renamed on January 5, 2018 to "Golden Globe Ambassador"; the holders of the position were, the daughters or sometimes the sons of a celebrity, as a point of pride, these continued to be contested among celebrity parents. In 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned; the New York firm Society Awards collaborated for a year with the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to produce a statuette that included a unique marble and enhanced the statuette's quality and gold content.
It was unveiled at a press conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. Revenues generated from the annual ceremony have enabled the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to donate millions of dollars to entertainment-related charities, as well as funding scholarships and other programs for future film and television professionals; the most prominent beneficiary is the Young Artist Awards, presented annually by the Young Artist Foundation, established in 1978 by Hollywood Foreign Press member Maureen Dragone, to recognize and award excellence of young Hollywood performers under the age of 21 and to provide scholarships for young artists who may be physically or financially challenged. The qualifying eligibility period for all nominations is the calendar year from January 1 through December 31. Voice-over performances and cameo appearances in which persons play themselves are disqualified from all of the film and TV acting categories. Films must be at least 70 minutes and released for at least a seven-day run in the Greater Los Angeles area, starting prior to midnight on December 31.
Films can be released on pay-per-view, or by digital delivery. For the Best Foreign Language Film category, films do not need to be released in the United States. At least 51 percent of the dialogue must be in a language other than English, they must first be released in their country of origin during a 14-month period from November 1 to December 31 prior to the Awards. However, if a film was not released in its country of origin due to censorship, it can still qualify if it had a one-week release in the United States during the qualifying calendar year. There is no limit to the number of submitted films from a given country. A TV program must air in the United States between the prime time hours of 11:00 p.m.. A show can air on basic or premium cable, or by digital delivery. A TV show must either be made in the United States or be a co-production financially and creatively between an American and a foreign production company. Furthermore and non-scripted shows are disqualified. For a television film, it cannot be entered in both the film and TV categories, instead should be entered based on its original release format.
If it was first aired on American television it can be entered into the TV categories. If it was released in theaters or on pay-per-view it should instead to be entered into the film categories. A film festival showing does not count towards disqualifying. Actors in a TV series must appear in at least six episodes during the qualifying calendar year. Actors in a TV film or miniseries must appear in at least five percent of the time in that TV film or miniseries. Active HFPA members need to be invited to an official screening of each eligible film directly by its respective distributor or publicist; the screening must take place in the Greater Los Angeles area, either before the film's release or up to one week afterwards. The screening can be a regular screening in a theater with a press screening; the screening must be cleared with the Motion Picture Association of America so there are not scheduling conflicts with other official screenings. For TV programs, they must be available to be seen by HFPA members in any common format, including the original TV broadcast.
Entry forms for films need to be received by the HFPA within ten days of the
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Richard Donner is an American director and producer of film and television. After directing the horror film The Omen, Donner became famous for directing the first modern superhero film, starring Christopher Reeve. Donner went on to direct movies such as The Goonies and Scrooged, while reinvigorating the buddy film genre with Lethal Weapon and its sequels, he and his wife, producer Lauren Shuler Donner, own the production company The Donner's Company, most well known for producing the X-Men film series. In 2000, he received the President's Award from the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films. Film historian Michael Barson writes that Donner is "one of Hollywood's most reliable makers of action blockbusters". Richard Schwartzberg was born in the Bronx to Jewish parents and Fred Schwartzberg, his father owned a small furniture manufacturing business. He has Joan. Donner started his career with hopes of acting but moved into directing commercials and making business films, he moved into television in the late 1950s, directing some episodes of the Steve McQueen western serial Wanted: Dead or Alive and the Chuck Connors western The Rifleman.
In his early career as a director he worked on TV commercials and over twenty-five television series including Have Gun Will Travel, The Fugitive, Combat!, Get Smart, The Man from U. N. C. L. E; the Wild Wild West, Gilligan's Island, Tales from the Crypt and The Twilight Zone, as well as the serial Danger Island from the children's program The Banana Splits. Donner directed his first feature film in 1961, X-15, which starred Charles Bronson and Mary Tyler Moore, it was not until seven years however, that he directed his next film Salt and Pepper, with Sammy Davis Jr. and Peter Lawford. His break-through film was The Omen. A supernatural thriller made in the wake of the success obtained by The Exorcist, the film stars Gregory Peck, David Warner and Lee Remick, it became the fifth highest-grossing movie of 1976. In 1978, Donner directed Superman: The Movie; the film became a hit worldwide, projecting both Donner to international fame. Co-stars included Margot Kidder as Lois Lane, Marlon Brando as Jor-El and Gene Hackman as archvillain Lex Luthor.
It succeeded at the box office. Principal photography of Superman included filming of its first sequel, Superman II. Donner filmed most of Superman II with the expectation he would complete the sequel after the release of Superman. Despite the first film's success, Donner was fired from Superman II. Throughout the filming of Superman and Superman II, Donner had a difficult relationship with executive producers Alexander Salkind and Ilya Salkind and producer Pierre Spengler; the Salkinds refused Donner's demand. Following Donner's dismissal, Marlon Brando's scenes were removed from Superman II and much of the film was re-shot under Lester's direction. Gene Hackman refused to return for re-shoots. Rotten Tomatoes' summary states that "Superman II meets, if not exceeds, the standard set by its predecessor". Donner continued to promote the view. Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut was released on November 28, 2006, the same date as the DVD release of the summer film Superman Returns; this version of the film features the re-insertion of Marlon Brando's scenes as Jor-El, relies on a minimum of footage shot by Richard Lester.
Donner has mixed commercial successes. In the case of Superman, it was Donner who insisted the subject of the comic book superhero should be treated "straight" rather than "camp", an approach that influenced genre directors such as Tim Burton, Bryan Singer, Christopher Nolan, who have made successful superhero films of their own; the influence of Superman can be seen in superhero films outside the Superman storyline, outside the DC Comics universe. Sam Raimi's Spider-Man film is debatably one of the strongest examples of that influence. In the early 1980s, Donner proposed to Warner Bros. A non-camp film version of Batman to star Mel Gibson. Donner's next blockbuster film was Lethal Weapon, written by Shane Black, it starred Mel Gibson as a widowed narcotics detective with a suicidal bent "who breaks every rule for the sheer joy of it." It co-starred Danny Glover as a calm homicide detective with a loving family and consideration for retirement. The film's action sequences were considered "truly spectacular" and made the film one of the year's biggest hits.
Donner directed six films starring Mel Gibson overall, creating a Lethal Weapon franchise with three sequels, the last one was Lethal Weapon 4, released in 1998. In an interview in 2000, Gibson described his impressions of Donner:"Uncle Dick. He’s a great guy, just terrific. Professional. He’s an old veteran and has an understanding of film, the culmination of years of experience. He’s got his technical stuff down