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Abdul Halim was Indonesian politician, who served 4th Prime Minister of Indonesia. Abdul Halim was born on 27 December 1911, in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, to Achmad St. Mangkuto and Hj. Darama. At the age of 7, his mother's cousin, who at that time was one of the leaders of Bataafsche Petroleum Maatscappij took him to Jakarta in order to obtain a better education. Halim attended MULO, AMS B and Geneeskundige Hoge School in Jakarta. Abdul Halim was involved from the politics to education to sports, he was the fourth Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia during the period January 1950 – September 1950. He was the first Minister of Defense of the Republic of Indonesia. Halim made a contribution in the establishment of the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Central Sumatra, together with Johannes Leimena and Muhammad Natsir; as a doctor, Abdul Halim was the Director of RSUP from July 1951 until July 1961, worked as Inspector General until his death on 4 July 1987. Away from politics, who had a hobby playing football, was involved in the formation of the Voetbalbond Indonesische Jacatra team in 1928, was the Chairman of VIJ for several years.
From 1951–1955 he was Vice Chairman and Chairman of the Olympic Committee of Indonesia. Halim was appointed Chairman of the National IKADA Foundation to build the Ikada Stadium Merdeka Field, Central Jakarta. In 1952 he led the first Indonesian contingent to participate in the Olympics
Raden Oto Iskandar di Nata was a fighter for Indonesia's liberation from Dutch rule, an Indonesian State Minister. He was a National Hero of Indonesia. In his activities during the period before independence, Oto had served as Deputy Chairperson of the Bandung branch of Budi Utomo between 1921 and 1924, as well as Deputy Chairperson of Budi Utomo in Pekalongan branch in 1924. At that time, he became a member of Pekalongan's Gemeenteraad representing Budi Utomo. Oto was active in Sundanese cultural organizations called Paguyuban Pasundan, he became Secretary of the Executive Board in 1928, became chairman between 1929 and 1942. The organization is engaged in education, socio-cultural, economic and women's empowerment. Oto became a member of the Volksraad between 1930 and 1941. During the Japanese occupation, he became the head of the Tjahaja newspaper, he became a member of the BPUPKI and PPKI formed by the Japanese colonial government as institutions that helped preparation for Indonesia's independence.
Based on witness information, Oto was murdered on a beach in Mauk District, Tangerang Regency in Banten. He was abducted by a group called "The Black Troop", who killed him and dumped his body into the sea. On 21 December 1952, his funeral was held in absentia, his body was replaced by sand and water taken from the beach, interred in a cemetery in Lembang, West Bandung Regency. He was designated as National Hero of Indonesia on 6 November 1973 declaring him dead, as the title is posthumous, his image appears on the 2004–2016 series of the 20,000 Indonesian rupiah note. His name is now used as street name in various cities in Indonesia on different formats; the latter is a Sundanese-mythical courageous cock. It is used as name for Jalak Harupat Stadium, located in his hometown. List of kidnappings List of people who disappeared
Raden Ahmad Soebardjo Djojoadisoerjo was a diplomat, one of Indonesia's founding fathers, an Indonesian national hero. He was the first Foreign Minister of Indonesia. In 1933, he received the degree Meester in de Rechten from Leiden University, Netherlands. Ahmad Soebardjo was born in Teluk Jambe, Karawang Regency, West Java, on 23 March 1896, his father's name was an Acehnese patrician from Pidie. His paternal grandfather was an ulama and his father was the chief of police in Teluk Jambe, Karawang, his mother's name was Wardinah. She was of Javanese-Buginese descent, was daughter from Camat in Telukagung, Cirebon, his father gave him the name Teuku Abdul Manaf, but his mother gave him the name Ahmad Subardjo. Djojoadisoerjo was added by himself after he was arrested and imprisoned in Ponorogo Prison because of his involvement with the "July 3, 1946 Incident", he studied at Hogere Burger School, Jakarta in 1917. He continued to Leiden University and obtained the degree Meester in de Rechten title in the field of law in 1933.
As a student, he was active in the fight for Indonesian independence through several organizations such as Jong Java and the Indonesian Students Association in the Netherlands, the Perhimpoenan Indonesia. In February 1927, Mohammad Hatta, three other students represented Indonesia at the conferences of the League against Imperialism in Brussels and in Germany. At the founding congress in Brussels and the others met Jawaharlal Nehru and others nationalist leaders from Asia and Africa. Soebardjo spent a couple of months in Berlin and Moscow working for the International Secretariat of the League against Imperialism. Upon return to Indonesia, he became a member of the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence. On 19 August 1945, two days after the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945, Sukarno appointed Soebardjo as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Presidential Cabinet, Indonesia's first cabinet for 4 months and started the first Foreign Ministry office at his own residence in Jalan Cikini raya.
Subardjo served as Minister of Foreign Affairs once again from 1951 to 1952 in Sukiman's Cabinet. In addition, he became the Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia to Switzerland from 1957 to 1961. Soebardjo died at the age of 82 at Kebayoran Baru, from influenza complications, he was buried at his vacation home in Bogor. In 2009 the government honoured him as a National Hero
Lambertus Nicodemus Palar known as Babe Palar, represented the Republic of Indonesia in various diplomatic positions most notably as the first Indonesian Representative to the United Nations. He held ambassadorships in India, East Germany, Soviet Union and the United States, he was the son of Jacoba Lumanauw. Palar attended middle school in Tondano, he moved to Java to attend high school in Yogyakarta. In 1922, Palar started his studies at the Technical University in Bandung, now known as the Bandung Institute of Technology. At this school, Palar became acquainted with Indonesian nationalists such as Sukarno. A severe illness forced Palar to return to Minahasa. Palar restarted his studies at faculty of law in Batavia where he joined the youth organization called Young Minahasa. In 1928, Palar moved to the Netherlands. In 1930, Palar became a member of the Social-Democratic Workers' Party shortly after the SDAP convened a Colonial Congress and voted on propositions that included unconditionally recognizing the right of national independence for the Dutch Indies.
Palar held the position of secretary of the Colonial Commission of the SDAP and the Netherlands' Trade Union Federation starting in October 1933. He was the director of Persbureau Indonesia, given the task of sending articles related to Dutch social democracy to the Dutch Indies. In 1938, Palar returned to his homeland with his wife, Johanna Petronella Volmers, whom he married in 1935, he gathered information on the current developments. He discovered that the Indonesian nationalist movement was much alive and returned to the Netherlands writing about his experience. During the German occupation of Holland, Palar couldn't work for the SDAP and instead was employed in the Van der Waals Laboratorium, he taught Malay language classes and was a guitarist in a Kroncong ensemble. During the war and his wife joined the anti-Nazi underground movement. After the war, Palar was voted into the Lower House representing the newly established Labor Party, which originated from the SDAP. After the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on August 17, 1945, Palar being sympathetic to the proclamation promoted contacts with the Indonesian nationalists.
This was not received well by the PvdA resulting in the party distancing itself from the original position of unconditionally recognizing the right of national independence for Indonesia, opposed by Palar. Being assigned by his party on a fact finding mission to Indonesia, Palar again met with the leaders of the Indonesian National Revolution including President Sukarno. Palar continued to urge non-violent resolution of the dispute between the Netherlands and the new Republic of Indonesia. However, on July 20, 1947, the parliament voted to commence Police Action in Indonesia. Palar resigned from the Labor Party the following day. Palar joined the effort for international recognition of Indonesian independence by becoming the Indonesian Representative to the United Nations in 1947, he remained in this position until 1953. This time period included such important events as the continued Dutch-Indonesian conflict, the transfer of sovereignty from the Dutch, the inclusion of Indonesia as a member of the United Nations.
During the Dutch-Indonesian conflict, Palar argued the case of Indonesian independence at the UN and the Security Council though his status was only as an "observer" because Indonesia was not a member of the UN at that time. After a second Police Action was unpopular and subsequently condemned by the Security Council, the Roem-van Roijen Agreement was signed, which led to the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference and the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty by the Dutch on December 27, 1949. Indonesia was admitted as the 60th Member State of the United Nations on September 28, 1950. Addressing the General Assembly as the first Indonesian Ambassador to the United Nations, Palar thanked those that supported the Indonesian cause and pledged that Indonesia would assume the responsibilities of being a member state. Palar continued his work at the UN until being assigned the Indonesian ambassadorship for India. In 1955, Palar was called back to Indonesia and was instrumental in planning the Asia-Africa Conference, which gathered Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent.
After the conference, Palar resumed his ambassadorial responsibilities by representing Indonesia in East Germany and the Soviet Union. From 1957 to 1962, he became the Ambassador to Canada and afterwards returned to the UN as Ambassador until 1965. Sukarno withdrew Indonesia's membership in the UN because of the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation and upon the election of Malaysia to the Security Council. Palar became the Ambassador to the United States. Under new leadership of Suharto in 1966, Indonesia requested the resumption of membership in the UN with a message to the Secretary General, delivered by Palar. Palar retired from foreign service in 1968 having served his country during its early struggles and conflicts and battled for its freedom in the diplomatic arena. Palar returned to Jakarta, but remained active through lectures
Dr. Sahardjo LL. B. was Minister of Justice of Indonesia during three cabinets, the First and Third Working Cabinets. Sahardjo was born in Surakarta, Dutch East Indies on 26 June 1909. After dropping out from medical school, he went on to study law, graduating with a bachelour's degree in 1941. At first he taught at a private school, but he became active in politics and leading the Indonesian Party, he participated in framing the 1953 law on public elections. Dr Sahardjo served as Minister of Justice for three periods, his first period was during the First Working Cabinet, from 10 July 1959 to 18 February 1960. His second was during the Second Working Cabinet, from 18 February 1960 to 6 March 1962, his third was during the Third Working Cabinet, from 6 March 1962 to 13 November 1963. During Sahardjo's time as Minister of Justice, there was "fierce but publicly muted" debate regarding legal fundamentals such as nulla poena sine lege. Together with Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Wirjono Prodjodikoro, he argued for greater protection of the freedoms of criminals and suspects.
Sahardjo and Prodjodikoro moved to civil law reform in 1962, with Sahardjo proposing that both civil and commercial codes, remnants from the colonial period, be rescinded completely. This proposal, supported by Prodjodikoro and several members of the law community, was opposed by advocates and judges. Sahardjo's preferred legal institution would be free of the "discriminatory" remnants of colonial law and included modified adat laws—provided that they had been brought in line with the state philosophy of Pancasila. Although Prodjodikoro rescinded several articles of the code, Lev notes that practices did not change much; the following year, he chose the banyan, an old Javanese symbol for justice, to replace a blindfolded woman holding scales as the symbol of the ministry. According to Daniel S. Lev, an American scholar on Indonesian law, the change from European to Javanese symbology represented a return to tradition and "quickening" of the evolution from Dutch to Indonesian law, he changed the designation of prisons from penjara to Lembaga Permasyarakatan Khusus, arguing that prisons were places for reformation and not torture.
Sahardjo was buried in Kalibata Heroes Cemetery. Scholar on Indonesian legal history Sebastiaan Pompe writes critically of Sahardjo, saying that he "actively destroyed the law in the name of prevailing revolutionary ideology, making himself obsolete in the process."A street named after Sahardjo is located in Tebet, South Jakarta, running from Manggarai to Pancoran. Footnotes Bibliography
Gatot Soebroto was an Indonesian general who began his military career with the Royal Dutch East Indies Army and rose to be deputy Army chief-of-staff. Soebroto was born in Central Java, he began his education at a Europeesche Lagere School, an elementary school for the children of Europeans, but was expelled for fighting with Dutch children. He moved to a Hollands Inlandse School for Indonesians, he did not continue his education after graduating from this elementary school, but instead found a job. However, he did not like this, decided on a military career. In 1923, Gatot enrolled in military school in Magelang. After graduating, he rose to the rank of sergeant. In 1942, the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies, Gatot joined the PETA, an army set up by the Japanese in case of invasion by the allies, he received training in Bogor, was appointed commander of a company in Banyumas a battalion commander. Gatot was one of the group of ex-KNIL NCOs, which included future president Suharto and future army chief-of-staff Ahmad Yani who joined the BKR, the forerunner of the Indonesian Army as soon as it was set up after the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on 17 August 1945.
On 5 October 1946, he was appointed commander of the II/Gunung Jati Division in Central Java. On 31 May 1948 he became commander of the Military Police and that year Military Governor of the Surakarta-Semarang-Pati-Madiun region, he was involved in the suppression of the 1948 Madiun Revolt. In July 1949, he went to Yogyakarta shortly after Army commander Sudirman's return to the city, which at the time was the capital. There he was sick, had to be treated at the Panti Rapih Hospital. On 3 August 1949, President Sukarno announced a ceasefire with the Dutch, Nasution, commander of the Java Military Territory, decided a reorganization of divisions was needed to face the threat of a possible third Dutch "police action". Central Java's III and IV divisions were merged, Gatot Soebroto appointed commander, although he was still in hospital at the time, he was inaugurated on 20 November as commander of the renamed III/Diponegoro Division, which became the IV/Diponegoro Military Territory in December.
In this capacity, he issued a warning to one of his brigade commanders, Suharto over the establishment of a transport enterprise using Army vehicles, which the future president had set up to provide jobs for veterans. In March 1952, Gatot moved to Makassar to take over command of the VII/Wirabuana Military Territory, which covered all of Indonesia east of Java and Kalimantan. However, on 16 November he was displaced by his chief-of-staff, Lt. Col. J. F. Warouw; this was one of a series of small-scale coups against officers blamed for their involvement in the 17 October 1952 incident where troops demonstrated in front of the Presidential Palace in Jakarta calling for the dissolution of the legislature. Although Gatot supported the demonstration, he was not present in Jakarta at the time, he was subsequently either placed on non-active status as a result of the incident or resigned from the military. On 20 May 1953, he attended a meeting led by Nasution in Tugu, West Java at which it was decided to establish a political party to "fight for the return to the spirit of the 1945 Constitution.
The party was called the League of Supporters of Indonesian Independence. The party won four seats in the 1955 election, Gatot Soebroto became a member of the Indonesian legislature representing Central Java. Soon after the elections, the cabinet and the Army began the process of appointing an Army chief-of-staff to replace the acting head Colonel Lubis, who had not been installed. Gatot Soebroto emerged as a "compromise candidate", but turned down the job as he was worried about being manipulated by other officers, he told the cabinet that if they wanted a high quality officer, they should recall Nasution to the post. Nasution was re-appointed on 7 November 1955; the following year, Gatot Soebroto was appointed deputy chief-of-staff, a position he held until his death. In 1959, together with Nasution, he called a special meeting of the major political parties at the time to persuade them to support the proposal to return to the 1945 Constitution, abrogated in favor of the Provisional Constitution of 1950 nine years before.
All parties agreed, on 5 October 1959, the 1945 Constitution was reimposed by presidential decree. That year and Gatot Soebroto decided against taking further action against Suharto after his dismissal from the command of the Diponegoro Division following revelations of involvement in smuggling. Gatot Soebroto died in Jakarta on 11 June 1962 and was buried With Buddhist funeral ceremony in the village of Kalirejo Ungaran near Semarang. A week he was declared a National Hero via Presidential Decision No.222/1962. Bachtiar, Harsja W. Siapa Dia?: Perwira Tinggi Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta, ISBN 979-428-100-X Feith, Herbert The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia Equinox Publishing Pte Ltd, ISBN 979-3780-45-2 McDonald, Hamish Suharto's Indonesia Fontana/Collins, Australia ISBN 978-0-00-635721-6 Mutiara Sumber Widya Album Pahlawan Bangsa, Jakarta Stanley Adi Prasetyo & Toriq Hadad 1998 Jenderal Tanpa Pasukan, Politisi Tanpa Parta: Perjalanan Hidup A.
Ferdinand Lumbantobing was Minister of Manpower and Transmigration of the Republic of Indonesia, Minister for Communications and Information of the Republic of Indonesia, Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, Governor of North Sumatra, now regarded as a National Hero of Indonesia