Hasdrubal the Boetharch
Hasdrubal the Boetharch was a Carthaginian general during the Third Punic War. Little is known about him. "Boetharch" was a Carthaginian office, the exact function of, unclear but, not to be confused with the Greek boeotarch. Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian forces at the Siege of Carthage in 146 BC, their defeat by Scipio Aemilianus, proconsul of the Roman Republic, brought the war to a close. Hasdrubal's military skill was not to be doubted, as his army had been equipped, his work at defending Carthage cost the Romans a difficult campaign to suppress the defenders. His tactical skills, were dwarfed by his contemporaries Massinissa and Scipio. Hasdrubal had a wife and two sons, according to Polybius, threw themselves into a burning temple when they witnessed their army's defeat. Hasdrubal had surrendered himself to the Romans prior to his family's deaths, an act provoking their suicide, he was taken to Rome and displayed during Scipio's triumph, but allowed to live in peace in Italy. This may be the same general Hasdrubal, defeated near the town of Tunes by the Numidian king, just after war was declared.
Other Hasdrubals in Carthaginian history Havell, H. L. Republican Rome... BiblioBazaar, p. 321, ISBN 1-115-39574-2. Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck. Mommsen, William Purdie Dickson, ed; the History of Rome, Vol. 3, New York: C. Scribner & Co, pp. 42–54. Book XXXVIII of Polybius's Histories, English trans. 7-8,20 Smith, William, ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Vol. II, C. C. Little & J. Brown, pp. 359–360. Media related to Hasdrubal at Wikimedia Commons Polybius, Fragments of Book XXXVIII, 7 Livius.org: Hasdrubal William Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, Volume 2", C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1849
Hasdrubal Barca, a latinization of ʿAzrubaʿal son of Hamilcar Barca, was a Carthaginian general in the Second Punic War. He was the brother of Mago Barca. Little is known of Hasdrubal's early life, he was present, along with his brother Hannibal, when his father, besieged the city of Helike. Hamilcar was drowned in the Jucar River. Little is known about his activities during the time Hasdrubal the Fair led the Punic forces in Spain, or during the campaigns of Hannibal Barca in Spain and his Siege of Saguntum. Hannibal, when he set out for Italy in 218 BC, left a force of 13,000 infantry, 2,550 cavalry and 21 war elephants in Iberia; the Punic navy had a fleet of 5 triremes stationed there. However, only 32 Quinqueremes were manned at the start of the Second Punic War. Hasdrubal was to set out for Italy in 217 BC to reinforce Hannibal. Hannibal left another army under Hanno in Catalonia, consisting of 10,000 foot and 1,000 horse on his way to Italy in 218 BC. Left in command of Hispania when Hannibal departed to Italy in 218 BC, Hasdrubal was destined to fight for six years against the brothers Gnaeus and Publius Cornelius Scipio.
The expedition led by Gnaeus Scipio in 218 BC had caught the Carthaginians by surprise, before Hasdrubal could join Hanno, the Carthaginian commander on the North of Ebro River, the Romans had fought and won the Battle of Cissa and established their army at Tarraco and their fleet at Emporiae. Hasdrubal, commanding only 8,000 troops and outnumbered by the Romans, raided the Romans with a flying column of light infantry and cavalry, which inflicted severe losses on their naval crews and reduced the fighting strength to 35 ships; this loss was offset by the arrival of an allied Greek contingent from the city of Massilia. In the spring of 217 BC, Hasdrubal led a joint expedition north to fight the Romans, he commanded the army. The Punic Army and the fleet encamped on the mouth of the Ebro River. Carelessness of the Carthaginian fleet enabled Gnaeus Scipio to surprise the Carthaginians and crush their naval contingent at the Battle of Ebro River. Hasdrubal retreated without fighting the Roman army.
The year 216 was spent quelling an uprising of Iberian tribes the Turdetanii around the area near Gades. Hasdrubal was reinforced by 4,000 infantry and 500 cavalry and was ordered by the Carthaginian senate to march to Italy in the same year, he left Himilco the Navigator in charge at Cartagena and marched for the Ebro river, but was defeated in the Battle of Dertosa in the spring of 215 BC. This defeat prevented reinforcements reaching Hannibal from both Iberia and Africa at a critical moment of the War, when the Carthaginians held the upper hand in Italy; the Carthaginians from on were forced to contest the Romans in the area between the Ebro and Jucor rivers. This defeat led to Mago and Hasdrubal Gisco arriving in Iberia with two armies and ending the undisputed command of the Barcid family in Iberia; the Carthaginains fought the Scipio brothers and had on the whole the worst of the conflict between 215 and 212 BC, but managed to prevent the loss of any territory. At the instigation of the Romans, one of the kings of the Numidian tribes, attacked Carthaginian territories in Africa in 213/212 BC.
The situation in Iberia was sufficiently under control, because Hasdrubal and his Iberian army crossed over to Africa and crushed the threat of Syphax in a battle where 30,000 Numidians were killed. With his Roman-trained army shattered, Syphax fled to Mauritania; the aid of Masinissa, a Numidian prince, was invaluable during this episode, he crossed over to Iberia with Hasdrubal after the African expedition ended with 3,000 Numidian cavalry. In late 212 BC, with timely cooperation from Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco routed his opponents at the Battle of the Upper Baetis, destroying the majority of the Roman army in Iberia and killing both the Scipios. Carthaginians gained control of Iberia up to the Ebro as a result of this victory. However, the lack of cooperation between the Carthaginian generals led to the surviving Roman force of 8,000 retiring safely to the north of the river Ebro; these troops somehow managed to keep the Carthaginian armies from gaining a foothold north of the Ebro. The Romans reinforced this detachment with 10,000 troops under Claudius Nero in 211 BC and with another 10,000 soldiers under Scipio Africanus Major in 210 BC, who spent the year training his army and improving his diplomatic contacts.
The Carthaginian armies had dispersed into the interior of Iberia in 209 BC to maintain control over the Iberian tribes, which they were dependent on for soldiers and provisions. The Carthaginian armies were subsequently outgeneraled by Scipio Africanus Major, taking advantage of the absence of the three Carthaginian armies in 209 BC, captured Carthago Nova and gained other advantages. Hasdrubal was defeated by Scipio at the Battle of Baecula but managed to retreat with two-thirds of his army intact. In 209 BC, Hasdrubal was summoned to join his brother in Italy, he eluded Scipio by crossing the Pyrenees at their western extremity and safely made his way into Gaul in the winter of 208. Hasdrubal had waited until the spring of 207 to make his way through the Alps and into Northern Italy. Hasdrubal made much faster progress than his brother had due to the construction left behind by Hannibal's army when he had passed via the same route a decade earlier, but due to the removal of the Gallic threat that had plagued Hannibal early on.
The Gauls now feared and respected the Carthaginians, not only was Hasdrubal allowed to pass through the Alps unmolested, his ranks were
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Baal, properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "owner," "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations; the Hebrew Bible and curated over a span of centuries, includes generic use of the term in reference to various Levantine deities, pointed application towards Hadad, decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology; the spelling of the English term "Baal" derives from the Greek Báal, which appears in the New Testament and Septuagint, from its Latinized form Baal, which appears in the Vulgate. These forms in turn derive from the vowel-less Northwest Semitic form BʿL; the word's biblical senses as a Phoenician deity and false gods were extended during the Protestant Reformation to denote any idols, icons of the saints, or the Catholic Church generally.
In such contexts, it follows the anglicized pronunciation and omits any mark between its two As. In close transliteration of the Semitic name, the ayin is represented, as Baʿal. In the Northwest Semitic languages—Ugaritic, Hebrew and Aramaic—the word baʿal signified "owner" and, by extension, "lord", a "master", or "husband". Cognates include the Akkadian Bēlu, Amharic bal, Arabic baʿl. Báʿal and baʿl still serve as the words for "husband" in modern Arabic respectively, they appear in some contexts concerning the ownership of things or possession of traits. The feminine form is baʿalah, meaning "mistress" in the sense of a female owner or lady of the house and still serving as a rare word for "wife". Suggestions in early modern scholarship included comparison with the Celtic god Belenus. Like EN in Sumerian, the Akkadian bēlu and Northwest Semitic baʿal was used as a title of various deities in the Mesopotamian and Semitic pantheons. Only a definitive article, genitive or epithet, or context could establish which particular god was meant.
Baʿal was used as a proper name by the third millennium BCE, when he appears in a list of deities at Abu Salabikh. Most modern scholarship asserts that this Baʿal—usually distinguished as "The Lord" —was identical with the storm and fertility god Hadad. Scholars propose that, as the cult of Hadad increased in importance, his true name came to be seen as too holy for any but the high priest to speak aloud and the alias "Lord" was used instead, as "Bel" was used for Marduk among the Babylonians and "Adonai" for Yahweh among the Israelites. A minority propose that Baʿal was a native Canaanite deity whose cult was identified with or absorbed aspects of Adad's. Regardless of their original relationship, by the 1st millennium BCE, the two were distinct: Hadad was worshipped by the Aramaeans and Baʿal by the Phoenicians and other Canaanites; the Phoenician Baʿal is identified with either El or Dagan. Baʿal is well-attested in surviving inscriptions and was popular in theophoric names throughout the Levant but he is mentioned along with other gods, "his own field of action being defined".
Nonetheless, Ugaritic records show him as a weather god, with particular power over lightning, wind and fertility. The dry summers of the area were explained as Baʿal's time in the underworld and his return in autumn was said to cause the storms which revived the land. Thus, the worship of Baʿal in Canaan—where he supplanted El as the leader of the gods and patron of kingship—was connected to the regions' dependence on rainfall for its agriculture, unlike Egypt and Mesopotamia, which focused on irrigation from their major rivers. Anxiety about the availability of water for crops and trees increased the importance of his cult, which focused attention on his role as a rain god, he was called upon during battle, showing that he was thought to intervene in the world of man, unlike the more aloof El. The Lebanese city of Baalbeck was named after Baal; the Baʿal of Ugarit was the epithet of Hadad but as the time passed, the epithet became the god's name while Hadad became the epithet. Baʿal was said to be the son of Dagan, but appears as one of the sons of El in Ugaritic sources.
Both Baʿal and El were associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts, as it symbolized both strength and fertility. The virgin goddess ʿAnat was his sister and sometimes credited with a child through him, he held special enmity against snakes, both on their own and as representatives of Yammu, the Canaanite sea god and river god. He fought the Tannin, the "Twisted Serpent", "Litan the Fugitive Serpent", the "Mighty One with Seven Heads". Baʿal's conflict with Yammu is now regarded as the prototype of the vision recorded in the 7th chapter of the biblical Book of Daniel; as vanquisher of the sea, Baʿal was regarded by the Canaanites and Phoenicians as the patron of sailors and sea-going merchants. As vanquisher of Mot, the Canaanite death god, he was known as Baʿal Rāpiʾuma and regarded as the leader of the Rephaim, the ancestral spirits those of ruling dynasties. From Canaan, worship of Baʿal spread to Egypt by the Middle Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean following the waves of Phoenician colonization in the early 1st mill
Hasdrubal the Fair
Hasdrubal the Fair was a Carthaginian military leader and politician, governor in Iberia after Hamilcar Barca's death, founder of Cartagena. Livy's History of Rome records he was the brother-in-law of the Carthaginian leader Hannibal and son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca. Hasdrubal followed Hamilcar in his campaign against the governing aristocracy at Carthage at the close of the First Punic War, in his subsequent career of conquest in Hispania. In 237 BC, they parted towards the Peninsula, but around 231–230 BC Hasdrubal interceded in Hamilcar's name making the Numidian tribes from Northern Africa submit to the Barcid family. After Hamilcar's death in 228 BC while besieging Helike, a Greek town in Hispania, Hasdrubal succeeded him in the command, following Carthage's instructions, Hamilcar's sons being too young – Hannibal, the elder, was nineteen, he preferred diplomacy to war campaigns. According to the diplomatic customs of the time, Hasdrubal demanded the handing over of hostages to make himself sure of the submission of their places of origin.
Thus, he extended the newly acquired empire by skillful diplomacy, consolidating it by founding the important city and naval base of Qart Hadasht, which the Romans called Carthago Nova as the capital of the new province, by establishing a treaty with the Roman Republic which fixed the River Ebro as the boundary between the two powers. This treaty was caused because a Greek colony and Iberian Sagunto, fearful of the continuous growth of Punic power in Iberia, asked Rome for help. Hasdrubal accepted reluctantly, as Punic dominion in Iberia was not yet sufficiently established to jeopardise its future expansion in a premature conflict. Seven years after Hamilcar's death, Hasdrubal the Fair was assassinated in 221 BC by a slave of the Celtic king Tagus, who thus avenged the death of his own master. Hasdrubal's successor was the son of Hamilcar, Hannibal Barca. Other Hasdrubals in Carthaginian history Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck. Diodorus of Sicily: History Appian: Roman History.
Biblioteca Clásica Gredos 84. Polybius: Histories. Biblioteca Clásica Gredos 38 y 43. Titus Livius: History of Rome. Libro de Bolsillo Alianza Editorial 1595 1–2. Livius.org: Hasdrubal the Fair