Hanno the Great
Hanno the Great may refer to any of three different leaders of ancient Carthage, according to Gilbert Charles-Picard and Colette Picard: Hanno I the Great, Hanno II the Great, Hanno III the Great. According to Warmington, there were three elders of Carthage called Hanno who were given the same nickname but he conjectures that it was a family nickname or a term not well understood by the ancient Greek or Roman writers. Warmington discusses only two of them but he does not use Roman numerals for them. Lancel mentions only one Hanno the Great, the Picards' "Hanno I", he references "Hanno II" but calls him "Hanno". Hanno the Great was a politician and military leader of the 4th century BC, his title, according to Justin, was princeps Cathaginiensium. It is considered more that the title signifies first among equals, rather than being a title of nobility or royalty, his rival Suniatus was called the potentissimus Poenorum, or "the most powerful of the Carthaginians", in the year 368. Several years Suniatus was accused of high treason and executed.
In 367 Hanno the Great commanded a fleet of 200 ships which won a decisive naval victory over the Greeks of Sicily. His victory blocked the plans of Dionysius I of Syracuse to attack Lilybaeum, a city allied to Carthage in western Sicily. For about twenty years Hanno the Great was the leading figure of Carthage, the wealthiest. In the 340s he schemed to become the tyrant. After distributing food to the populace, the time for a show of force came and he utilized for that purpose the native slaves and a Berber chieftain. Although not a military threat to Carthage, Hanno the Great was captured, found to be a traitor, tortured to death. Many members of his family were put to death, yet his son Gisgo was given the command of seventy ships of Carthage manned by Greek mercenaries and sent to Lilybaeum, after which peace was negotiated by Carthage with Timoleon of Syracuse, c. 340. Thereafter, this family's prestige and influence at Carthage would tell in generations. Hanno I the Great was an ancestor of Hanno II the Great.
Hanno the Great was a wealthy Carthaginian aristocrat in the 3rd century BC. Hanno's wealth was based on the land he owned in Africa and the Iberian Peninsula, during the First Punic War he led the faction in Carthage, opposed to continuing the war against Roman Republic, he preferred to continue conquering territory in Africa rather than fight a naval war against Rome that would bring him no personal gain. In these efforts, he was opposed by the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca. Hanno demobilized the Carthaginian navy in 244 BC, giving Rome time to rebuild its navy and defeat Carthage by 241 BC. After the war, Hanno refused to pay the Berber mercenaries, promised money and rewards by Hamilcar; the mercenaries revolted, Hanno took control of the Carthaginian army to attempt to defeat them. His attempt failed and he gave control of the army back to Hamilcar, they both cooperated to crush the rebels in 238 BC. His nickname "the Great" was earned because of his conquests among the African enemies of Carthage, he continued to oppose war with Rome, which would involve naval engagements.
During the Second Punic War, he led the anti-war faction in Carthage, is blamed for preventing reinforcements from being sent to Hamilcar's son Hannibal after his victory at the Battle of Cannae. After Carthage's defeat at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC, he was among the ambassadors to negotiate peace with the Romans; the third Hanno the Great was an ultra-conservative politician at Carthage during the 2nd century BC. Other Hannos in Carthaginian history Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck. Hanno II the Great
Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus known as Scipio Aemilianus, or Scipio Africanus Minor, or Scipio Africanus the Younger, was an important politician and general of the Roman Republic, who served as consul twice, in 147 and 134 BC. He was the natural son of Aemilius Paullus, but was adopted into the Cornelii Scipiones—the most prominent family at the time—by a son of Scipio Africanus. In 147 BC, he besieged and destroyed Carthage. In 134 BC he took over the Numantine War, restored the discipline of the Roman army, defeated Numantia, he was a prominent patron of writers and philosophers, the most famous of whom was the Greek historian Polybius. Scipio Aemilianus was the second son of Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, the commander of the Romans' victorious campaign in the Third Macedonian War, his first wife, Papiria Masonis. Scipio was adopted by his first cousin, Publius Cornelius Scipio, the eldest son of his aunt Aemilia Tertia and her husband Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the acclaimed commander who won the decisive battle of the Second Punic War against Hannibal.
This made Scipio Africanus the adoptive grandfather of Scipio Aemilianus. On adoption, he became Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, assuming the name of his adoptive father, but keeping Aemilianus as a fourth name to indicate his original nomen, his elder brother was adopted by a son or grandson of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, another prominent commander in the Second Punic War, whose name became Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus. Lucius Aemilius Paullus took his two older sons with him in his campaign in Greece. Plutarch wrote that Scipio was his favorite son because he "saw that he was by nature more prone to excellence than any of his brothers", he related that during mopping-up operations after the Battle of Pydna, Aemilius was worried because his younger son was missing. Plutarch wrote that "The whole army learned of the distress and anguish of their general, springing up from their suppers, ran about with torches, many to the tent of Aemilius, many in front of the ramparts, searching among the numerous dead bodies.
Dejection reigned in the camp, the plain was filled with the cries of men calling out the name of Scipio. For from the outset he had been admired by everybody, beyond any other one of his family, he had a nature adapted for leadership in war and public service. Well when it was late and he was despaired of, he came in from the pursuit with two or three comrades, covered with the blood of the enemies he had slain..." Scipio Aemilianus was seventeen at the time. In 152 BC, the consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus urged the Senate to conclude a peace with the Celtiberians; the Senate rejected this proposal, instead sent one of the consuls of 151 BC, Lucius Licinius Lucullus, to Hispania to continue the war. However, there was a crisis of recruitment due to rumors of incessant battles and heavy Roman losses. Additionally, Marcellus appeared to be afraid of continuing the war. Young men avoided enrollment as soldiers through unverifiable excuses. Men eligible to be legates or military tribunes did not volunteer.
Scipio Aemilianus was thought to have advised for the prosecution of the war. He asked the Senate to be sent to Hispania either as a military tribune or a legate, due to the urgency of the situation though it would have been safer to go to Macedon, where he had been invited to settle domestic disputes; the Senate was at first surprised. Scipio's decision made him popular, many of those, avoiding their duty, ashamed by Scipio's example, began to volunteer as legates or to enroll as soldiers. Scipio served under Lucullus. Velleius Paterculus wrote that Scipio was awarded a mural crown, a military decoration awarded to the soldier who first climbed the wall of a besieged city or fortress and placed the military standard on it. Florus wrote that "having been challenged by king to a single combat, carried off the spolia opima, the armor and arms stripped from the body of an opposing commander slain in single combat; these were regarded as the most honorable of all war trophies." Although the power of Carthage had been broken with her defeat in the Second Punic War, there was still lingering resentment in Rome.
Cato the Elder ended every speech with, "Carthage must be destroyed." In 150 BC an appeal was made to Scipio Aemilianus by the Carthaginians to act as a mediator between them and the Numidian prince Massinissa who, supported by the anti-Carthaginian faction in Rome, was incessantly encroaching on Carthaginian territory. In 149 BC Rome declared war, a force sent to Africa, Carthage's homeland. In the early stages of the war, the Romans suffered repeated defeats. Scipio Aemilianus distinguished himself repeatedly. In 147 BC he was elected consul, while still under the minimum age required by law to hold this office. Without the customary procedure of drawing lots, he was assigned to the African theater of war. After a year of desperate fighting and stubborn heroism on the part of the defenders, he took the city of Carthage, taking prisoner about 50,000 survivors. Complying with the mandate of the Senate, he ordered the city evacuated, burnt it, razed it to the ground and plowed it over, ending the Third Punic War.
On his return to Rome he received a Triumph, having established a personal claim to his adoptive agnomen of Africanus. In 134 BC Scipio was elected consul again because the citizens thought that he was the only man capable of defeating the Numantines in the
Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage. She is known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his epic, Aeneid. In some sources she is known as Elissa. Many names in the legend of Dido are of Punic origin, which suggests that the first Greek authors who mention this story have taken up Phoenician accounts. One suggestion is that Dido is an epithet from the same Semitic root as David, which means "Beloved". Others state Didô means "the wanderer". According to Marie-Pierre Noël, "Elishat/Elisha" is a name attested on Punic votives, it is composed of the Punic reflex of *ʾil- "god", the remote Phoenician creator god El a name for God in Judaism, "‐issa", which could be either "ʾiš" means "fire", or another word for "woman". Other works state. In Greek it appears as Theiossô; this understanding of the chronology related to Dido and her company resulted in the following dates for Dido and her immediate relations, as derived from F. M. Cross and Wm. H. Barnes: Baal-Eser II 846–841 BC Mattan I 840–832 BC 839 BC: Dido was born in Tyre 831 BC: Pygmalion begins to reign 825 BC: Dido flees Tyre in 7th year of Pygmalion, after the death of Acerbas 825 BC and some time thereafter: Dido and companions on Cyprus Between 825 BC and 814 BC: Tyrians build settlement on island of Cothon 814 BC: Dido founds Carthage on mainland 785 BC: Death of Pygmalion 759 BC: Dido died in Carthage The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily.
Historians gave both for the foundation of Carthage and the foundation of Rome. Appian in the beginning of his Punic Wars claims that Carthage was founded by a certain Zorus and Carchedon, but Zorus looks like an alternative transliteration of the city name Tyre and Carchedon is just the Greek form of Carthage. Timaeus made Carchedon's wife Elissa the sister of King Pygmalion of Tyre. Archaeological evidence of settlement on the site of Carthage before the last quarter of the 8th century BC has yet to be found. Paucity of material for this period may be explained by rejection of the Greek Dark Age theory; that the city is named at least indicates it was a colony. The only surviving full account before Virgil's treatment is that of Virgil's contemporary Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus in his Philippic histories as rendered in a digest or epitome made by Junianus Justinus in the 3rd century AD. Justin quoting or paraphrasing Trogus states, a king of Tyre whom Justin does not name, made his beautiful daughter Dido and son Pygmalion his joint heirs.
But on his death the people took Pygmalion alone as their ruler though Pygmalion was yet still a boy. Dido married Acerbas her uncle who as priest of Heracles—that is, Melqart—was second in power to King Pygmalion. Acerbas can be equated with the Zikarbaal king of Byblos mentioned in the Egyptian Tale of Wenamon. Rumor told that Acerbas had much wealth secretly buried and King Pygmalion had Acerbas murdered in hopes of gaining this wealth. Dido, desiring to escape Tyre, expressed a wish to move into Pygmalion's palace, but ordered the attendants whom Pygmalion sent to aid in the move, to throw all Acerbas' bags of gold into the sea as an offering to his spirit. In fact these bags contained only sand. Dido persuaded the attendants to join her in flight to another land rather than face Pygmalion's anger when he discovered what had become of Acerbas' wealth; some senators joined her in her flight. The party arrived at Cyprus. There the exiles seized about eighty young women who were prostituting themselves on the shore in order to provide wives for the men in the party.
Dido and her followers arrived on the coast of North Africa where Dido asked the Berber king Iarbas for a small bit of land for a temporary refuge until she could continue her journeying, only as much land as could be encompassed by an oxhide. They agreed. Dido cut the oxhide into fine strips so that she had enough to encircle an entire nearby hill, therefore afterwards named Byrsa "hide"; that would become their new home. Many of the local Berbers joined the settlement and both Berbers and envoys from the nearby Phoenician city of Utica urged the building of a city. In digging the foundations an ox's head was found, indicating a city that would be wealthy but subject to others. Accordingly, another area of the hill was dug instead where a horse's head was found, indicating that the city would be powerful in war, but when the new city of Carthage had been established and become prosperous, Iarbas, a native king of the Maxitani or Mauritani, demanded Dido for his wife or he would make war on Carthage.
Dido's envoys, fearing Iarbas, told Dido only that Iarbas' terms for peace were that someone from Carthage must dwell permanently with him to teach Phoenician ways and they added that of course no Carthaginian would agree to dwell with such savages. Dido condemned any who would feel that way when they should indeed give their lives for the city if necessary. Dido's envoys explained that Iarbas had requested Dido as wife. Dido was trapped by her words. Still, she preferred to stay faithful to her first husband and after creating a ceremonial funeral pyre and sacrificing many victi
Pietro della Vecchia
Pietro della Vecchia, Pietro della Vècchia or Pietro Vècchia incorrectly called Pietro Muttoni was a versatile Italian painter who worked in many genres and created altar pieces, genre scenes and grotesques. He created pastiches of the work of leading Italian painters of the 16th century; the artist worked as an art restorer. Della Vecchia was sought after as an art expert and did expert valuations of artworks, he worked most of his life in its environs except for a brief stay in Rome. The life of Pietro della Vecchia is not well documented and the information available is not always reliable. Pietro della Vecchia is believed to have been born in Vicenza in 1603 as the son of Gasparo, a painter admitted to the Venetian painters guild; some art historians place the artist's place of birth in Venice. Pietro della Vecchia was erroneously called Pietro Muttoni after Luigi Lanzi in the first edition of his Storia pittorica della Italia, mixed up the artist's name with that of a Muttoni collection, which kept one of his paintings.
Authors interpreted de la Vecchia as a nickname as the artist liked to imitate the old masters of the previous century. Pietro was in fact a scion of a well-known Venetian family called'Dalla Vecchia'. Early sources describe Alessandro Varotari, called il Padovanino, as his teacher. On stylistic grounds some art historians have expressed doubt on this traineeship in his early years; the influence of the works of Padovanino is only visible after 1635. So he may have worked with Padovanino at a stage, his earliest known work show a strong influence by Carlo Saraceni and Saraceni's pupil and collaborator Jean Leclerc. This is an important indication; as his work displayed for some time certain Caravaggesque characteristics it is believed that he spent time in Rome after the departure of Leclerc from Venice in 1621 or 1622. Della Vecchia worked in Padovanino's workshop after his return from Rome in 1625 or 1626. Padovanino, whose style was rooted in early 16th century Venetian art played an important role in instilling in della Vecchia a great interest in 16th-century painting in Venice and the Veneto.
The first documents in which the name of della Vecchia appears date back to the period from December 1626 to January 1628. The documents deal with the payment for a banner the artist had made for the Confraternity of the Carmelites in the church of S. Marco in Pordenone. From 1629 to 1640 he was a member of the guild of painters in Venice. In 1626 he married a daughter of the Flemish painter Nicolas Régnier. Clorinda Régnier was a painter in her own right and has been described as "a woman of great spirit, of great stature and of great adherence". Lucrezia Régnier, the elder sister of della Vecchia's wife was married to Daniel van den Dyck, a Flemish painter active in Northern Italy. Della Vecchia, together with his brother-in-law Daniel van den Dyck and their respective spouses, painted wall decorations in the Palazzo Pesaro in Preganziol. Towards the end of the 1630s della Vecchia had established his name as one of the leading painters of Venice of religious works. In January 1640 the procurators of S. Marco de Supra, responsible for the decoration of St Mark's Basilica, commissioned from him two cartoons for mosaics.
These appear to have been well received as della Vecchia was subsequently appointed Venice's "pitor ducal", a position he held until 1674, that is, until four years before his death. In this capacity he was responsible for the design of the new mosaics and the restoration of the old ones in the Basilica. Della Vecchia received a commission to restore Giorgione's Castelfranco Madonna altarpiece in 1643-1644. At the height of his career, della Vecchia was a sought-after teacher with a large workshop employing many assistants. Della Vecchia opened an academy in his house where live drawing classes were organised. Gregorio Lazzarini was one of his pupils shortly after 1667. Gregorio Lazzarini was the teacher of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Della Vecchia taught classes on the theory of art. Della Vecchia enjoyed fame as a connoisseur of ancient paintings. During the latter part of his life he was consulted by collectors and merchants together with his father-in-law Nicolas Régnier. Both he and his father-in-law had business relations with Paolo del Sera, the art agent in Venice of Leopoldo de' Medici, an Italian cardinal, patron of the arts and the Governor of Siena.
Marco Boschini, an engraver, art dealer and author, a great admirer of della Vecchia joined the artist when he was asked to value paintings after 1670. Della Vecchia was close to the humanistic and libertine circle around the Accademia degli Incogniti, a learned society of freethinking intellectuals noblemen, that influenced the cultural and political life of mid-17th century Venice. Many of the subjects of his works were a reflection of the intellectual occupations of this influential Venetian society. For instance the charged eroticism in the Young couple is linked to the libertine attitudes of the Accademia, his son Gasparo Prospero was born on 8 May 1653 and became a minor painter, music theoretician and mathematician. Pietro della Vecchia had four daughters one of whom died young. Della Vecchia was buried in the church of S. Canciano. Pietro della Vecchia was a versatile and prolific painter who worked in many genr
Carthage was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of a Punic empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC; the legendary Queen Dido is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide. Cutting the skin into strips, she laid out her claim and founded an empire that would become, through the Punic Wars, the only existential threat to Rome until the coming of the Vandals several centuries later; the ancient city was destroyed by the Roman Republic in the Third Punic War in 146 BC and re-developed as Roman Carthage, which became the major city of the Roman Empire in the province of Africa. The city was sacked and destroyed in the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in 698.
The site remained uninhabited, the regional power shifting to the Medina of Tunis in the medieval period, until the early 20th century, when it began to develop into a coastal suburb of Tunis, incorporated as Carthage municipality in 1919. The archaeological site was first surveyed by Danish consul Christian Tuxen Falbe. Excavations were performed in the second half of the 19th century by Charles Ernest Beulé and by Alfred Louis Delattre; the Carthage National Museum was founded in 1875 by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie. Excavations performed by French archaeologists in the 1920s first attracted an extraordinary amount of attention because of the evidence they produced for child sacrifice. There has been considerable disagreement among scholars concerning whether or not child sacrifice was practiced by ancient Carthage; the open-air Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum has exhibits excavated under the auspices of UNESCO from 1975 to 1984. The name Carthage /ˈkarθɪdʒ/ is the Early Modern anglicisation of French Carthage /kaʁ.taʒ/, from Latin Carthāgō and Karthāgō from the Punic qrt-ḥdšt "new city", implying it was a "new Tyre".
The Latin adjective pūnicus, meaning "Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from Latin—notably the Punic Wars and the Punic language. The Modern Standard Arabic form قرطاج is an adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported as Cartagenna that directly continued the Latin name. Carthage was built on a promontory with sea inlets to the south; the city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily and the coast of Tunisia, where Carthage was built, affording it great power and influence. Two large, artificial harbors were built within the city, one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both harbors; the city had 37 km in length, longer than the walls of comparable cities. Most of the walls were located on the shore, thus could be less impressive, as Carthaginian control of the sea made attack from that direction difficult.
The 4.0 to 4.8 km of wall on the isthmus to the west were massive and were never penetrated. The city had a huge necropolis or burial ground, religious area, market places, council house, a theater, was divided into four sized residential areas with the same layout. In the middle of the city stood a high citadel called the Byrsa. Carthage was one of the largest cities of the Hellenistic period and was among the largest cities in preindustrial history. Whereas by AD 14, Rome had at least 750,000 inhabitants and in the following century may have reached 1 million, the cities of Alexandria and Antioch numbered only a few hundred thousand or less. According to the not always reliable history of Herodian, Carthage rivaled Alexandria for second place in the Roman empire. On top of Byrsa hill, the location of the Roman Forum, a residential area from the last century of existence of the Punic city was excavated by the French archaeologist Serge Lancel; the neighborhood, with its houses and private spaces, is significant for what it reveals about daily life there over 2100 years ago.
The remains have been preserved under embankments, the substructures of the Roman forum, whose foundation piles dot the district. The housing blocks are separated by a grid of straight streets about 6 m wide, with a roadway consisting of clay. Construction of this type presupposes organization and political will, has inspired the name of the neighborhood, "Hannibal district", referring to the legendary Punic general or sufet at the beginning of the second century BCE; the habitat is typical stereotypical. The street was used as a storefront/shopfront. In some places, the ground is covered with mosaics called punica pavement, sometimes using a characteristic red mortar; the merchant harbor at Carthage was developed, after settlement of the nearby Punic town of Utica. The surrounding countryside was brought into the orbit of the Punic urban centers, first commercially politically. Direct management over cultivation of neighbouring lands by Punic owners followed. A 28-volume work on agriculture written in Punic by Mago, a retired army general, was trans
For the Renaissance painter Sofonisba Anguissola, see Sofonisba Anguissola. For the American activist Sophonisba Breckinridge, see Sophonisba Breckinridge. Sophonisba was a Carthaginian noblewoman who lived during the Second Punic War, the daughter of Hasdrubal Gisco Gisgonis. In an act that became legendary, Sophonisba poisoned herself rather than be humiliated in a Roman triumph; the form of the name Sophonisba is not known until the fifteenth century, in a few late manuscripts of Livy, but it is the better known form because of literature. Dio Cassius tells us that Sophoniba was a great beauty, betrothed to King Masinissa until 206. Masinissa was the leader of the Massylii Numidians. However, in 206, Masinissa allied himself to Rome. Dio Cassius suggests that this was because Hasdrubal found a better ally in Syphax, king of the Masaesyli, as was normal in those days, Hasdrubal used his daughter to conclude the diplomatic alliances with Syphax, who had himself been allied to Rome; because Masinissa meets Sophonisba for the first time after the defeat of Syphax, this account is criticized as being "most improbable" by H. E. Butler and H. H. Scullard.
Syphax was defeated and captured in 203 BC by Masinissa and Scipio Africanus in the Battle of the Great Plains on the Bagradas. Masinissa married her. Scipio, refused to agree to this arrangement, insisting on the immediate surrender of the princess so that she could be taken to Rome and appear in the triumphal parade. Masinissa, upbraided by Scipio for his weakness, was urged to leave her. Masinissa feared the Romans more. Thus, he swore his love to her, he told her that he could not free her from captivity or shield her from Roman wrath, so he asked her to die like a true Carthaginian princess. With great composure, she drank a cup of poison, her story much embellished, is told indirectly in Polybius. Polybius, never refers to Sophonisba by name in his allusions to her marriage to Syphax, in his extensive account of Laelius' maneuvers against Syphax; the historian had met Masinissa. It has been proposed that Polybius' account provides the basis for the Sophonisba story; when Polybius does refer to her, he uses the diminutive in a tone.
In one passage, Polybius ridicules Syphax for being less courageous than his own "child bride". Petrarch elaborated her story in his epic poem Africa, published posthumously in 1396; the playwright John Marston wrote The Wonder of Women a Roman tragedy based on the story of Sophonisba, in 1606 for the Children of the Queen's Revels. There are a number of paintings of Sophonisba drinking her poison, but the subject is very similar to that of Artemisia II of Caria drinking her husband's ashes, the Rembrandt in the Prado and a Donato Creti in the National Gallery are examples of works where the intended subject remains uncertain between the two. Sophonisba became the subject of tragedies from the 16th to the 19th centuries, along with the story of Cleopatra, furnished more dramas than any other; the first tragedy is credited to the Italian Galeotto Del Carretto, written in 1502, but issued posthumously in 1546. The first to appear, was Gian Giorgio Trissino's play of 1515 which, "in codifying the forms of Italian classical tragedy, helped consign Del Carretto's Sofonisba to oblivion."
In France, Trissino's version was adapted by Mellin de Saint-Gelais, may have served as the primary model for versions by Antoine de Montchrestien and Nicolas de Montreux. The tragedy by Jean Mairet is one of the first monuments of French "classicism", was followed by a version from Pierre Corneille; the story of Sophonisba served as subject for works by John Marston, David Murray, Nathaniel Lee, Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein, Henry Purcell, Antonio Caldara, Leonardo Leo, Luca Antonio Predieri, James Thomson, Niccolò Jommelli, Baldassare Galuppi, Tommaso Traetta, Antonio Boroni, Christopher Gluck, Maria Teresa Agnesi, Mattia Vento, François Joseph Lagrange-Chancel, revised by Voltaire, Christian Gottlob Neefe, António Leal Moreira, Joseph Joaquín Mazuelo, Vittorio Alfieri, Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Marcos Portugal, Ferdinando Paer, Vincenzo Federici, Luigi Petrali, Emanuel Geibel, Jeronim de Rada, Giuseppe Brunati, Dimitrie Cuclin, Vasco Graça Moura, others. Sophonisba appears in film, first in Giovanni Pastrone's 1914 silent film Cabiria and again in Carmine Gallone's 1937 epic movie Scipio Africanus: The Defeat of Hannibal.
Livy, Ab urbe condita libri xxix.23, xxx.8, 12-15.8 Livius.org: Sophoniba
Hasdrubal the Fair
Hasdrubal the Fair was a Carthaginian military leader and politician, governor in Iberia after Hamilcar Barca's death, founder of Cartagena. Livy's History of Rome records he was the brother-in-law of the Carthaginian leader Hannibal and son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca. Hasdrubal followed Hamilcar in his campaign against the governing aristocracy at Carthage at the close of the First Punic War, in his subsequent career of conquest in Hispania. In 237 BC, they parted towards the Peninsula, but around 231–230 BC Hasdrubal interceded in Hamilcar's name making the Numidian tribes from Northern Africa submit to the Barcid family. After Hamilcar's death in 228 BC while besieging Helike, a Greek town in Hispania, Hasdrubal succeeded him in the command, following Carthage's instructions, Hamilcar's sons being too young – Hannibal, the elder, was nineteen, he preferred diplomacy to war campaigns. According to the diplomatic customs of the time, Hasdrubal demanded the handing over of hostages to make himself sure of the submission of their places of origin.
Thus, he extended the newly acquired empire by skillful diplomacy, consolidating it by founding the important city and naval base of Qart Hadasht, which the Romans called Carthago Nova as the capital of the new province, by establishing a treaty with the Roman Republic which fixed the River Ebro as the boundary between the two powers. This treaty was caused because a Greek colony and Iberian Sagunto, fearful of the continuous growth of Punic power in Iberia, asked Rome for help. Hasdrubal accepted reluctantly, as Punic dominion in Iberia was not yet sufficiently established to jeopardise its future expansion in a premature conflict. Seven years after Hamilcar's death, Hasdrubal the Fair was assassinated in 221 BC by a slave of the Celtic king Tagus, who thus avenged the death of his own master. Hasdrubal's successor was the son of Hamilcar, Hannibal Barca. Other Hasdrubals in Carthaginian history Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck. Diodorus of Sicily: History Appian: Roman History.
Biblioteca Clásica Gredos 84. Polybius: Histories. Biblioteca Clásica Gredos 38 y 43. Titus Livius: History of Rome. Libro de Bolsillo Alianza Editorial 1595 1–2. Livius.org: Hasdrubal the Fair