Tokugawa Iemitsu was the third shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty. He was the eldest son of Tokugawa Hidetada, the grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Iemitsu ruled from 1623 to 1651, during this period he crucified Christians, expelled all Europeans from Japan and closed the borders of the country, a foreign politics policy that continued for over 200 years after its institution, it is debatable whether Iemitsu can be considered a kinslayer for making his younger brother Tadanaga commit suicide by seppuku. Iemitsu had well-known homosexual preferences, it is speculated he was the last direct male descendant of Tokugawa Ieyasu, thereby ending the patrilineality of the shogunate by the third generation. Tokugawa Iemitsu was born on 12 August 1604, he was the eldest son of Tokugawa Hidetada and grandson of the last great unifier of Japan, the first Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu. He was the first member of the Tokugawa family born after Tokugawa Ieyasu became shōgun.. Not much is known of Iemitsu's early life.
He had two sisters and Masako, a brother, who would become a rival, Tadanaga. Tadanaga was his parents' favorite. However, Ieyasu made. An obsolete spelling of his given name is Iyemitsu. Father: Tokugawa Hidetada Mother: Oeyo Sibling from Mother: Toyotomi Sadako, adopted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Yodo-dono married Kujō Yukiie, daughter of Toyotomi Hidekatsu Wife: Takatsukasa Takako Honriin Concubines: Okoto no Kata Hoshin'in Ofuri no Kata Jishōin Oraku no Kata Hōjuin Onatsu no Kata Junshōin Oman no Kata Eikoin Otama no Kata Keishoin Orisa no Kata Jokoin Ohara no Kata Osuzu no Kata Omasa no Kata Children: Stilborn Son by Ofuri Chiyohime by Ofuri Tokugawa Ietsuna by Oraku Tokugawa Kamematsu by Omasa Tokugawa Tsunashige by Onatsu Tokugawa Tsunayoshi by Otama Tokugawa Tsurumatsu by Orisa Adopted Daughters: Kametsuruhime, daughter of Tamahime with Maeda Toshitsune and married Mōri Tadahiro, son of Mōri Tadamasa of Tsuyama Domain Tsuruhime, daughter of Matsudaira Tadanao and married Kujō Michifusa had 3 daughters: the first married Kujō Kaneharu the second and the third married Asano Tsunaakira Manhime, daughter of Tamahime with Maeda Toshitsune and married Asano Mitsuakira had 3 sons: Asano Tsunaakira, Asano Naganao, Asano Nagateru Oohime, daughter of Tokugawa Yorifusa And married Maeda Mitsutaka had 1 son: Maeda Tsunanori Tsuhime daughter of Ikeda Mitsumasa and married Ichijō Norisuke had 1 son: Ichijō Kaneteru Iemitsu came of age in 1617 and dropped his childhood name in favor of Tokugawa Iemitsu.
He was installed as the heir to the Tokugawa shogunate. The only person to contest this position was his younger brother Tokugawa Tadanaga. A fierce rivalry began to develop between the brothers. From an early age Iemitsu practiced the shūdō tradition. However, in 1620, he had a falling out with his homosexual lover, Sakabe Gozaemon, a childhood friend and retainer, aged twenty-one, murdered him as they shared a bathtub, he married Takatsukasa Takako, daughter of Takatsukasa Nobufusa at 12th December 1623. His relationship with Takako was good but Takako had three miscarriages. In 1623, when Iemitsu was nineteen, Hidetada abdicated the post of shōgun in his favor. Hidetada continued to rule as Ōgosho, but Iemitsu assumed a role as formal head of the bakufu bureaucracy. In 1626, shōgun Iemitsu and retired shōgun Hidetada visited Emperor Go-Mizunoo, Empress Masako, Imperial Princess Meishō in Kyoto. Shōgun Iemitsu made lavish grants of gold and money to the court nobles and the court itself, yet relations with Go-Mizunoo deteriorated after the Purple Robe Incident, during which the Emperor was accused of having bestowed honorific purple garments to more than ten priests despite an edict which banned them for two years.
The shogunate intervened. When the wet nurse of Iemitsu and Masako broke a taboo by visiting the imperial court as a commoner, Go-Mizunoo abdicated and Meisho became empress; the shōgun was now the uncle of the sitting monarch. In Kan'ei 9, on the 24th day of the 2nd month, Ōgosho Hidetada died, Iemitsu could assume real power. Worried that his brother Tokugawa Tadanaga might assassinate him, however, he ruled until that brother's death by seppuku in 1633. Hidetada left his advisors, all veteran daimyōs. In 1633, after his brother's death, Iemitsu dismissed these men. In place of his father's advisors, Iemitsu appointed his childhood friends. With their help Iemitsu created a centralized administration; this made him unpopular with many daimyōs, but Iemitsu removed his opponents. His sankin-kōtai system forced daimyōs to reside in Edo in alternating sequence, spending a certain amount of time in Edo, a certain amount of time in their home provinces, it is said that one of the key goals of this policy was to prevent the daimyōs from amassing too much wealth or power by separating them from their home provinces, by forcing them to devote a sizable sum to funding the immense travel expenses associated with the journey to and from Edo.
The system involved the daimyōs' wives and heirs remaining in Edo
Emperor Shōmu was the 45th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Shōmu's reign spanned the years 724 through 749. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name is not known, but he was known as Oshi-hiraki Toyosakura-hiko-no-mikoto. Shōmu was Fujiwara no Miyako, a daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito. Shōmu had six Imperial sons and daughters. Shōmu was still a child at the time of his father's death. 724: In the 9th year of Genshō-tennō's reign, the empress abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Shōmu is said to have acceded to the throne. January 31, 724: The era name is changed to mark the accession of Emperor Shōmu. 735–737: A major smallpox epidemic raged throughout Japan, incurring adult mortality rates of about 25% to 35%. Shōmu continued to reside in the Hezei Palace. Shōmu is known as the first emperor, his consort Kōmyō was a non-royal Fujiwara commoner. A ritsuryō office was created for the Kogogushiki. While battle maneuvers of the Fujiwara no Hirotsugu Rebellion were still underway, in Tenpyō 12 10th month Emperor Shōmu left the capital at Heijō-kyō and traveled eastward via Horikoshi, Nabari, Ao to Kawaguchi in Ichishi District, Ise Province where he retreated together with his court to a temporary palace.
One of his generals was left in command of the capital. Shōmu feared Fujiwara supporters in Nara and was hoping to quell potential uprisings in other parts of the country with his presence. After four days travelling through heavy rain and thick mud, the party reached Kawaguchi on Tenpyō 12 11th month, 2nd day A couple of days they learn of Hirotsugu's execution and that the rebellion had been quelled. Despite the good news, Shōmu did not return to Heijō-kyō but stayed in Kawaguchi until Tenpyō 12 11th month, 11th day, he continued his journey east north via Mino Province and back west along the shores of Lake Biwa to Kuni in Yamashiro Province which he reached on Tenpyō 12 12th month, 15th day. Places passed along the way included Akasaka (赤坂頓宮. 1st d.: Dec 23）, Inukami (犬上頓宮. Situated among the hills and near a river north of Nara, Kuni was defensible. In addition, the area was linked with the Minister of the Right, Tachibana no Moroe, while Nara was a center of the Fujiwara clan. On Tenpyō 12 12th month, 15 day Shōmu proclaimed a new capital at Kuni-kyō.
724: Emperor Shōmu rises to throne. 740: In the Imperial court in Nara, Kibi no Makibi and Genbō conspire to discredit Fujiwara no Hirotsugu, Dazai shoni in Kyushu. 740: Hirotsugu rebels in reaction to the growing influence of Genbō and others. 740: Under the command of Ōno no Azumabito, an Imperial army of 17,000 is sent to Kyushu to stop the potential disturbance. 740: Hirotsugu is decisively beaten in battle. 740: The capital is moved to Kuni-kyō 741: The Emperor calls for nationwide establishment of provincial temples. Provincial temples and provincial nunneries were established throughout the country; the more formal name for these "kokubunji" was "konkomyo-shitenno-gokoku no tera". The more formal name for these "bokubunniji" was "hokke-metuzai no tera". 743: The Emperor issues a rescript to build the Daibutsu to be completed and placed in Tōdai-ji, Nara. 743: The law of Perpetual Ownership of Cultivated Lands issued 744: In the spring, the court was moved to Naniwa-kyō which became the new capital.
745: The Emperor declares by himself Shigaraki-kyō the capital 745: The capital returns to Heijō-kyō, construction of the Great Buddha resumes. 749: Shōmu, accompanied by the empress, their children, all the great men and women of the court, went in procession to Todai-ji. The emperor stood before the statue of the Buddha and proclaimed himself to be a slave to the three precious precepts of the Buddhist religion, which are the Buddha, the Buddhist law, the Buddhist church. 749: After a 25-year reign, Emperor Shōmu abdicates in favor of his daughter, Princess Takano, who would become Empress Kōken. After abdication, Shōmu took the tonsure, thus becoming the first retired emperor to become a Buddhist priest. Empress
East Asian hip-and-gable roof
In East Asian architecture, the hip-and-gable roof consists of a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides. It is constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back while each of the two sides is constructed with a smaller roof section; the style has spread across East Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Vietnam, Tibet, Sri Lanka and Kalmykia, it influenced the style of the bahay na bato of the Philippines. It is known as xiēshān in Chinese, irimoya in Japanese, paljakjibung in Korean. Irimoya arrived from China to Japan in the 6th century; the style was used in the main and lecture halls of a Buddhist temple compound. It started to be used for the honden at shrines during the Japanese Middle Ages, its gable is right above the moya, or core, while the hip covers the hisashi, a veranda-like aisle surrounding the core on one or more sides. It is still in wide use in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan, in palaces and folk dwellings.
In the last case, it is called moya-zukuri. In Sri Lanka, a style known as the Kandyan roof bears many similarities to the original East Asian hip-and-gable roof; the Kandyan roof is used for religious, royal buildings. Its roots however lie in the traditions of the "Sri Lankan village". Gablet roof
National Treasure (Japan)
A National Treasure is the most precious of Japan's Tangible Cultural Properties, as determined and designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. A Tangible Cultural Property is considered to be of historic or artistic value, classified either as "buildings and structures" or as "fine arts and crafts." Each National Treasure must show outstanding workmanship, a high value for world cultural history, or exceptional value for scholarship. 20% of the National Treasures are structures such as castles, Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, or residences. The other 80% are paintings; the items span the period of ancient to early modern Japan before the Meiji period, including pieces of the world's oldest pottery from the Jōmon period and 19th-century documents and writings. The designation of the Akasaka Palace in 2009 and of the Tomioka Silk Mill in 2014 added two modern, post-Meiji Restoration, National Treasures. Japan has a comprehensive network of legislation for protecting and classifying its cultural patrimony.
The regard for physical and intangible properties and their protection is typical of Japanese preservation and restoration practices. Methods of protecting designated National Treasures include restrictions on alterations and export, as well as financial support in the form of grants and tax reduction; the Agency for Cultural Affairs provides owners with advice on restoration and public display of the properties. These efforts are supplemented by laws that protect the built environment of designated structures and the necessary techniques for restoration of works. Kansai, the region of Japan's capitals from ancient times to the 19th century, has the most National Treasures. Fine arts and crafts properties are owned or are in museums, including national museums such as Tokyo and Nara, public prefectural and city museums, private museums. Religious items are housed in temples and Shinto shrines or in an adjacent museum or treasure house. Japanese cultural properties were in the ownership of Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, aristocratic or samurai families.
Feudal Japan ended abruptly in 1867/68 when the Tokugawa shogunate was replaced by the Meiji Restoration. During the ensuing haibutsu kishaku triggered by the official policy of separation of Shinto and Buddhism and anti-Buddhist movements propagating the return to Shinto, Buddhist buildings and artwork were destroyed. In 1871, the government confiscated temple lands, considered symbolic of the ruling elite. Properties belonging to the feudal lords were expropriated, historic castles and residences were destroyed, an estimated 18,000 temples were closed. During the same period, Japanese cultural heritage was impacted by the rise of industrialization and westernization; as a result and Shinto institutions became impoverished. Temples decayed, valuable objects were exported. In 1871, the Daijō-kan issued a decree to protect Japanese antiquities called the Plan for the Preservation of Ancient Artifacts. Based on recommendations from the universities, the decree ordered prefectures and shrines to compile lists of important buildings and art.
However, these efforts proved to be ineffective in the face of radical westernisation. In 1880, the government allotted funds for the preservation of ancient temples. By 1894, 539 shrines and temples had received government funded subsidies to conduct repairs and reconstruction; the five-storied pagoda of Daigo-ji, the kon-dō of Tōshōdai-ji, the hon-dō of Kiyomizu-dera are examples of buildings that underwent repairs during this period. A survey conducted in association with Okakura Kakuzō and Ernest Fenollosa between 1888 and 1897 was designed to evaluate and catalogue 210,000 objects of artistic or historic merit; the end of the 19th century was a period of political change in Japan as cultural values moved from the enthusiastic adoption of western ideas to a newly discovered interest in Japanese heritage. Japanese architectural history began to appear on curricula, the first books on architectural history were published, stimulated by the newly compiled inventories of buildings and art. On June 5, 1897, the Ancient Temples and Shrines Preservation Law was enacted.
Formulated under the guidance of architectural historian and architect Itō Chūta, the law established government funding for the preservation of buildings and the restoration of artworks. The law applied to architecture and pieces of art relating to an architectural structure, with the proviso that historic uniqueness and exceptional quality were to be established. Applications for financial support were to be made to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the responsibility for restoration or preservation lay in the hands of local officials. Restoration works were financed directly from the national coffers. A second law was passed on December 15, 1897, that provided supplementary provisions to designate works of art in the possession of temples or shrines as "National Treasures"; the new law provided for pieces of religious architecture to be designated as a "Specially Protected Building"
Main Hall (Japanese Buddhism)
Main hall is the term used in English for the building within a Japanese Buddhist temple compound which enshrines the main object of veneration. Because the various denominations deliberately use different terms, this single English term translates several Japanese words, among them Butsuden, Butsu-dō, kondō, konpon-chūdō, hondō. Hondō is its exact Japanese equivalent, while the others are more specialized words used by particular sects or for edifices having a particular structure; the term kondō "golden hall", started to be used during the Asuka and Nara periods. A kondō is the centerpiece of an ancient Buddhist temple's garan in Japan; the origin of the name is uncertain, but it may derive from the perceived preciousness of its content, or from the fact that the interior was lined with gold. This is the name used by the oldest temples in the country. A kondō, for example Hōryū-ji's is a true two-story building with a 3x2 bay central core surrounded by a 1-bay wide aisles (hisashi making it 5x4 bays, surrounded by an external 1-bay wide mokoshi, for a total of 9x7 bays.
The second story has the same dimensions as the temple's core at the first story, but has no mokoshi. Some temples, for example Asuka-dera or Hōryū-ji, have more than one kondō, but only one exists and is the first building to be built; because of its limited size, worshipers were not allowed to enter the building and had to stand outside. The kondō and a pagoda were surrounded by a corridor called kairō; the use of kondō declined after the 10th century, when it was replaced by a hondō divided in naijin and gejin. The term remained in some use up to the Edo period, but its frequency decreased drastically after the appearance of the term hon-dō in the Heian period; the term hondō means "main hall" and it enshrines the most important objects of veneration. The term is thought to have evolved during the 9th century to avoid the early term kondō, at the time used by six Nara sects called the Nanto Rokushū, it became common after the introduction of the two Mikkyo sects to Japan. Various new types of temple buildings, including the hondō, were built during the Heian period, in response to the requirements of new doctrines.
Different buildings were called hondō depending on the sect, for example: the kondō, the chudō, mieidō, the Amida-dō. A notable evolution of the hondō during this period is the inclusion of a space for worshipers inside the hondō itself, called gejin. Other names such as Konpon-chūdō "cardinal central hall" are used as well, for example for the main hall at Mount Hiei's Enryaku-ji; the Tokugawa funeral temple of Kan'ei-ji, built explicitly to imitate Enryaku-ji had one, though it has not survived. Yama-dera in Yamagata is another example of a temple using this name; the Butsuden or Butsu-dō "Buddha Hall", is the main hall of Zen temples of schools such as the Sōtō 曹洞 and Rinzai 臨済. This architectonic style arrived together with Zen during the Kamakura period. There are following types of Butsuden or Butsu-dō: The simplest is a 3x3 bay square building with no mokoshi (a mokoshi being an enclosure circling the core of the temple covered by a pent roof one bay in width; the second type is 3x3 bay square, but has a 1 bay wide mokoshi all around the core of the temple, making it look like a two-story, 5x5 bay building as in the case of the butsuden, visible in the photo on the right.
It is known that during the 13th and 14th centuries large butsuden measuring 5x5 bays square having a mokoshi were built, but none survives. Large size 3x3 bay butsuden with a mokoshi however still exist, for example at Myōshin-ji. In the case of the Ōbaku Zen school that arrived late in Japan, the architecture retained the Ming Chinese style; the hondō of Ōbaku Zen temples is called daiyū-hōden ‘the Treasured Hall of the Mahāvīra ’. An example can be found at Mampuku-ji. Shichidō garan for details about the main hall's position within a temple compound; the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism for terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture. Mahavira Hall, the common Main Hall of Chinese and Korean Buddhist temples Iwanami Kōjien Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition, DVD version Iwanami Nihonshi Jiten, CD-Rom Version. Iwanami Shoten, 1999-2001; the Evolution of Buddhist Architecture in Japan by Alexander Soper 1978, ISBN 9780878171965 Japanese Art Net User System Dictionary of Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology, Kondou, Hondou entries.
Accessed on May 6, 2009 Watanabe, Hiroshi. The Architecture of Tokyo. Edition Axel Menges. ISBN 978-3-930698-93-6
The hidden roof is a type of roof used in Japan both at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. It is composed of a true roof above and a second roof beneath, permitting an outer roof of steep pitch to have eaves of shallow pitch, jutting from the walls but without overhanging them; the second roof is visible only from under the eaves and is therefore called a "hidden roof" while the first roof is externally visible and is called an "exposed roof" in English and "cosmetic roof" in Japanese. Invented in Japan during the 10th century, its earliest extant example is Hōryū-ji's Daikō-dō, rebuilt after a fire in 990. Japanese Buddhist architecture and most Shinto architecture are not indigenous, but were imported from China and Korea together with Buddhism around the 6th century. Climate in Japan being different from that on the continent, several structural adaptations became necessary, the most important of, the noyane, invented some time during the Heian period. During the previous Nara period, the structural elements of a roof were considered ornamental and therefore left exposed by design.
The rafters supporting the roof's eaves would enter the building and would be visible from below. Above the rafters would be laid directly the roofing material, for example wood shingles; this is the structure of Hōryū-ji's five-storied pagoda. Because the local climate is more moist than in either China or Korea, roofs had to have a steeper incline to help quicken the flow of rainwater. Due to the permeable nature of the walls, the lack of channelled roof drainage, it was necessary that eaves project far from the walls. On a roof of steep pitch, the wide eaves were deep, restricting light to the windows and trapping humidity; the solution devised by Japanese artisans was to construct a hidden roof raised above a ceiling which had non-structural rafters as aesthetic elements. From the hidden roof projected the principal rafters of the shallow-pitched eaves; the structural elements of the outer roof were raised above this, with an outer inclination independent of the pitch of the eaves. The earliest extant example of hidden roof is Hōryū-ji's Daikō-dō, built in 990 and was discovered only in the 1930s during repair work.
This structure not only solved drainage problems, but eliminated deep shadows and gave the whole temple a feel, different from that of its ancestors of the Asian continent. It was as a consequence successful and was adopted all over the country. One important exception is the architectural style called Daibutsuyō which, although arrived in Japan from China at the end of the 12th century, thus well after the invention of the hidden roof, never adopted it. Although all extant Zen temples have it, it is that the Zenshūyō style, which arrived at the same time of the Daibutsuyō, adopted the hidden roof only some time after its arrival; because the hidden roof allowed the structure of the roof to be changed at will with no impact on the underlying building, its use gave birth to many structural innovations. For example, Fuki-ji's Ō-dō has a square roof over a rectangular footprint. Ways were found to make use of the space between the two roofs. For example, at Jōruri-ji in Kyōto part of the Hon-dō's ceiling was raised above the rest to give space to the room.
It would become common to raise the exposed roof above the entire core of a temple building. The same evolution we have seen in Buddhist architecture can be seen in the roofs of several Shinto architectural styles it influenced; the kasuga-zukuri, nagare-zukuri, hachiman-zukuri, hie-zukuri all followed the evolution path we have seen. All extant examples of the ancient shinmei-zukuri, taisha-zukuri and sumiyoshi-zukuri styles however show no sign of a hidden roof. Before the invention of the hidden roof the so-called tsumakazari were structural elements left visible by design. See for example Hōryū-ji's Denpō-dō in the photo to the right, where the brown elements within the gable are all part of the roof's support system. After the adoption of the hidden roof, the tsumakazari remained in use, albeit with a purely decorative role. Another of the repercussions of the invention of the hidden roof was the role change undergone by struts called nakazonae. Nakazonae are intercolumnar struts provided in the intervals between bracket complexes at religious buildings in Japan.
In origin they were necessary to support the roof above, however at the end of the 10th century the invention of the hidden roof, which had its own hidden supporting structure, made them superfluous. They remained in use, albeit in a purely decorative role, assuming a variety of forms, are typical of the Wayō style