A service stripe called a hash mark, is an embroidered diagonal stripe worn on the sleeve of some military and paramilitary uniforms. In the case of the United States military, service stripes are authorized for wear by enlisted members on the left sleeve of a uniform to denote length of service. Service stripes in color; the United States Army authorizes one stripe for each three year period of service, while the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard authorize one stripe for each four year period of duty. In contrast to the Army, the Navy and Marine Corps Good Conduct Medals, a service stripe is authorized for wear by enlisted personnel upon completion of the specified term of service, regardless of the service member's disciplinary history. For example, a soldier with several non-judicial punishments and courts-martial would still be authorized a service stripe for three years' service, although the Good Conduct Medal would be denied. In 1777, the French ancien régime-era army had used Galons d'ancienneté, or "Seniority Braid" worn on the upper sleeves awarded for each seven years of enlistment.
Soldiers who wore such emblems were called briscards. The practice was continued in Napoleon Bonaparte's army in which they were awarded for 10, 15, 20 years of service; the French Army moved them to the lower sleeves and the rank stripes to the upper sleeves. Service chevrons were worn on the lower left sleeve and Wound Stripes were worn on the lower right sleeve. In the United States, the concept of a service stripe dates back to 1782 when, during the American Revolution, George Washington ordered that enlisted men who had served for three years "with bravery and good conduct" should wear "a narrow piece of white cloth, of angular form" on the left sleeve of the uniform coat. In the U. S. Army, sleeve stripes denoted a successful completion of a standard enlistment, they were the same color as the enlisted rank stripes and were "half-chevrons". Service during the American Civil War was denoted by a red stripe bordered by the rank stripe color; the artillery corps, who wore red stripes on their uniforms, wore a white stripe bordered red instead.
Sleeve stripes are worn only by enlisted personnel. U. S. Army soldiers, U. S. Navy sailors and U. S. Coast Guardsmen wear their stripes on the bottom cuff of the left sleeve, where U. S. Marines wear them at the bottom cuff of both sleeves. U. S. soldiers wear them on Overseas Service Bars on the right one. Service stripes are only worn on formal uniforms, are not seen on work uniforms. Navy service stripes come in three colors and they are red and black, they are 7 inches long and three eighths of an inch wide for male chief petty officers. Female navy sailors wear service stripes 5¼ inches long and a quarter-inch wide, they are worn two inches above the left sleeve cuff on jackets, 1½ inches above the cuff on service dress blue jumpers and the new summer white jumpers. On the old-style summer white jumpers they are worn two inches above the cuff. Multiple navy service stripes are worn quarter-inch apart from each other; the U. S. Navy authorizes gold service stripes for those service members with over twelve cumulative years' service.
The service must be free of disciplinary action in the United States Navy, United States Navy Reserve, United States Marine Corps, or the United States Marine Corps Reserve in a pay status. Both the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps authorize service stripes to those service members for every four years of service. In cases where a disciplinary infraction has occurred, the service member is not denied a service stripe but is authorized the standard red stripe design; the Coast Guard authorizes gold and red service stripes, as well, but the distinction exists between junior enlisted personnel and chief petty officers. These stripes are used on the sleeves of the full dress uniform worn by cadets of the United States Military Academy at West Point, which denote the number of years a cadet has been at the academy; this is done by cadets of other military colleges and prep schools. The United States Air Force is the only branch of service; the Air Force Longevity Service Ribbon is awarded instead.
Persons who were in the Army Air Forces and became part of the Air Force when it was separated from the Army in 1947 could continue to wear their service stripes. In many civilian law enforcement agencies in the United States and sheriff's deputies will be awarded service stripes for wear on their long sleeved uniforms on the lower left sleeve. One stripe may be worn for every three, four, or five years of service and differs from agency to agency
Hash browns or hashed browns are a popular American breakfast dish that first started showing up on breakfast menus in New York City in the 1890s, a simple preparation in which potatoes are pan-fried after being shredded, julienned or riced, in the style of a Swiss Rösti. In some regions, hash browns may be listed on restaurant menus as home fries. In some cultures, hash browns or hashed browns can refer to any of these preparations, while in others it may refer to one specific preparation. Hash browns are a staple breakfast food at diners in North America and the UK, where they are fried on a large common cooktop or grill. In some parts of the United States, hash browns refer to shredded or riced pan-fried potatoes and are considered a breakfast food, while potatoes diced or cubed and pan-fried are a side dish called country fried potatoes or home fries; some recipes add chopped onions. Hash browns are a popular mass-produced product sold in both frozen varieties. Hash browns are available in dehydrated form.
The full name was "hashed brown potatoes", of which the first known mention is by American food author Maria Parloa in 1888. The name was shortened to'hash brown potatoes'; the word "hash" is derived from the French word "hacher" which means to chop. This means hashed browned potatoes translates to "chopped and fried potatoes". A chef may prepare hash browns by forming riced potatoes into patties before frying with onions. Frozen hash browns are sometimes made into patty form for ease of handling, the compact, flat shape can be cooked in a toaster oven or toaster. If a dish of hash browned potatoes incorporates chopped meat, leftovers, or other vegetables, it is more referred to as hash. Hash browns are manufactured as a dehydrated food, sometimes used by backpackers. Boxty Croquette Fried potatoes Potato waffle United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Hash Brown Potatoes
Hash is a culinary dish consisting of diced or chopped meat and spices that are mixed together and cooked by themselves, or with other ingredients such as onions. The name is derived from French: hacher, meaning "to chop". Canned corned beef hash became popular in countries such as Britain and France during and after the Second World War as rationing limited the availability of fresh meat. A common alternative is roast beef hash. In many places, hash is served as a breakfast food with eggs and toast, with fried potatoes such as hash browns or home fries. In the United States, hash is sometimes served with biscuits. In 2011, it was reported that hash was making a comeback as more than just a dish for leftovers or breakfasts of last resort, with high-end restaurants offering sophisticated hash dishes on their menus; the meat packing company Hormel claims that it introduced canned corned beef hash and roast beef hash to the U. S. in 1950, but "hash" of many forms was part of the American diet since at least the 18th century, as is attested by the availability of numerous recipes and the existence of many "hash houses" named after the dish.
In the United States, September 27 is "National Corned Beef Hash Day."Alternatively, in the southern United States, the term "hash" may refer to two dishes: a Southern traditional blend of leftover pork from a barbecue mixed with barbecue sauce and served over rice. This is a common side dish at barbecue restaurants and pig pickin's notably in South Carolina and Georgia. A thick stew made up of pork and beef leftover, traditionally seasoned with salt and pepper and other spices, reduced overnight over an open flame in an iron washpot or hashpot; some areas in the South use the term hash to refer to meat, such as wild game, served as barbecue or pulled meat, boiled first. In Denmark, hash is known in Danish as "biksemad", it is a traditional leftover dish served with a fried egg, worcestershire sauce, pickled red beet slices and ketchup or Bearnaise sauce; the meat is pork, the mixture is not mashed together into a paste, but rather the ingredients are coarsely diced and discernible in their cooked form.
In Sweden, there is a version of hash called pyttipanna and in Finland and Norway, pyttipanne. It is similar to the Danish version; the Swedish variety Pytt Bellman calls for beef instead of other meats and adding cream to the hash. It is named after Sweden's 18th century national poet Carl Michael Bellman. In Austria and more Tyrol, there exists a similar dish called "Gröstl" consisting of chopped leftover meats and onions fried with herbs and served topped with a fried egg. In Slovenia it is called"haše" and often used as a spaghetti sauce, it is made out of minced pork and veal meat, potato sauce, garlic and spices. In Malaysia, a similar dish is called "bergedil", it is made with minced meat and onions, fried until brown. In Spanish and Latin American cuisines, there is a similar dish called picadillo or carne moída, it is made with ground meat, tomatoes and spices that vary by region. It is served with rice, as well as okra, in the form of quiabo refogado—okra fried in an aioli sofrito, just as the hash itself and the collard greens used in feijoada—, in Brazil, there constituting a staple) or used as a filling in dishes such as tacos, tostadas, or as a regular breakfast hash with eggs and tortillas.
In Brazil and Portugal, it is used as bolognese sauce for pasta, used as a filling for pancake rolls, empadão and others. The name comes from the West Iberian infinitive verb picar, which means "to mince" or "to chop". In Germany, Labskaus is made with beef or corned beef minced with onions and boiled potatoes and fried in lard. Beetroot and herring may be served as a side dish. Additionally, a sauce consisting of ground meat and served with pasta is called Haschee.'Hashed Beef, Plain' at The Household Cyclopedia – A recipe for hashed beef from an 1800s cookbook Scandinavian Hash recipe BBQ Hash Recipe at about.com – Recipe for BBQ Hash and Rice Hash – Chapter full of hash recipes from Mrs. Owens' Cook Book
Hash House Harriers
The Hash House Harriers is an international group of non-competitive running social clubs. An event organized by a club is known as a hash, hash run or hashing, with participants calling themselves hashers or hares and hounds. Hashing originated in December 1938 in Selayang Quarry, Selangor in the Federated Malay States, when a group of British colonial officers and expatriates began meeting on Monday evenings to run, in a fashion patterned after the traditional British paper chase or "hare and hounds", to rid themselves of the excesses of the previous weekend; the original members included Albert Stephen Ignatius "G" Gispert, Cecil Lee, Frederick "Horse" Thomson, Ronald "Torch" Bennett, Eric Galvin, H. M. Doig, John Woodrow. A. S. Gispert suggested the name "Hash House Harriers" after the Selangor Club Annex, where several of the original hashers lived and dined, known as the "Hash House". Hashing died out during World War II shortly after the Invasion of Malaya, but was restarted in 1946 after the war by several of the original group, minus A. S. Gispert, killed on 11 February 1942 in the Japanese invasion of Singapore, an event commemorated by many chapters by an annual Gispert Memorial Run.
After World War II, in an attempt to reorganize in the city of Kuala Lumpur, they were informed by the Registrar of Societies that as a "group," they would require a constitution. Apart from the excitement of chasing the hare and finding the trail, harriers reaching the end of the trail would partake of beer, ginger beer and cigarettes; the objectives of the Hash House Harriers as recorded on the club registration card dated 1950: To promote physical fitness among our members To get rid of weekend hangovers To acquire a good thirst and to satisfy it in beer To persuade the older members that they are not as old as they feelIn 1962, Ian Cumming founded the second chapter in Singapore. The idea spread through the Far East and the South Pacific and North America, expanding during the mid-1970s. Cumming was credited with bringing hashing to the United States. At present, there are two thousand chapters in all parts of the world, with members distributing newsletters and magazines and organizing regional and world hashing events.
As of 2003, there are two organized chapters operating in Antarctica. Most hashing clubs gather on a weekly or monthly basis, though some events occur sporadically, e.g. February 29th, Friday the 13th, Typhoon'T8' or a full moon. At a hash, one or more members lay a trail, followed by the remainder of the group. Sawdust, flour or chalk are used to mark the trail; the trail periodically ends at a "check" and the pack must find where it begins again. These features are designed to keep the pack together despite differences in fitness level or running speed, as front-runners are forced to slow down to find the "true" trail, allowing stragglers to catch up. Members sometimes describe their group as "a drinking club with a running problem," indicating that the social element of an event is as important, if not more so, than any athleticism involved. Beer remains an integral part of a hash, though the balance between running and drinking differs between chapters, with some groups placing more focus on socialising and others on running.
Hash events are open to the public and require no reservation or membership, but most require a small fee, referred to as "hash cash", to cover the costs incurred, such as food or drink, the club treasurer may be nicknamed "Hash Cash". Some hash clubs have a hash home which could be a bar, resort or a sports club. In that case the hash always or always starts at the hash home; the club may transport the hashers to some other location to start the run. Other clubs post the start on the internet and the hashers drive their own vehicles or take public transportation to that location; the run will start and finish at that location. Many hash clubs are in college or university towns in which case the hashers are young and most will run the trails. Other clubs might be in areas with an older population so they will walk the trails. In the United States, hash clubs tend to have a large amount of armed forces veterans; some hash clubs meet at night which means that the runners might need a flash light to find the marks.
Some hash clubs are men only, some women many are mixed. Some are adult orientated which means raunchy songs etc. Others are family oriented. There are many informal groups attached to various hash chapters. For example the regular hash meets every Saturday but there is an informal group that meets on say Wednesday to research trails; the end of a trail is an opportunity to socialise, have a drink and observe any traditions of the individual chapter. When the hash ends, many members may continue socialising at an "on-after", "on-down", "on-on-on", "apres", or "hash bash", an event held at a nearby house, pub, or restaurant. In addition to scheduled hashes, a club or chapter may organize other events or themed runs. Many hold special events on their anniversaries or when they reach a milestone in the number of runs e.g. for run number 100, 200, 777, 1000, etc. This may include a special weekend with several runs and evening celebrations An event held annually by some chapters is the "Red Dress Run".
In 1987, Donna Rhinehart was taken to a hash in Long Beach, California, to be introduced to the sport. She was invited to "wait in the truck" until her host returned
Tally marks called hash marks, are a unary numeral system. They are a form of numeral used for counting, they are most useful in counting or tallying ongoing results, such as the score in a game or sport, as no intermediate results need to be erased or discarded. However, because of the length of large numbers, tallies are not used for static text. Notched sticks, known as tally sticks, were historically used for this purpose. Counting aids other than body parts appear in the Upper Paleolithic; the oldest tally sticks date to between 35,000 and 25,000 years ago, in the form of notched bones found in the context of the European Aurignacian to Gravettian and in Africa's Late Stone Age. The so-called Wolf bone is a prehistoric artifact discovered in 1937 in Czechoslovakia during excavations at Vestonice, led by Karl Absolon. Dated to the Aurignacian 30,000 years ago, the bone is marked with 55 marks which may be tally marks; the head of an ivory Venus figurine was excavated close to the bone. The Ishango bone, found in the Ishango region of the present-day Democratic Republic of Congo, is dated to over 20,000 years old.
Upon discovery, it was thought to portray a series of prime numbers. In the book How Mathematics Happened: The First 50,000 Years, Peter Rudman argues that the development of the concept of prime numbers could only have come about after the concept of division, which he dates to after 10,000 BC, with prime numbers not being understood until about 500 BC, he writes that "no attempt has been made to explain why a tally of something should exhibit multiples of two, prime numbers between 10 and 20, some numbers that are multiples of 10." Alexander Marshack examined the Ishango bone microscopically, concluded that it may represent a six-month lunar calendar. Tally marks are clustered in groups of five for legibility; the cluster size 5 has the advantages of easy conversion into decimal for higher arithmetic operations and avoiding error, as humans can far more correctly identify a cluster of 5 than one of 10. Roman numerals, the Chinese numerals for one through three, rod numerals were derived from tally marks, as was the ogham script.
Base 1 arithmetic notation system is an unary positional system similar to tally marks. It is used as a practical base for counting due to its difficult readability, it is made by the concatenation of zero. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... would be represented in this system as 0, 00, 000, 0000, 00000... Base 1 notation is used in type numbers of flour.
The symbol # is most known as the number sign, hash, or pound sign. The symbol has been used for a wide range of purposes, including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois. Since 2007, widespread usage of the symbol to introduce metadata tags on social media platforms has led to such tags being known as "hashtags" and from that, the symbol itself is sometimes incorrectly called a "hashtag"; the symbol is defined in ASCII as U +0023 # NUMBER SIGN and & num. It is graphically similar to several other symbols, including the sharp from musical notation and the equal-and-parallel symbol from mathematics, but is distinguished by its combination of level horizontal strokes and right-tilting vertical strokes, it is believed that the symbol traces its origins to the symbol ℔, an abbreviation of the Roman term libra pondo, which translates as "pound weight". This abbreviation was printed with a dedicated ligature type, with a horizontal line across, so that the lowercase letter "l" would not be mistaken for the numeral "1".
The symbol was reduced for clarity as an overlay of two horizontal strokes "=" across two slash-like strokes "//". Examples of it being used to indicate pounds exist at least as far back as 1850; the symbol is described as the "number" character in an 1853 treatise on bookkeeping. And its double meaning is described in a bookkeeping text from 1880; the instruction manual of the Blickensderfer model 5 typewriter appears to refer to the symbol as the "number mark". Some early-20th-century U. S. sources refer to it as the "number sign", although this could refer to the numero sign. A 1917 manual distinguishes between two uses of the sign: "number"; the use of the phrase "pound sign" to refer to this symbol is found from 1932 in U. S. usage. Before this time, still outside the United States, the term "pound sign" was used to refer to the pound currency symbol or the pound weight symbol. An alternative theory is that the name "pound sign" arose from the fact that character encodings used the same code for both the number sign and the British pound sign "£".
Claims have included ISO 646-GB as well as the Baudot code in the late 19th century. The apparent use of the sign to mean pounds weight in 1850 appears to rule out both of these code sets as the origin, although that same reference admits that the earliest reference in print was a decade after Baudot code."Hash sign" is found in South African writings from the late 1960s, from other non-North-American sources in the 1970s. The symbol appears to be used in handwritten material, while in the printing business, the numero symbol and barred-lb are used for "number" and "pounds" respectively. For mechanical devices, it appeared on the keyboard of the Remington Standard typewriter, but was not used on the keyboards used for typesetting, it appeared in many of the early teleprinter codes and from there was copied to ASCII which made it available on computers and thus caused many more uses to be found for the character. The symbol was introduced on the bottom right button of touch-tone keypads in 1968, but that button was not extensively used until the advent of large scale voicemail in the early 1980s.
Mainstream use in the United States is as follows: when it prefixes a number, it is read as "number", as in "a #2 pencil". The one exception is with the # key on a phone, always referred to as the "pound key" or "pound", thus instructions to dial an extension such as #77 are always read as "pound seven seven". When the symbol follows a number, the symbol indicates weight in pounds; this traditional usage still finds handwritten use, may be seen on some signs in markets and groceries. It is commonly known as the "pound sign". In Canada the symbol is called both the "number sign" and the "pound sign"; the American company Avaya has an option in their programming to denote Canadian English, which in turn instructs the system to say "number sign" to callers instead of "pound sign". In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it is called a hash, it is not used as weight or currency. It is not called the "pound sign"; the use of "#" as an abbreviation for "number" may be understood in Britain and Ireland, where there has been business or educational contact with American usage, but use in print is rare and British typewriters had "£" in place of the American "#".
Where Americans might write "Symphony #5", the British and Irish are more to write "Symphony No. 5", or use the numero sign—"Symphony № 5". To add to the confusion between "£" and "#", in BS 4730, 0x23 represents "£", whereas in ASCII, it represents "#", thus it was common for the same character code to display "#" on US equipment and "£" on British equipment; the symbol has many other names in English: Comment sign Taken from its use in many shell scripts and some programming languages to start comments. Hash, or hash mark Hashtag The word "hashtag" is used when reading social media messages aloud, indicating the start of a hashtag. For instance the text "#foo" is read out loud as "hashtag, foo" (as opposed to "h
Hash marks are short lines, running perpendicular to sidelines or sideboards, used to mark locations in sports. In ice hockey, the hash marks are two pairs of parallel lines on either side of the face-off circles in both ends of the rink. Players must remain on their team's side of the hash mark nearest their own goal during a face-off until the puck hits the ice. In US football and Canadian football, the hash marks are two rows of lines near the middle of the field that are parallel to the side lines; these small lines are used to mark the 1-yard sections between each of the 5-yard lines, which go from sideline to sideline. All plays start with the ball between the hash marks; that is, if the ball is downed in between a hash mark and the nearest sideline, it must be placed on that hash mark for the next play. Prior to the adoption of hash marks, all plays began where the ball was declared dead, including extra point attempts; the hashmarks in that indoor 1932 playoff game were 10 yards from the sideline, that width was adopted by the NFL for the 1933 season.
It was increased to 15 yards in 1935, 20 yards in 1945, to the current 23 yards, 1 foot, 9 inches in 1972. In most forms of professional football in the U. S. including the National Football League and most forms of indoor football, the hash marks are in line with the goal posts, both being 18 feet 6 inches apart in the NFL and between 9 and 10 feet in indoor football. High school football, college football and Canadian football have hash marks wider than the goal posts; the college football standard, the previous standard in the NFL, is 40 feet apart, introduced in 1993. The college width was the same as the high school standard, at one-third of the width of the field; the Canadian standard is 51 feet in width, 24 yards from each sideline. A Canadian football field width is 65 yards, 35 feet wider than those in the United States