Isfahan is a city in Iran. It is located 406 kilometres south of Tehran, is the capital of Isfahan Province. Isfahan has a population of 1.6 million, making it the third largest city in Iran after Tehran and Mashhad, but was once one of the largest cities in the world. Isfahan is an important city as it is located at the intersection of the two principal north–south and east–west routes that traverse Iran. Isfahan flourished from 1050 to 1722 in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history under Shah Abbas the Great. Today the city retains much of its past glory, it is famous for its Perso–Islamic architecture, grand boulevards, covered bridges, tiled mosques, minarets. Isfahan has many historical buildings, monuments and artefacts; the fame of Isfahan led to the Persian pun and proverb "Esfahān nesf-e- jahān ast": Isfahan is half the world. The Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan is one of the largest city squares in the world.
UNESCO has designated it a World Heritage Site. See also: Names of Isfahan"Isfahan" is derived from Middle Persian Spahān. Spahān is attested in various Middle Persian seals and inscriptions, including that of Zoroastrian Magi Kartir, is the Armenian name of the city; the present-day name is the Arabicized form of Ispahan. The region appears with the abbreviation GD on Sasanian numismatics. In Ptolemy's Geographia it appears as Aspadana, translating to "place of gathering for the army", it is believed. Human habitation of the Isfahan region can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. Recent discoveries archaeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages. What was to become the city of Isfahan in historical periods emerged as a locality and settlement that developed over the course of the Elamite civilisation. Under Median rule, this commercial entrepôt began to show signs of a more sedentary urbanism growing into a noteworthy regional centre that benefited from the exceptionally fertile soil on the banks of the Zayandehrud River in a region called Aspandana or Ispandana.
Once Cyrus the Great had unified Persian and Median lands into the Achaemenid Empire, the religiously and ethnically diverse city of Isfahan became an early example of the king's fabled religious tolerance. It was Cyrus who, having just taken Babylon, made an edict in 538 BCE, declaring that the Jews in Babylon could return to Jerusalem. Now it seems that some of these freed Jews settled in Isfahan instead of returning to their homeland; the 10th-century Persian historian Ibn al-Faqih wrote:"When the Jews emigrated from Jerusalem, fleeing from Nebuchadnezzar, they carried with them a sample of the water and soil of Jerusalem. They did not settle down anywhere or in any city without examining the water and the soil of each place, they did all along. There they rested, found that both resembled Jerusalem. Thereupon they settled there, cultivated the soil, raised children and grandchildren, today the name of this settlement is Yahudia." The Parthians in the period 250–226 BCE continued the tradition of tolerance after the fall of the Achaemenids, fostering the Hellenistic dimension within Iranian culture and the political organisation introduced by Alexander the Great's invading armies.
Under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered the provinces of the nation from Isfahan, the city's urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city. The next empire to rule Persia, the Sassanids, presided over massive changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture and the Zoroastrian religion. Both the city and region were called by the name Aspahan or Spahan; the city was governed by a group called the Espoohrans, who came from seven noble and important Iranian royal families. Extant foundations of some Sassanid-era bridges in Isfahan suggest that the Sasanian kings were fond of ambitious urban planning projects. While Isfahan's political importance declined during the period, many Sassanid princes would study statecraft in the city, its military role developed rapidly, its strategic location at the intersection of the ancient roads to Susa and Persepolis made it an ideal candidate to house a standing army, ready to march against Constantinople at any moment.
The words'Aspahan' and'Spahan' are derived from the Pahlavi or Middle Persian meaning'the place of the army'. Although many theories have been mentioned about the origin of Isfahan, in fact little is known of it before the rule of the Sasanian dynasty; the historical facts suggest that in the late 4th and early 5th centuries, Queen Shushandukht, the Jewish consort of Yazdegerd I settled a colony of Jews in Yahudiyyeh, a settlement 3 km northwest of the Zoroastrian city of Gabae (its Achaemid and Parthian name. The gradual population decrease of Gay and the simultaneous population increase of Yahudiyyeh and its suburbs
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Its history dates back to at least 5,000 BC with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Turkey and Iraq to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses and garden, pavilions to "some of the most majestic structures the world has seen". In addition to historic gates and mosques, the rapid growth of cities such as the capital, Tehran has brought about a wave of demolition and new construction. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, from a variety of traditions and experience. Without sudden innovations, despite the repeated trauma of invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved "an individuality distinct from that of other Muslim countries", its paramount virtues are: "a marked feeling for scale. Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".
This theme has not only given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional character as well. According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture; the supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods. Traditional Persian architecture has maintained a continuity that, although temporarily distracted by internal political conflicts or foreign invasion, nonetheless has achieved an unmistakable style. In this architecture, "there are no trivial buildings. In expressiveness and communicativity, most Persian buildings are lucid - eloquent; the combination of intensity and simplicity of form provides immediacy, while ornament and subtle proportions reward sustained observation." Overall, the traditional architecture of the Iranian lands throughout the ages can be categorized into the six following classes or styles: Zoroastrian: The Parsian style including: Pre-Parsian style e.g. Chogha Zanbil, Median style, Achaemenid style manifesting in construction of spectacular cities used for governance and inhabitation, temples made for worship and social gatherings, mausoleums erected in honor of fallen kings, The Parthian style includes designs from the following eras: Seleucid era e.g. Anahita Temple, Parthian era e.g. Hatra, the royal compounds at Nysa, Sassanid era e.g. Ghal'eh Dokhtar, the Taq-i Kisra, Darband.
Islamic: The Khorasani style, e.g. Jameh Mosque of Nain and Jameh Mosque of Isfahan, The Razi style which includes the methods and devices of the following periods: Samanid period, e.g. Samanid Mausoleum, Ziyarid period, e.g. Gonbad-e Qabus, Seljukid period, e.g. Kharraqan towers, The Azari style, e.g. Soltaniyeh, Arg-i Alishah, Jameh Mosque of Varamin, Goharshad Mosque, Bibi Khanum mosque in Samarqand, tomb of Abdas-Samad, Gur-e Amir, Jameh mosque of Yazd The Isfahani style spanning through the Safavid, Afsharid and Qajarid dynasties starting from the 16th century onward, e.g. Chehelsotoon, Ali Qapu, Agha Bozorg Mosque, Shah Mosque, Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque in Naqsh-i Jahan Square. Available building materials dictate major forms in traditional Iranian architecture. Heavy clays available at various places throughout the plateau, have encouraged the development of the most primitive of all building techniques, molded mud, compressed as solidly as possible, allowed to dry; this technique, used in Iran from ancient times, has never been abandoned.
The abundance of heavy plastic earth, in conjunction with a tenacious lime mortar facilitated the development and use of brick. Iranian architecture makes use of abundant symbolic geometry, using pure forms such as circles and squares, plans are based on symmetrical layouts featuring rectangular courtyards and halls. Certain design elements of Persian architecture have persisted throughout the history of Iran; the most striking are a discerning use of simple and massive forms. The consistency of decorative preferences, the high-arched portal set within a recess, columns with bracket capitals, recurrent types of plan and elevation can be mentioned. Through the ages these elements have recurred in different types of buildings, constructed for various programs and under the patronage of a long succession of rulers; the columned porch, or talar, seen in the rock-cut tombs near Persepolis, reappear in Sassanid temples, in late Islamic times it was used as the portico of a palace or mosque, adapted to the architecture of roadside tea-houses.
The dome on four arches, so characteristic of Sassanid times, is a still to be found in many cemeteries and Imamzadehs across Iran today. The notion of earthly towers reaching up toward the sky to mingle with the divine towers of heaven las
Plasterwork refers to construction or ornamentation done with plaster, such as a layer of plaster on an interior or exterior wall structure, or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls. This is sometimes called pargeting; the process of creating plasterwork, called plastering or rendering, has been used in building construction for centuries. For the art history of three-dimensional plaster, see stucco; the earliest plasters known to us were lime-based. Around 7500 BC, the people of'Ain Ghazal in Jordan used lime mixed with unheated crushed limestone to make plaster, used on a large scale for covering walls and hearths in their houses. Walls and floors were decorated with red, finger-painted patterns and designs. In ancient India and China, renders in clay and gypsum plasters were used to produce a smooth surface over rough stone or mud brick walls, while in early Egyptian tombs, walls were coated with lime and gypsum plaster and the finished surface was painted or decorated. Modelled stucco was employed throughout the Roman Empire.
The Romans used mixtures of lime and sand to build up preparatory layers over which finer applications of gypsum, lime and marble dust were made. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the addition of marble dust to plaster to allow the production of fine detail and a hard, smooth finish in hand-modelled and moulded decoration was not used until the Renaissance. Around the 4th century BC, the Romans discovered the principles of the hydraulic set of lime, which by the addition of reactive forms of silica and alumina, such as volcanic earths, could solidify even under water. There was little use of hydraulic mortar after the Roman period until the 18th century. Plaster decoration was used in Europe in the Middle Ages where, from the mid-13th century, gypsum plaster was used for internal and external plaster. Hair was employed as reinforcement, with additives to assist set or plasticity including malt, beer and eggs. In the 14th century, decorative plasterwork called pargeting was being used in South-East England to decorate the exterior of timber-framed buildings.
This is a form of incised, moulded or modelled ornament, executed in lime putty or mixtures of lime and gypsum plaster. During this same period, terracotta was reintroduced into Europe and was used for the production of ornament. In the mid-15th century, Venetian skilled workers developed a new type of external facing, called marmorino made by applying lime directly onto masonry. In the 16th century, a new decorative type of decorative internal plasterwork, called scagliola, was invented by stuccoists working in Bavaria; this was composed of gypsum plaster, animal glue and pigments, used to imitate coloured marbles and pietre dure ornament. Sand or marble dust, lime, were sometimes added. In this same century, the sgraffito technique known as graffito or scratchwork was introduced into Germany by Italian artists, combining it with modelled stucco decoration; this technique was practised in antiquity and was described by Vasari as being a quick and durable method for decorating building facades.
Here, layers of contrasting lime plaster were applied and a design scratched through the upper layer to reveal the colour beneath. The 17th century saw the introduction of different types of internal plasterwork. Stucco marble was an artificial marble made using gypsum, pigments and glue. Stucco lustro was another a form of imitation marble where a thin layer of lime or gypsum plaster was applied over a scored support of lime, with pigments scattered on surface of the wet plaster; the 18th century gave rise to renewed interest in innovative external plasters. Oil mastics introduced in the UK in this period included a "Composition or stone paste" patented in 1765 by David Wark; this was a lime-based mix and included "oyls of tar and linseed" besides many other ingredients. Another "Composition or cement", including drying oil, was patented in 1773 by Rev. John Liardet. A similar product was patented in 1777 by John Johnson. Used by the architect Robert Adam who in turn commissioned George Jackson to produce reverse-cut boxwood moulds.
Jackson formed an independent company which still today produces composition pressings and retains a large boxwood mould collection. In 1774, in France, a mémoire was published on the composition of ancient mortars; this was translated into English as "A Practical Essay on a Cement, Artificial Stone, justly supposed to be that of the Greeks and Romans" and was published in the same year. Following this, as a backlash to the disappointment felt due to the repeated failure of oil mastics, in the second half of the 18th century water-based renders gained popularity once more. Mixes for renders were patented, including a "Water Cement, or Stucco" consisting of lime, bone ash and lime-water. Various experiments mixing different limes with volcanic earths took place in the 18th century. John Smeaton experimented with hydraulic limes and concluded that the best limes were those fired from limestones containing a considerable quantity of clay]ey material. In 1796, Revd James Parker patented Parker's "Roman Cement".
This was a hydraulic cement. It could be cast to form mouldings and other ornaments, it was however of an unattractive brown colour. Natural cements were used in stucco mixes during the 1820s; the popularisation of Portland cement changed the composition of stucco, as well as mortar, to a harder material. The dev
Suleiman of Persia
Sam Mirza known by his first dynastic name of Safi II, thereafter known by his more famous second dynastic name of Suleiman I, was the eighth Safavid shah of Iran, ruling from 1 November 1666 to 29 July 1694. Sam Mirza was born in February 1648. Sam Mirza had a younger brother named Hamza Mirza, as well as two other brothers named Ismail Mirza and Mirza Ali Naqi, he had two unnamed sisters. Sam Mirza grew up isolated in the royal harem, where he was cared for by a eunuch; because of this, Sam Mirza's first language was Azerbaijani. Furthermore, due to the way Sam Mirza was raised, he was much less experienced and less energetic than his father, which had significant consequences for his reign. Abbas II died in Mazandaran on 25 September 1666, without revealing his successor. Five days the news spread to Isfahan; the eunuchs, who took care of the palace, now got to name the successor. Most of them preferred the seven year-old Hamza Mirza, who they could control. However, the matter was decided when Hamza Mirza's tutor made a statement in the court supporting Sam Mirza to assume the throne.
One day on 1 October 1666, Sam Mirza was crowned as Safi II. The ceremony took place in the afternoon and was managed by Mohammad-Baqer Sabzavari, the shaykh al-Islam of Isfahan. Safi II was given the heads of some dead Uzbeks, in turn rewarded those who had given him the heads with money, he gave money to 300 exiles from the Ottoman Empire who sought refuge in Iran to avoid being enrolled into the Ottoman army. All administrative positions were reconfirmed that same day; the name "Abbas II" was removed from royal stamps, new coins were minted in Safi II's name. Demonstrating the sleekness of the changeover, the city of Isfahan remained peaceful. A series of natural disasters such as earthquakes in Shirvan, spread of deadly diseases around Iran, combined with devastating raids by the Cossack Stenka Razin on the coast of the Caspian Sea, convinced court astrologers that the coronation had taken place at the wrong time, the ceremony was repeated on March 20, 1668; the shah took the new name Suleiman I.
He had little interest in the business of government. He left political decision-making to his grand viziers or to a council of harem eunuchs, whose power increased during the shah's reign. Corruption became widespread in Persia and discipline in the army was dangerously lax. At the same time revenues increased by the imposition of higher taxes; this affected the country's economy and spread poverty, which resulted in many rebellions in Suleiman's capital Isfahan. In 1672, shah Suleiman offered the former vizier Mohammad Beg to become vizier once again, which he agreed to, but while on his way to Isfahan, he died. According to the French traveler Jean Chardin, Mohammad Beg had been poisoned by Suleiman's vizier Shaykh Ali Khan Zangana. In 1676, Suleiman appointed the Georgian prince George XI as the ruler of Kartli. By the 1670s, Georgians came to make up an larger part of the actual Safavid fighting forces, reaching a contested number of 40,000. Suleiman made no attempt to exploit the weakness of Safavid Persia's traditional rival, the Ottoman Empire, after the Ottomans suffered a serious defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
He refused the proposals from the European states to form a coalition against the Ottoman Empire. Persia suffered raids by the Uzbeks and Kalmyks on the eastern and northern borders of the empire respectively. In 1688, George XI rebelled against Suleiman, tried to urge the Ottomans to aid him. However, his request for help was fruitless, Suleiman appointed another Georgian prince named Heraclius I as the ruler of Kartli, forced George XI to flee from Kartli. To secure Iranian control over Kartli, he appointed Abbas-Quli Khan as the viceroy of the region; the Qizilbash remained an important part of the Safavid executive apparatus though ethnic Caucasians had come to replace them. For example in the 1690s, when ethnic Georgians formed the mainstay of the Safavid military, the Qizilbash still played a significant role in the army. Diplomatic activity had started decreasing since the reign of Shah Abbas I, but it decreased more under Suleiman. Although Suleiman had requested King William III of England for adept artisans in 1668/69, he is not known to have been involved in an operating foreign diplomacy.
In 1687 a ship of the Danish East India Company captured a Bengali ship and transported it into the port of Trankebar, which at that time was part of a Danish colony on the southeastern coast of India. The goods of the ship belonged to Armenian traders from New Julfa at Isfahan in Iran; the Danes had the ship with its wares sent to their capital of Copenhagen, where four years a Safavid diplomat showed up to settle a payment for the goods. On 11 December 1691, the Safavid diplomat showed King Christian V his diploma and a letter from Suleiman I directed to an earlier king, Christian III; the letter contained an inclusive stock of the contested goods and the names of the Armenian traders. Albeit the diplomat returned fortuneless, the elegantly adornmented wrapper in which he had bore his diploma and the letter is preserved in the Danish Museum of Art & Design; the French
In architecture and building engineering, a floor plan is a drawing to scale, showing a view from above, of the relationships between rooms, traffic patterns, other physical features at one level of a structure. Dimensions are drawn between the walls to specify room sizes and wall lengths. Floor plans may include details of fixtures like sinks, water heaters, etc. Floor plans may include notes for construction to specify finishes, construction methods, or symbols for electrical items, it is called a plan, a measured plane projected at the floor height of 4 ft, as opposed to an elevation, a measured plane projected from the side of a building, along its height, or a section or cross section where a building is cut along an axis to reveal the interior structure. Similar to a map the orientation of the view is downward from above, but unlike a conventional map, a plan is drawn at a particular vertical position. Objects below this level are seen, objects at this level are shown'cut' in plan-section, objects above this vertical position within the structure are omitted or shown dashed.
Plan view or planform is defined as a vertical orthographic projection of an object on a horizontal plane, like a map. The term may be used in general to describe any drawing showing the physical layout of objects. For example, it may denote the arrangement of the displayed objects at an exhibition, or the arrangement of exhibitor booths at a convention. Drawings are now reproduced using large format xerographic copiers. A reflected ceiling plan shows a view of the room as if looking from above, through the ceiling, at a mirror installed one foot below the ceiling level, which shows the reflected image of the ceiling above; this convention maintains the same orientation of the floor and ceilings plans - looking down from above. RCPs are used by designers and architects to demonstrate lighting, visible mechanical features, ceiling forms as part of the documents provided for construction. A floor plan is not a top view or birds eye view, it is a measured drawing to scale of the layout of a floor in a building.
A top view or bird's eye view does not show an orthogonally projected plane cut at the typical four foot height above the floor level. A floor plan could show: Interior walls and hallways Restrooms Windows and doors Appliances such as stoves, water heater etc. Interior features such as fireplaces and whirlpools The use of all rooms A plan view is an orthographic projection of a three-dimensional object from the position of a horizontal plane through the object. In other words, a plan is a section viewed from the top. In such views, the portion of the object above the plane is omitted to reveal. In the case of a floor plan, the roof and upper portion of the walls may be omitted. Whenever an interior design project is being approached, a floor plan is the typical starting point for any further design considerations and decisions. Roof plans are orthographic projections, but they are not sections as their viewing plane is outside of the object. A plan is a common method of depicting the internal arrangement of a three-dimensional object in two dimensions.
It is used in technical drawing and is traditionally crosshatched. The style of crosshatching indicates the type of material. A 3D floor plan can be defined as a virtual model of a building floor plan, it is used to better convey architectural plans to individuals not familiar with floor plans. Despite the purpose of floor plans being to depict 3D layouts in a 2D manner, technological expansion has made rendering 3D models much more cost effective. 3D plans show a better depth of image and are complimented by 3D furniture in the room. This allows a greater appreciation of scale than with traditional 2D floor plans. 3D printing 3D scanner Architect's scale Architectural drawing List of floor plan software House House plan Indoor positioning system Room number Media related to floor plans at Wikimedia Commons
Chahar Bagh Boulevard is a historical avenue in Isfahan constructed in the Safavid era of Iran. The avenue is the most famous in all of Persia, it is about 6 kilometers long. On the east side of this street, there are the Hasht Chehel Sotoun gardens. Shah Abbas I was the king who changed his capital from Qazvin to Esfahan and decided to pour all the countries artistic wealth into that central spot, dubbed for centuries "Nisfi Jahan" or "Half the World"; the chief architect of this task of urban planning was Shaykh Bahai, who focused the programme on two key features of Shah Abbas's master plan: the Chahar Bagh avenue, flanked at either side by all the prominent institutions of the city, such as the residences of all foreign dignitaries, the Naqsh-e Jahan Square. Chaharbagh Pa'in, or lower Chaharbagh, is the northern section of the avenue; this part of Chaharbagh is from Shohada Squrare to Darvazeh Dowlat. Chaharbagh Abbasi, is the middle section of the avenue; this part of Chaharbagh is from Darvazeh Dowlat to Northern 33 pol at Enqelab Square.
Chaharbagh Bala, or upper Chaharbagh, is the southern section of the avenue. This part of Chaharbagh is from southern 33 pol to Azadi Squrare
In architecture, a hasht-behesht meaning "eight heavens" in Persian, is a type of floor plan consisting of a central hall surrounded by eight rooms, the earliest recognized example of which in Iranian architecture is traced to the time of the Persianate Timurid Empire. The term was used in Persian literature as a metaphorical image, was notably used in a poem by Mughal poet Amir Khusrow, who gave the most comprehensible literary reconstruction of the model in his adaptation of an Iranian epic about Sasanian ruler Bahram V, as well as in other works by Ottoman poets Sehi Bey and Idris Bitlisi; the architectural form was adopted and used in Ottoman and Mughal architectures. The concept of hasht-behesht is linked to that of the Zoroastrian vahišta, a building decorated with precious stones that would represent the astrological concept of eight planets corresponding to eight heavens, it is related to Islamic eschatology, in which heaven is described as having eight gates and eight spaces, is observed in Christian symbolism in the concept of salvation.
The Chinese magic square, employed for numerous purposes, finds its way into Islamic mathematicians as "wafq". Ninefold schemes find particular resonance in the Indian mandalas, the cosmic maps of Hinduism and Buddhism. Although the trace of an older Sasanian equivalent is presumed, the earliest recognized use of the hasht-behesht plan is traced to a now non-extant two-storied pavilion named Tarab-khana, built under the reign of the Persianate Timurid Empire in Herat, a prominent city in medieval Khorasan. Under the reign of Iran's Safavid dynasty, the same plan was used in the eponymous pavilion of Hasht Behesht in Isfahan. In the architecture of the Persianate Mughal Empire, hasht-behesht was the favorite plan for gardens and pavilions, as well as for mausolea; these were planned as square or rectangular buildings divided into nine sections, with a central domed chamber surrounded by eight elements. Developments of the hasht-behesht divided the square at 45 degree angles to create a more radial plan, which also includes chamfered corners.
Each element of the plan is reflected in the elevations with iwans and the corner rooms expressed through smaller arched niches. Such structures are topped with chattris, small pillared pavilions at each corner