Dorothea Hansine Hassager was a Danish philanthropist and founder of Hassagers Collegium the youngest of the "old dormitories" of the University of Copenhagen. Coming from a family of clergymen, Dorothea Hansine Hørning was married at the age of 17 to the 16 years older priest Carl Hassager, she followed him around Denmark in the various parishes in which he preached. Though childless the couple managed to amass quite a modest fortune through the years, they purchased a large house in the town of Frederiksberg near Copenhagen in which they planned to spend their retirement, but Carl Hassager died before they could move to the capital. Dorothea Hassager lived as a widow in Frederiksberg for more than twenty years, where she attended lectures at the University of Copenhagen and played hostess for a steady stream of relatives and friends. Through her Will she had a dormitory built in her backyard and she founded a scholarship for students coming from the parishes where her husband preached; the dormitory consisted of ten single rooms, rent free and for students of the University of Copenhagen who had passed at least two years.
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
A dormitory is a building providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people such as boarding school, high school, college or university students. In some countries, it can refer to a room containing several beds accommodating people. Worldwide, dormitories are single sex, or sexes are accommodated on separate floors or in separate rooms in some cases, it is unusual for unrelated mixed sex occupancy of a bedroom except temporarily. Where this does occur, it is so remarkable; the terms "dorm" and "residence hall" are used interchangeably in the US. However, within the residence life community, the term "residence hall" is preferred. According to the University of Oregon, their facilities "provide not just a place to sleep, but opportunities for personal and educational growth. Trained Residence Life staff and Hall Government officers support this objective by creating engaging activities and programs in each hall or complex." In United Kingdom usage, the word dormitory means a room containing several beds accommodating unrelated people.
In the United Kingdom, this arrangement exists for pupils at a boarding school, travellers or military personnel, but is entirely unknown for university students. In United Kingdom usage, a building providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people is called a hall of residence, hostel or barracks. In the United Kingdom, halls of residence entirely have single occupancy rooms, are always mixed sex, with residents being allocated to adjacent rooms regardless of sex. Halls located away from university facilities sometimes have extra amenities such as a recreation room or bar; as with campus located residence halls, these off-campus halls also have Internet facilities, either through a network connection in each student room, a central computer cluster room, or Wi-Fi. Catered halls may charge for food through an termly subscription, they may contain basic kitchen facilities for student use outside catering hours. Most halls contain a laundry room; as of 2015 there was an expanding market for private luxury off-campus student residences which offered substantial amenities in both the United States and Britain in London.
Most colleges and universities provide single or multiple occupancy rooms for their students at a cost. These buildings consist of many such rooms, like an apartment building, the number of rooms varies quite from just a few to hundreds; the largest dormitory building is Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy. Many colleges and universities no longer use the word "dormitory" and staff are now using the term residence hall or "hall" instead. Outside academia however, the word "dorm" or "dormitory" is used without negative connotations. Indeed, the words are used in the marketplace as well as in advertising. College and university residential rooms vary in size, shape and number of occupants. A United States residence hall room holds two students with no toilet; this is referred to as a "double". Residence halls have communal bathroom facilities. In the United States, residence halls are sometimes segregated by sex, with men living in one group of rooms, women in another; some dormitory complexes are single-sex with varying limits on visits by persons of each sex.
For example, the University of Notre Dame in Indiana has a long history of Parietals, or mixed visiting hours. Most colleges and universities offer coeducational dorms, where either men or women reside on separate floors but in the same building or where both sexes share a floor but with individual rooms being single-sex. In the early 2000s, dorms that allowed people of opposite sexes to share a room became available in some public universities; some colleges and university coeducational dormitories feature coeducational bathrooms. Most residence halls are much closer to campus than comparable private housing such as apartment buildings; this convenience is a major factor in the choice of where to live since living physically closer to classrooms is preferred for first-year students who may not be permitted to park vehicles on campus. Universities may therefore provide priority to first-year students when allocating this accommodation. In UK universities these buildings are called halls of residence, except at Oxford, Durham, York and Kent where the residential accommodation is incorporated in each college's complex of buildings, known as rooms.
Members of the college who live in its own buildings are said to be living in or living in college. The majority of bedrooms in UK halls are now single occupancy – offering the first chance at privacy for some young people who shared bedrooms with siblings at home. Kitchen facilities are shared, as are bathrooms in some halls, though more expensive en-suite rooms are available in some universities. Over the years, UK universities have been hit by considerable funding cuts as part of government austerity measures. This, in part, has led to an increase in the rental of student accommodation during the winter and summer vacation periods to house conference delegates and tourists at rates similar to those charged by upmarket hotels. Unfortu
An inauguration refers to the process of swearing a person into office and thus making that person the incumbent. Such an inauguration occurs through a formal ceremony or special event; the word refers to the opening or first public use of a new civic area, organization or project. The historical source of the word “inauguration” stems from the Latin augur, which refers to the rituals of ancient Roman priests seeking to interpret if it was the will of the gods for a public official to be deemed worthy to assume office; the inaugurations of public figures those of political leaders feature lavish ceremonies in which the figure publicly takes his or her oath of office in front of a large crowd of spectators. A monarchical inauguration may take on different forms depending on the nation: they may undergo a coronation rite or may be required to take an oath in the presence of a country's legislature; the "inaugural address" is a speech given during this ceremony which informs the people of his or her intentions as a leader.
A famous inauguration speech is John F. Kennedy's. Other than personal inaugurations, the term can refer to the official opening or beginning of an institution or structure, for example the inauguration of a new Canada–United States border crossing. An "inauguration site" is a ceremonial site, for someone of a public figure. Brazilian presidential inauguration Croatian presidential inauguration Irish presidential inauguration Philippine presidential inauguration Russian presidential inauguration United States presidential inauguration Coronation Enthronement Opening Gaelic Inauguration
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but both are a part of the City of Copenhagen, it occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015. Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two; some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, being one of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen. However, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or "posh", area, and is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens, Søndermarken, Hostrups Have. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as several stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg.
The Copenhagen S-train system has several stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station and Flintholm station. Frederiksberg's original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the reciter of eldritch times; the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title. In Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as "the old thul". Thula translates like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda. By 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy, it was regarded as Copenhagen's border to the west. People lived here since the Bronze Age; the history of Frederiksberg goes back to 2 June 1651 when King Frederik III gave 20 Danish—Dutch peasants the rights to settle at Allégade, founded the town named "Ny Amager" or "Ny Hollænderby". Farming was not successful, in 1697 most of the town burned down; this meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, the land reverted to the crown by Frederik III's son Christian V. In 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke.
He named the palace Frederichs Berg, the rebuilt town at the foot of the hill changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the local houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land, but rather used the properties as country houses; the town changed from a farming community to a merchant town, with craftsmen and merchants. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the cramped city for the open land, to be near the royals; the town grew with population growing from 1,000 in 1770, to 1,200 in 1800, to 3,000 in 1850. In 1852 Parliament removed restrictions which prohibited permanent construction outside Copenhagen's city walls. Numerous residential areas were constructed, starting in the eastern part near Copenhagen, ending in the western part farthest away from Copenhagen in 1950; this led to rapid population growth. Today Frederiksberg consists entirely of 3- to 5-story residential houses, large single-family homes, large parks.
On aerial pictures Frederiksberg stands out from the surrounding city of Copenhagen as a green area with few large roads. It is considered to be one of Copenhagen's more prestigious areas to live in. Frederiksberg, which lies west of central Copenhagen, is surrounded by boroughs forming part of the city of Copenhagen – the result of an expansion of the Copenhagen Municipality's boundary in 1901, which did not include Frederiksberg in the list of municipalities to be incorporated in the enlarged area. Frederiksberg is thus a municipal island within the country's capital – a unique phenomenon in present-day Europe. Other than administratively, however, it is indistinguishable in character from the districts of Copenhagen city which surround it. Frederiksberg has several stations on the Copenhagen Metro system, is home to the tallest residential structure in Denmark and the second tallest residential building in Scandinavia: the 102-metre high Domus Vista; the Danmark Rundt cycling race traditionally finishes on Frederiksberg Alle in a sprint finish.
Frederiksberg houses the University of Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Campus, Copenhagen Business School, 9 public schools, 3 private schools, 1 technical college, more. The Lycée Français Prins Henrik, a French international school, is in Frederiksberg; the 3 streets Gammel Kongevej, Godthåbsvej, Falkoner Alle are the busiest shopping streets. The town houses the Frederiksberg Centret shopping mall. Frederiksberg Campus Frederiksberg Gardens Frederiksberg Hospital Frederiksberg Palace Frederiksberg Town Hall Copenhagen Business School Copenhagen Zoo Royal Danish Military Academy Population of Frederiksberg