Hassaniya Arabic

Hassānīya is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic spoken by Mauritanian Arab-Berbers and the Sahrawi. It was spoken by the Beni Ḥassān Bedouin tribes, who extended their authority over most of Mauritania and Morocco's southeastern and Western Sahara between the 15th and 17th centuries. Hassaniya Arabic was the language spoken in the pre-modern region around Chinguetti; the language has now completely replaced the Berber languages that were spoken in this region. Although a western dialect, Hassānīya is distant from other Maghrebi variants of Arabic, its geographical location exposed it to influence from Wolof. There are several dialects of Hassānīya which differ phonetically. Today, Hassānīya is spoken in Algeria, Morocco, Mali, Niger and the Western Sahara; the phonological system of Hassānīya is both innovative and conservative. All phonemes of Classical Arabic are represented in the dialect, but there are many new phonemes; as in other Bedouin dialects, Classical /q/ corresponds to dialectal /ɡ/, /dˤ/ and /ðˤ/ have merged into /ðˤ/ and the interdentals /θ/ and /ð/ have been preserved.

In common with most Maghrebi Arabic varieties, the letter ج /d͡ʒ/ is realised as /ʒ/. However, there is sometimes a double correspondence of a classical sound and its dialectal counterpart, thus classical /q/ is represented by /ɡ/ in /ɡbaðˤ/'to take' but by /q/ in /mqass/'scissors'. /dˤ/ becomes /ðˤ/ in /ðˤəħk/'laugh', but /dˤ/ in /mrˤədˤ/'to be sick'. Some consonant roots have a double appearance: /θaqiːl/'heavy' vs. /θɡiːl/'heavy'. Some of the "classicizing" forms are explained as recent loans from the literary language or from sedentary dialects in case of concepts pertaining to the sedentary way of life. For others, there is no obvious explanation. Etymological /ðˤ/ appears as /ðˤ/, never as /dˤ/; the phonemic status of /q/ and /dˤ/ as well as /ɡ/ and /ðˤ/ appears stable, unlike in many other Arabic varieties. Somewhat classical /ʔ/ has in most contexts disappeared or turned into /w/ or /j/. In some literary terms, however, it is preserved: /mət.ʔal.lam/'suffering'. Hassānīya has innovated many consonants by the spread of the distinction emphatic/non-emphatic.

In addition to the above-mentioned, /rˤ/ and /lˤ/ have a clear phonemic status and /bˤ fˤ ɡˤ mˤ nˤ/ more marginally so. One additional emphatic phoneme /zˤ/ is acquired from the neighbouring Zenaga Berber language along with a whole palatal series /c ɟ ɲ/ from Niger–Congo languages of the south. At least some speakers make the distinction /p/–/b/ through borrowings from French. All in all, the number of consonant phonemes in Hassānīya is 39 counting the marginal cases. On the phonetic level, the classical consonants /f/ and /θ/ are realised as voiced and; the latter is still, pronounced differently from /ð/, the distinction being in the amount of air blown out. In geminated and word-final positions both phonemes are voiceless, for some speakers /θ/ in all positions; the uvular fricative /ʁ/ is realised voiceless in a geminated position, although not fricative but plosive:. In other positions, etymological /ʁ/ seems to be in free variation with /q/. Vowel phonemes come in two series: short; the long vowels are the same as in Classical Arabic /aː iː uː/, the short ones extend this by one: /a i u ə/.

The classical diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ may be realised in many different ways, the most usual variants being and, respectively. Still, realisations are possible, although less common; as in most Maghrebi Arabic dialects, etymological short vowels are dropped in open syllables: */tak.tu.biː/ > /tə.ktbi/'you write', */ > */ > /ktəb/'he wrote'. In the remaining closed syllables dialectal /a/ corresponds to classical /a/, while classical /i/ and /u/ have merged into /ə/. Remarkably, morphological /j/ is represented by and /w/ by in a word-initial pre-consonantal position: /u.ɡəft/'I stood up', /i.naɡ.ɡaz/'he descends'. In some contexts this initial vowel gets lengthened, which demonstrates its phonological status of a vowel: /uːɡ.vu/'they stood up'. In addition, short vowels /a i/ in open syllables are found in Berber loanwords, such as /a.raː.ɡaːʒ/'man', /i.vuː.kaːn/'calves of 1 to 2 years of age', /u/ in passive formation: /u.ɡaː.bəl/'he was met'. Many educated Hassaniya Arabic speakers practice code-switching.

In Western Sahara it is common for code-switching to occur between Hassaniya Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Spanish, as Spain had controlled this region. Hassaniya Arabic is written with an Arabic script. However, Hassaniya Arabic is written in Latin script in Senegal, as established by Decree 2005-980, October 21, 2005. According to Ethnologue, there are three million Hassaniya speak

Reiterdenkmal, Windhoek

The Equestrian Monument, more known under its German original name Reiterdenkmal and the name Südwester Reiter, is a statue in Windhoek, the capital of Namibia. It was inaugurated on 27 January 1912, the birthday of German emperor Wilhelm II; the monument honours the soldiers and civilians that died on the German side of the Herero and Namaqua War of 1904–1907, a situation that caused controversy about its current role in a democratic Namibia that has shed its colonial occupation and gained independence. The bronze statue, without its granite pedestal, is in storage in the courtyard of the Alte Feste; the Reiterdenkmal was financed and designed by Berlin sculptor Adolf Kürle. The equestrian statue is 4.5 metres tall and made from bronze. It was created in Berlin and shipped to German South West Africa in 1911. After its arrival in Swakopmund it was transported by train to Windhoek; the plinth is 5 metres tall and consists of 180 granite rocks from Okahandja. It has a plaque mounted on it that remembers the German soldiers and civilians that died in the Herero and Namaqua War of 1904–1907, as well as in the Kalahari Expedition in 1908.

The translation of the inscription is: Remembering and honouring the brave German warriors that died for emperor and empire to save and protect this land during the Herero and Hottentot uprisings between 1903 and 1907, during the Kalahari Expedition in 1908. Remembering and honouring German citizens that died from the hands of the indigenous. Fallen, died from accident, succumbed to their injuries or sickness: Of the Protection Force: 100 officers, 254 non-commissioned officers, 1180 soldiers, of the marine: 7 officers, 13 non-commissioned officers, 27 seamen. Killed during the uprising: 119 men, 4 women, 1 child. German South West African Governor Theodor Seitz inaugurated the monument on the 53rd birthday of German emperor Wilhelm II on 27 January 1912. Although the monument is unusual in that it displays a corporal on horseback, Namibian historian Andreas Vogt incorrectly claims that nowhere else in the world is an ordinary soldier sculpted in that manner and that the honour of being displayed on a horse is only extended to "highest nobility like emperors and princes".

German historian Joachim Zeller points out that traditionally equestrian statues symbolise imperial rule and power, that this is how the function of the Reiterdenkmal has to be interpreted. The monument was erected not just to remember the dead, it was intended to serve as symbol of victory and a claim to rightful possession of South West African land. Elke Zuern, Professor of Politics at Sarah Lawrence College, writes: "Memorials and commemorations offer stylized presentations of the past, they can have profound political meaning by visibly presenting victor’s justice and offering a warning to those who might continue to resist. The Equestrian Monument in Windhoek served this function. Standing next to the German colonial fort and on the site of a wartime concentration camp, it was erected by the German colonial masters as a symbol of the longevity of their rule." This political function of the Reiterdenkmal became obsolete within three years. World War I broke out, in 1915 German South West Africa was overrun and the Schutztruppe surrendered.

Germany lost all of its colonies after the war. Between the two World Wars the German war graveyard at Waterberg and the Reiterdenkmal were the two most important sites for war remembrance and mourning celebrations of the German minority in South West Africa; the monument served as brand for German rule in Africa and was used for propaganda during the Third Reich. Books and movies featured pictures of it. In 1969, during the Apartheid era, it was declared a national monument by the South African administration; the Reiterdenkmal has long been controversial. Its continued display of German superiority, as well as its one-sided reporting on the deaths in the first decade of the 20th century—Herero and Damara people lost fifty times as many lives as the Germans during the Herero and Namaqua War—attracted critical commentary since the 1980s. In 1959, a few days after the Old Location Uprising in which 11 people were killed, unknown Herero activists covered the rider's head with a linen bag and decorated the rest of the statue with flowers as a "protest against the atrocities of the white South African minority regime".

After Namibia gained independence in 1990, white citizens of German descent feared that the statue would be destroyed, but this was not a priority of the SWAPO government, which preferred to build its own memorial sites to remember the independence struggle. Several other actions demonstrating the controversies around the monuments were performed in 2008. In July, 51 wooden crosses were erected around the statue, bearing names and expressions in Otjiherero, in October, a Namibian flag was inserted into the rider's rifle barrel; each action caused the discussion about status and justification of a monument glorifying German colonialism to flare up again in the local media. In 2001, the Cabinet of Namibia unanimously decided to build an Independence Museum at the site opposite the Christuskirche, at the place the Equestrian Monument stood; the removal of the statue was explicitly endorsed. When in 2009 construction of the museum began, the monument was wrapped and stored at a warehouse; the storage place was kept secret in order not to attract memorabilia collectors.

Private donors financed the move as it was feared. In 2010, the monument was re-erected in front of the Alte Feste but discussions on its role in an independent Namibia did not cease; the National Heritage Council advertised the suggested de-proclamation as National

Quarry Bay station

Quarry Bay is an underground station on the Island Line and Tseung Kwan O Line of the MTR in Quarry Bay on Hong Kong Island. The station livery is teal green; as with all stations on the Island Line, Quarry Bay is located on the northern shore of Hong Kong Island. Platforms 1 and 2 are built beneath King's Road to Pak Fuk Road. Platforms 3 and 4 are built beneath King's Road to the south of Model Housing Estate. In the course of constructing Quarry Bay Station, with the initial two platforms, 70,000 cubic metres of rock was excavated and 28,000 cubic metres of concrete was poured; the station opened as part of the first phase of the Island Line on 31 May 1985. The station was expanded in 1989 with the addition of platforms 3 and 4, which served as the terminus of Kwun Tong Line upon the opening of the Eastern Harbour Crossing; the station was badly congested in the mid-1990s. The station had a capacity of 30,000 people per hour, was "close to saturation". Contingency plans were developed to evacuate trains ahead of Quarry Bay to avoid overcrowding, while construction options were planned to alleviate the problem permanently.

On 27 September 2001, the Quarry Bay Congestion Relief Works was completed, extending the Kwun Tong Line to North Point Station and providing an easier and more spacious interchange there for Central bound passengers. On 4 August 2002, the Kwun Tong Line platforms began serving the newly opened Tseung Kwan O Line instead; the station is noted for having the deepest platforms in the MTR network by metres above sea level to allow the Tseung Kwan O Line tunnel to traverse Victoria Harbour. They are among the deepest by metres below ground level The station's concourses, are at ground level and open directly onto the street; as a result, four sets of escalators and many long passageways are necessary to connect the concourses to the deepest platforms. The walking time between concourse and Tseung Kwan O Line platforms takes five minutes, therefore passengers are not allowed to enter the paid area of the station from seven minutes before the last train departs, different from the five minutes applied at other stations.

Since platforms 3 and 4 were built some time after platforms 1 and 2, no cross-platform interchange is available in Quarry Bay station. Commuters interchanging between the two lines have to walk through a long passageway and two flights of escalators for about five minutes to reach the platforms of the other line; this inconvenience and increasing passenger numbers were what prompted the MTRC to undergo the Quarry Bay Congestion Relief Works, which extended the Kwun Tong Line one station to the west to North Point Station, where cross-platform interchanges are provided. The platform numbers of platforms 3 and 4 were switched when the Kwun Tong Line was extended to North Point in 2001. A: King's Road, Taikoo Place B: Finnie Street C: Model Lane, Harbour Plaza North PointEntrances/exits A and B share the same concourse while entrance/exit C has a separate concourse. Circle K Mini-store Hang Seng Bank ATM Maxim's Cakes 2 Bank of China ATMs An automatic photo machine A vending machine To Tsz Wan Shan 116