United States House Committee on Agriculture
The U. S. House Committee on Agriculture, or Agriculture Committee is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives; the House Committee on Agriculture has general jurisdiction over federal agriculture policy and oversight of some federal agencies, it can recommend funding appropriations for various governmental agencies and activities, as defined by House rules. The Agriculture Committee was created on May 3, 1820, after Lewis Williams of North Carolina sponsored a resolution to create the committee and give agricultural issues equal weight with commercial and manufacturing interests; the committee consisted of seven members, from the states of Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, South Carolina and Virginia. Thomas Forrest of Pennsylvania was the first chairman; the Agriculture Committee remained a seven-member body until 1835. It was not until 1871. Since it has grown to its current size of 46 members; the U. S. Senate counterpart to the House Agriculture Committee, the U. S. Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, was created on December 9, 1825.
The Agriculture Committee is not considered to be a powerful one. However, it is an important committee to be on for Representatives from many rural areas where agriculture is the main industry; the committee has jurisdiction over agriculture, nutrition, water conservation, other agriculture-related fields. As prescribed by House Rules, the Committee on Agriculture's jurisdiction includes the following: Resolutions electing members: H. Res. 24, H. Res. 25, H. Res. 57, H. Res. 68 List of current United States House of Representatives committees Agriculture Committee Homepage, official website Committee Rules, Agriculte Committee, official website House Agriculture Committee. Legislation activity and reports, Congress.gov. House Agriculture Committee Hearings and Meetings Video. Congress.gov Past Committee Chairs, Agriculture Committee, official website
Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer, the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office. He won the popular vote for three presidential elections—in 1884, 1888, 1892—and was one of two Democrats to be elected president during the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation and subsidies to business, farmers, or veterans, his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance and commitment to the principles of classical liberalism, he fought political corruption and bossism. As a reformer, Cleveland had such prestige that the like-minded wing of the Republican Party, called "Mugwumps" bolted the GOP presidential ticket and swung to his support in the 1884 election.
As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a severe national depression, which Cleveland was unable to reverse. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian and silverite seizure of the Democratic Party in 1896; the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, he drew corresponding criticism, his intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide in addition to the party in Illinois. Critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. So, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term. Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities.
He had no endowments. He possessed honesty, firmness and common sense, but he possessed them to a degree other men do not." By the end of his second term, public perception showed him to be one of the most unpopular U. S. presidents, he was by rejected by most Democrats. Today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader ranked among the upper-mid tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey, to Ann and Richard Falley Cleveland. Cleveland's father was a Congregational and Presbyterian minister, from Connecticut, his mother was the daughter of a bookseller. On his father's side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635, his father's maternal grandfather, Richard Falley Jr. fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, was the son of an immigrant from Guernsey. On his mother's side, Cleveland was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and German Quakers from Philadelphia.
Cleveland was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell, where his father was pastor at the time, he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, where Grover spent much of his childhood. Neighbors described him as "full of fun and inclined to play pranks," and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Cleveland's father moved to Clinton, New York, to work as district secretary for the American Home Missionary Society. Despite his father's dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a two-year mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville; the experience was valuable and brief, the living conditions quite austere. Grover returned to his schooling at the completion of the apprentice contract.
In 1853, when missionary work began to take a toll on his health, Cleveland's father took an assignment in Holland Patent, New York and the family moved again. Shortly after, he died from a gastric ulcer, with Grover reputedly hearing of his father's death from a boy selling newspapers. Cleveland received his elementary education at the Fayetteville Academy and the Clinton Liberal Academy. After his father died in 1853, he again left school to help support his family; that year, Cleveland's brother William was hired as a teacher at the New York Institute for the Blind in New York City, William obtained a place for Cleveland as an assistant teacher. He returned home to Holland Patent at the end of 1854, where an elder in his church offered to pay for his college education if he would promise to become a minister. Cleveland declined, in 1855 he decided to move west, he stopped first in New York, where his uncle, Lewis F. Allen, gave him a clerical job. Allen was an important man in Buffalo, he introduced his nephew to influential men there, including the partners in the law firm of Rogers and Rogers.
Millard Fillmore, the 13th president of the United States, had worked for the partnership. Cleveland took a clerkship with the firm, began to read the law, was admitted to the New York bar in 1859. Cleveland
United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
William H. Hatch
William Henry Hatch was a U. S. Representative from Missouri, he was the namesake of the Hatch Act of 1887, which established state agricultural experiment stations for the land-grant colleges. Hatch is the namesake of Hatch Hall, a Residence Hall at the University of Missouri. Born near Georgetown, Hatch attended the schools of Lexington, where he studied law, he was admitted to the bar in September 1854 and practiced as a circuit attorney in 1858 and 1860. During the Civil War, he served in the Confederate States Army, he was made a commissioned captain and assistant adjutant general December 1862, in March 1863 was assigned to duty as assistant commissioner of exchange of prisoners under the cartel, continued in this position until the close of the war. Hatch was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-sixth and to the seven succeeding Congresses, during which time he served as chairman of the Committee on Agriculture, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1894 to the Fifty-fourth Congress.
After his congressional career, he engaged in agricultural pursuits. He died near Hannibal, Missouri on December 23, 1896, was interred in Riverside Cemetery. Hatch is the namesake of the community of Missouri. While William Hatch is by no means a household name, his name has become synonymous with the agricultural experiment stations that were founded by his legislation, he is best remembered through the many laboratories and lecture halls named in his memory at land-grant institutions across the United States. In his hometown of Hannibal, Missouri, a bronze statue was erected in his name in 1914, nearly twenty years after his death, which still stands in the center of that town today. In 1987 a plaque was added to this monument commemorating the centennial of the Hatch Act of 1887. Justin Smith Morrill, introduced the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, establishing American land-grant colleges United States Congress. "William H. Hatch". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
William H. Hatch at Find a Grave
United States farm bill
In the United States, the farm bill is the primary agricultural and food policy tool of the federal government. The comprehensive omnibus bill is renewed every 5 years or so and deals with both agriculture and all other affairs under the purview of the United States Department of Agriculture, it makes amendments and suspensions to provisions of permanent law, amends, or repeals provisions of preceding temporary agricultural acts, puts forth new policy provisions for a limited time into the future. Beginning in 1933, farm bills have included titles on commodity programs, rural development, farm credit, agricultural research and nutrition programs, etc. Farm bills can be controversial and can impact international trade, environmental conservation, food safety, the well-being of rural communities; the bill gets urban support because most of the funding goes to food subsidies for poor people, which liberals support and conservatives want to restrict. The current farm bill, the Agricultural Act of 2014, funds farm programs through 2018.
On May 18th, 2018 the $867 billion 2018 United States farm bill failed in the House of Representatives with a vote of 198 yea to 213 nay. All Democrats and 30 Republicans voted against the measure. Republican opposition came from the Freedom Caucus who insisted that a separate vote to restrict immigration be held before they would support the bill. Jim Jordan, a Freedom Caucus member said "My main focus was making sure we do immigration policy right." Democratic opposition was due to the proposed changes to the attached Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program that would impose work requirements. Farm bills were first created during the Great Depression to give financial assistance to farmers who were struggling due to an excess crop supply creating low prices, to control and ensure an adequate food supply; the first farm bill, known as the Agriculture Adjustment Act, was passed by Congress in 1933 as a part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal; the bill allowed farmers to receive payment for not growing food on a percentage of their land as allocated by the United States Secretary of Agriculture.
It enabled the government to buy excess grain from farmers, which could be sold if bad weather or other circumstances negatively affected output. The AAA included a nutrition program, the precursor to food stamps. In 1938, Congress created a more permanent farm bill with a built-in requirement to update it every five years. In 1996, the first major structural change was made to the farm bill when Congress decided farm incomes should be determined by free market forces and stopped subsidizing farmland and purchasing extra grain. Instead, the government began requiring farmers to enroll in a crop insurance program in order to receive farm payments; this led to years of the highest farm subsidies in American history. Direct payments began in the late 1990s as a way to support struggling farmers, regardless of crop output; these payments allowed grain farmers to receive a government check every year based on yields and acreage of the farm as recorded the previous decade. In 2008, the farm bill was passed as the Food and Energy Act of 2008.
The bill included $100 billion in annual spending for Department of Agriculture programs, around 80 percent of, allocated for food stamps and other nutritional programs. The 2008 Farm bill increased spending to $288Bn therefore causing controversy at the time by increasing the budget deficit, it increased subsidies for biofuels which the World Bank has named as one of three most important contributors, along with high fuel prices and price speculation, to the 2007–2008 world food price crisis. President George Bush had vetoed the 2008 bill due to its cost. However, the veto was overridden by Congress; the 2008 bill was publicly controversial due to its high cost and the uneven distribution of subsidy money among farmers. The bill was 47 percent more expensive than the 2003 bill, over the previous ten years, 10 percent of farmers had received 75 percent of subsidy dollars; some of these farm owners were then-members of Congress and other public figures, including former president Jimmy Carter, who received thousands of dollars in direct payments.
In 2007, it was found. In 2012, while writing the new farm bill, known as the Agriculture Reform and Jobs Act, Congress proposed many ways to cut down the overall cost of the bill, including stricter eligibility standards for food stamps and moving away from direct payments to farmers. However, food stamps and nutrition remained the largest portion of the bill's cost, amounting to a proposed $768.2 billion over ten years. The 2012 bill failed to pass in the House, which caused Congress to extend the 2008 bill until September 30, 2013; this was enacted as part of the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, passed by Congress on January 1, 2013 and signed into law the next day by President Barack Obama. Between the passage of the 2008 farm bill and the creation of the 2013 bill, the food stamp program changed its name to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, nearly doubled in size; the proposed 2013 bill would cut funding to SNAP by about $400 million a year, which amounts to half a percent of spending from previous years.
Under an amendment introduced by Senators Dick Durbin and Tom Coburn, it would reduce crop insurance subsidies by 15 percent for the top 1 percent of U. S. wealthiest farmers, those with a gross annual income of more than $750,000. The new bill proposed a new insurance program for dairy
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
United States Code
The Code of Laws of the United States of America is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States. It contains 53 titles; the main edition is published every six years by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives, cumulative supplements are published annually. The official version of those laws not codified in the United States Code can be found in United States Statutes at Large; the official text of an Act of Congress is that of the "enrolled bill" presented to the President for his signature or disapproval. Upon enactment of a law, the original bill is delivered to the Office of the Federal Register within the National Archives and Records Administration. After authorization from the OFR, copies are distributed as "slip laws" by the Government Printing Office; the Archivist assembles annual volumes of the enacted laws and publishes them as the United States Statutes at Large. By law, the text of the Statutes at Large is "legal evidence" of the laws enacted by Congress.
Slip laws are competent evidence. The Statutes at Large, however, is not a convenient tool for legal research, it is arranged in chronological order so that statutes addressing related topics may be scattered across many volumes. Statutes repeal or amend earlier laws, extensive cross-referencing is required to determine what laws are in force at any given time; the United States Code is the result of an effort to make finding relevant and effective statutes simpler by reorganizing them by subject matter, eliminating expired and amended sections. The Code is maintained by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U. S. House of Representatives; the LRC determines which statutes in the United States Statutes at Large should be codified, which existing statutes are affected by amendments or repeals, or have expired by their own terms. The LRC updates the Code accordingly; because of this codification approach, a single named statute may or may not appear in a single place in the Code. Complex legislation bundles a series of provisions together as a means of addressing a social or governmental problem.
For example, an Act providing relief for family farms might affect items in Title 7, Title 26, Title 43. When the Act is codified, its various provisions might well be placed in different parts of those various Titles. Traces of this process are found in the Notes accompanying the "lead section" associated with the popular name, in cross-reference tables that identify Code sections corresponding to particular Acts of Congress; the individual sections of a statute are incorporated into the Code as enacted. Though authorized by statute, these changes do not constitute positive law; the authority for the material in the United States Code comes from its enactment through the legislative process and not from its presentation in the Code. For example, the United States Code omitted 12 U. S. C. § 92 for decades because it was thought to have been repealed. In its 1993 ruling in U. S. National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America, the Supreme Court ruled that § 92 was still valid law.
By law, those titles of the United States Code that have not been enacted into positive law are "prima facie evidence" of the law in effect. The United States Statutes at Large remains the ultimate authority. If a dispute arises as to the accuracy or completeness of the codification of an unenacted title, the courts will turn to the language in the United States Statutes at Large. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. In contrast, if Congress enacts a particular title of the Code into positive law, the enactment repeals all of the previous Acts of Congress from which that title of the Code derives; this process makes that title of the United States Code "legal evidence" of the law in force. Where a title has been enacted into positive law, a court may neither permit nor require proof of the underlying original Acts of Congress.
The distinction between enacted and unenacted titles is academic because the Code is nearly always accurate. The United States Code is cited by the Supreme Court and other federal courts without mentioning this theoretical caveat. On a day-to-day basis few lawyers cross-reference the Code to the Statutes at Large. Attempting to capitalize on the possibility that the text of the United States Code can differ from the United States Statutes at Large, Bancroft-Whitney for many years published a series of volumes known as United States Code Service, which used the actual text of the United States Statutes at Large. Only "general and permanent" laws are codified in the United States Code. If these limited provisions are significant, they may be printed as "notes" underneath related sectio