Hate speech is defined by Cambridge Dictionary as "public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, sex, or sexual orientation". Hate speech is "usually thought to include communications of animosity or disparagement of an individual or a group on account of a group characteristic such as race, national origin, disability, religion, or sexual orientation". There hate speech and hate speech legislation; the laws of some countries describe hate speech as speech, conduct, writing, or displays that incite violence or prejudicial actions against a group or individuals on the basis of their membership in the group, or which disparage or intimidate a group or individuals on the basis of their membership in the group. The law may identify a group based on certain characteristics. In some countries, hate speech is not a legal term. Additionally in some countries, including the United States, much of what falls under the category of "hate speech" is constitutionally protected.
In other countries, a victim of hate speech may seek redress under criminal law, or both. A website that contains hate. Laws against hate speech can be divided into two types: those intended to preserve public order and those intended to protect human dignity; those designed to protect public order require a higher threshold be violated, so they are not enforced frequently. For example, in Northern Ireland, as of 1992 only one person was prosecuted for violating the regulation in twenty-one years; those meant to protect human dignity have a much lower threshold for violation, so those in Canada, France and the Netherlands tend to be more enforced. The global capacity of the internet makes it difficult to set limits or boundaries to cyberspace; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights states that "any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law". The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination prohibits all incitement of racism.
Concerning the debate over how freedom of speech applies to the Internet, conferences concerning such sites have been sponsored by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Australia's hate speech laws vary by jurisdiction, seek to prevent victimisation on account of race; the Belgian Anti-Racism Law, in full, the Law of 30 July 1981 on the Punishment of Certain Acts inspired by Racism or Xenophobia, is a law against hate speech and discrimination that the Federal Parliament of Belgium passed in 1981. It made certain acts motivated by xenophobia illegal, it is known as the Moureaux Law. The Belgian Holocaust denial law, passed on 23 March 1995, bans public Holocaust denial; the law makes it illegal to publicly "deny, play down, justify or approve of the genocide committed by the Nazi German regime during the Second World War." Prosecution is led by the Belgian Centre for Equal Opportunities. The offense is punishable by imprisonment of up to one year and fines of up to €2,500. In Brazil, according to the 1988 Brazilian Constitution, racism is an "Offense with no statute of limitations and no right to bail for the defendant."
In 2019, Brazil's Supreme Court ruled that the racism crime law should be applied to homophobia and transphobia as well. In Canada, advocating genocide against any "identifiable group" is an indictable offence under the Criminal Code and it carries a maximum sentence of five years' imprisonment. There is no minimum sentence. Publicly inciting hatred against any identifiable group is an offence, it can be prosecuted either as an indictable offence with a maximum sentence of two years' imprisonment, or as a summary conviction offence with a maximum sentence of six months' imprisonment. There are no minimum sentences in either case; the offence of publicly inciting hatred makes exceptions for cases of statements of truth, subjects of public debate and religious doctrine. The landmark judicial decision on the constitutionality of this law was R v Keegstra. An "identifiable group" is defined for both offences as "any section of the public distinguished by colour, religion, national or ethnic origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression or mental or physical disability".
Article 31 of the "Ley sobre Libertades de Opinión e Información y Ejercicio del Periodismo", punishes with a large fine those who “through any means of social communication makes publications or transmissions intended to promote hatred or hostility towards persons or a group of persons due to their race, religion or nationality". This law has been applied to expressions transmitted via the internet. There is a rule increasing the penalties for crimes motivated by discriminatory hatred; the Croatian Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, but the Croatian penal code prohibits discrimination and punishes anyone "who based on differences of race, language, political or other belief, birth, social status or other properties, skin color, nationality or ethnicity violates basic human rights and freedoms recognized by the international community." Denmark prohibits hate speech, defines it as publicly making statements by which a group is threatened, insulted or degraded due to race, skin colour, national or ethnic origin, faith or sexual orientation.
Herbert Hunger was an Austrian Byzantinist. Hunger was died in Vienna. From 1973 to 1982 he served two consecutive terms as president of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie, 1953, Reich der Neuen Mitte, 1965 Byzantinische Grundlagenforschung, 1973 Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner, 2 Vols. 1978 Schreiben und Lesen in Byzanz: Die byzantinische Buchkultur, 1989 Das Denken am Leitseil der Sprache, 1999 Grand Commander of the Order of the Phoenix Grand Cross of Merit with Star of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany 1968: Wilhelm Hartel Prize 1979: City of Vienna Prize for Humanities 1981: Austrian Decoration for Science and Art Grand Gold Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria Grand Gold Decoration for Services to the City of Vienna Obituary by Johannes Koder, his student and friend Short biography with picture Obituary at Byzantium - please scroll down to 2001 obituaries Austrian Academy of Sciences Review of'Festschrift' outlining the history of the Byzantine Institute of the University of Vienna, founded by Herbert Hunger
Seed is a defunct online science magazine published by Seed Media Group. The magazine looked at big ideas in science, important issues at the intersection of science and society, the people driving global science culture. Seed was founded in Montreal by Adam Bly and the magazine was headquartered in New York with bureaus around the world. May/June 2009 was the last print issue. Content continued to be published on the website until its demise. Seed was a finalist for two National Magazine Awards in 2007 in the categories of Design and General Excellence, was the recipient of the Utne Independent Press Award, was included in the 2006 Best American Science and Nature Writing anthology published by Houghton Mifflin and edited by Brian Greene; the magazine published original writing from scientists and science journalists. Scientists who contributed to the magazine include: James D. Watson, Freeman Dyson, Lisa Randall, Martin Rees, Steven Pinker, E. O. Wilson, Daniel Dennett. Seed's design direction was created by Stefan Sagmeister.
Jonah Lehrer contributed features to Seed. Bly's first incursion into media came in 2000, when he launched an online magazine, the Journal of Young Scientists, he was a researcher at Canada's National Research Council. JoYS shared Seed's focus on the roles of science in many aspects of society, as well as its emphasis on design. Nobel laureate Leon M. Lederman was among the senior scientists. Founding the media group SEED Group, based in Montreal and funded Bly started Seed's publication in Canada in November 2001; the magazine focused on the meeting of science and culture at its inception: Bly's first editor's note declared that "SEED defines the science of contemporary urban culture". In additional interviews, he explained that the magazine would connect to the reader by showing the widespread applications of science, as well as giving faces to "the people behind science" by placing people on the covers; the first issue had a circulation of 105,000 within the U. S. and Canada. Seed described its design with many pages where graphics dominated text.
The first cover included pieces themed around birth. The Boston Globe described two interior pages in which "Above a pacifier image is an essay on fluids and engineering with curves. A purple balloon floats above a few sentences about the expanding universe." High fashion permeated the magazine's advertising, which included "Hugo Boss, Evian, Club Monaco, Absolut Citron, Skechers" in the first issue. The first issue received coverage in both Nature; the final issue was published in February 2012, with no issues between May 2011 and February 2012. The magazine was laid out in sections, each separated by a portfolio of science photography: Notebook - front section containing a mix of news, op-art, opinions and articles, columns by Chris Mooney, PZ Myers and Mara Hvistendahl. Incubator - summary of innovative scientific ideas; this section contained each month's Cribsheet. The series was available for free download on SEED's website in GIF and PDF formats. Features - included profiles, photoessays and fiction.
This section contained the regular feature Seed Salon, which transcribed a conversation between a scientist and an artist or humanist. Reviews - a guide to global science culture. Magazine's Site
Wilhelmina Celeste Goehring Harvey was a philanthropist and the first female mayor of Monroe County, Florida. A "grand dame of Keys politics", she was a public face of the Conch Republic. Outside of politics, she was a science scuba diver, she was born in 1912 to one of Key West's original families. By 1935, she taught summer school at Tulane University, she graduated from Florida State College for Women in 1937. She served as board member of a local volunteer credit union in the 1940s, she married C. B. Harvey, who served as mayor of Key West in the 1950s. Harvey earned a master's degree in public administration in 1980. In 1982, she was inducted into the Florida Women's Hall of Fame in its first year, she served as the first female mayor and the first female commissioner of Monroe County, was the first to be elected Mayor Emeritus. In April 1982, citizens of Key West formed the Conch Republic, a satirical micronation, in response to a Border Patrol checkpoint that disrupted travel and tourist activity.
Harvey became Admiral and First Sea Lord of the Conch Republic's navy, whose actions included attacking a Coast Guard cutter with loaves of stale Cuban bread. The Conch Republic became a Key West mainstay as a tourist attraction and a humorous method for the cityto negotiate with state and federal governments. During the 1995 "invasion", she accepted surrender from Army Reserve troops, she served as the Republic's ambassador and met several presidents and foreign leaders in that capacity. In 1991, she hosted Queen Elizabeth at Dry Tortugas National Park, acting as both Monroe County mayor and Conch Republic ambassador. In 1986, she ran for Florida House of Representatives from the 120th District losing to Ron Saunders in the Democratic primary runoff. In 1997, the Monroe County commissioners voted to name the new county government building as Harvey Government Center at Historic Truman School after Harvey and her husband. In November 2000, she lost her re-election bid as Monroe County Commissioner, but remained a popular local figure.
Harvey died on May 3, 2005 at the age of 93. She received a large public funeral
Shimit Amin is an Indian film director and editor. He is best known for the award-winning film Chak De! India starring Shah Rukh Khan, he is married to screenwriter Megha Ramaswamy. Amin grew up in Florida, in the United States. While Shimit Amin was enamored with film culture from an early age, his parents pressed him to be more conventional in his college studies. After playing a significant role in organizing and promoting North Florida's first international film festival, The 1991 Asian/Asian American International Film Festival, in Jacksonville, Shimit moved to Miami and worked on industrial/corporate and small independent film projects. After about a year in Miami, Amin traveled to California where he worked on independent films before beginning to work, in many behind the camera roles with major Hollywood directors. Amin's energy, film knowledge and high quality work attracted the attention of Bollywood filmmakers. From Los Angeles, Mr. Amin moved on to working in the Indian film Industry.
He received an editing position on the Hindi film Bhoot through a friend while still living in L. A, it was during this time. The film was a box office success, he next became involved with Chak De! India,' which opened to critical and financial success, his latest film, Rocket Singh: Salesman of the Year, reunited him with two colleagues from Chak De! India: screenwriter Jaideep Sahni and Yash Raj Films. 2004 - Ab Tak Chhappan 2007 - Chak De! India 2009 - Rocket Singh: Salesman of the Year 2012 - The Reluctant Fundamentalist - Film Editor 2013 - Shuddh Desi Romance - Served as a consultant Winner National Film Awards2008 - National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment for Chak De IndiaFilmfare Awards2008 - Best Film Critics for Chak De IndiaIIFA Awards2008 - Best Director for Chak De IndiaApsara Awards2008 - Best Director for Chak De IndiaStardust Awards2008 - Best Director in Editor Choice for Chak De IndiaOther Awards2007 - CNN-IBN Indian of the Year for Chak De India 2008 - V.
Shantaram Award for Best Director for Chak De India Shimit Amin on IMDb
The 1903 South Carolina United States Senate election, held January 27, 1903 to select the U. S. senator from the state of South Carolina, was predetermined by the Democratic Party primary election held on August 26, 1902, September 9. Democrats were so overwhelmingly dominant that their nomination was tantamount to the general election. Prior to the ratification of the 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution, U. S. Senators were elected by the state legislature and not through the direct election by the people of the state. However, the Democratic Party of South Carolina organized primary elections for the U. S. Senate beginning in 1896 and the General Assembly would confirm the choice of the Democratic voters. Tillmanite Democrat Asbury Latimer won the Democratic primary and was elected by the General Assembly for a six-year term. In the special election of 1897, the Conservatives were without a candidate so in 1902 four candidates vied for the support of Conservatives: Dan S. Henderson, William Elliott, George Johnstone and John J. Hemphill.
The two remaining candidates in the race, Representative Asbury Latimer and former Governor John Gary Evans, were strong Tillmanites. However, they held opposing views and a duel ensued between the two while campaigning at St. George on July 12. A fight did indeed break out between Latimer and Hemphill when they were campaigning in Gaffney on August 14. Latimer struck him. Hemphill was unable to strike back because Latimer left the scene. On August 26, Latimer and Evans emerged as the top two candidates in the field and were to face each other in a runoff election on September 9; the Conservative candidates had garnered more votes combined than the combined vote of Latimer and Evans, but their inability to coalesce around a single candidate prevented a Conservative from winning the election. Evans was disliked by Conservatives in the state so they threw their support behind Latimer and he won the runoff election. List of United States senators from South Carolina 1902 and 1903 United States Senate elections 1902 United States House of Representatives elections in South Carolina 1902 South Carolina gubernatorial election Jordan, Frank E.
The Primary State: A History of the Democratic Party in South Carolina, 1876-1962. Pp. 56–59. "Candidates Use Threats". New York Times. 13 July 1902. P. 2. "Senatorial Candidates Indulge in Fisticuffs". New York Times. 15 August 1902. P. 2. "Latimer's Lucky Election". New York Times. 12 September 1902. P. 2