Geoffrey Johns is an American comic book writer and film and television producer. He served as the President and Chief Creative Officer of DC Entertainment from 2016 to 2018, after his initial appointment as CCO in 2010; some of his most notable work has used the DC Comics characters Green Lantern, Aquaman and Superman. In 2018, he stepped down from his executive role at DC Entertainment to open a production company, Mad Ghost Productions, to focus on writing and producing film and comic book titles based on DC properties; some of his work in television includes the series Blade, Smallville and The Flash. He was a co-producer on a producer on Justice League, he co-wrote the story for Aquaman and the screenplay for Wonder Woman 1984. Geoff Johns was born January 25, 1973, in Detroit, the son of Barbara and Fred Johns, he is of half Lebanese ancestry, grew up in the suburbs of Grosse Pointe and Clarkston. As a child and his brother first discovered comics through an old box of comics they found in their grandmother's attic, which included copies of The Flash, Green Lantern, Batman from the 1960s and 1970s.
Johns began to patronize a comics shop in Traverse City, recalling that the first new comics he bought were Crisis on Infinite Earths #3 or 4 and The Flash #348 or 349, as the latter was his favorite character. As Johns continued collecting comics, he gravitated toward DC Comics and Vertigo, drew comics. After graduating from Clarkston High School in 1991, he studied media arts, film production and film theory at Michigan State University, he graduated from Michigan State in 1995, moved to Los Angeles, California. In Los Angeles, Johns cold-called the office of director Richard Donner looking for an internship, while Johns was being transferred to various people, Donner picked up the phone by accident, leading to a conversation and the internship. Johns started off copying scripts, after about two months, was hired as a production assistant for Donner, whom Johns regards as his mentor. While working on production of Donner's 1997 film Conspiracy Theory, Johns visited New York City, where he met DC Comics personnel such as Eddie Berganza, reigniting his childhood interest in comics.
Berganza invited Johns to tour the DC Comics offices, offered Johns the opportunity to suggest ideas, which led to Johns pitching Stars and S. T. R. I. P. E. A series based to editor Chuck Kim a year later. Johns expected to write comics "on the side", until he met David Goyer and James Robinson, who were working on JSA. After looking at Stars and S. T. R. I. P. E. Robinson offered Johns co-writing duties on JSA in 2000, Johns credits both him and Mike Carlin with shepherding him into the comics industry; that same year, Johns became the regular writer on The Flash ongoing series with issue 164. John's work on The Flash represents one example of his modeling of various elements in his stories after aspects of his birth town, explaining, "When I wrote The Flash, I turned Keystone City into Detroit, made it a car town. I make a lot of my characters from Detroit. I think blue-collar heroes represent Detroit. Wally West's Flash was like that. I took the inspiration of the city and the people there and used it in the books."
John's Flash run concluded with #225. He co-wrote a Beast Boy limited series with Ben Raab in 2000 and crafted the "Return to Krypton" story arc in the Superman titles with Pasqual Ferry in 2002. After writing The Avengers vol. 3 #57–76 and Avengers Icons: The Vision #1–4 for Marvel Comics, Johns oversaw the re-launch of Hawkman and Teen Titans. Johns was responsible for the return of Hal Jordan in 2005 as the writer of the Green Lantern: Rebirth mini-series and subsequent Green Lantern ongoing title. Johns was the writer of the Infinite Crisis crossover limited series, a sequel to 1985's Crisis on Infinite Earths. Following this, Johns was one of four writers, with Mark Waid, Grant Morrison, Greg Rucka, on the 2006–2007 weekly series 52. In 2006, Johns and Kurt Busiek co-wrote the "Up, Up and Away!" Story arc in Action Comics. He reunited with Richard Donner on the "Last Son" storyline in Action Comics with Donner co-plotting the series with his former assistant; the Justice Society of America series by Johns and artist Dale Eaglesham began in February 2007 and six months he and Jeff Katz launched the new Booster Gold series.
That same year, Johns helmed the critically acclaimed "Sinestro Corps War" storyline in the Green Lantern titles. He wrote the "Final Crisis" one-shot Rage of the Red Lanterns with artist Shane Davis and collaborated with Gary Frank on Action Comics. Johns and Frank produced the "Brainiac" storyline in which Superman's adopted father Jonathan Kent was killed and retold Superman's origin story in 2009's Superman: Secret Origin. In 2009, Johns teamed with artist Ethan Van Sciver on The Flash: Rebirth miniseries, which centered on the return of Barry Allen as the Flash and wrote the Blackest Night limited series. Commenting on Johns' creation of such concepts as the Blue Lantern Corps, the Red Lantern Corps, the Indigo Tribe, DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz noted in 2010 that "One of Johns' sharpest additions to DC mythology is the notion that the Green Lanterns are but one color within a rainbow spectrum, that the other hues have their own champions. Folding in old concepts and inventing new ones, Johns has established limitless story possibilities."
On February 18, 2010, Johns was named the Chief Creative Officer of DC Entertainment, established to expand the DC Comics brand ac
A supervillain is a variant of the villainous stock character, found in American comic books possessing superhuman abilities. A supervillain is the antithesis of a superhero. Supervillains are invesiles used as foils to present a daunting challenge to a superhero. In instances where the supervillain does not have superhuman, mystical, or alien powers, the supervillain may possess a genius intellect or a skill set that allows them to draft complex schemes or commit crimes in a way normal humans cannot. Other traits may include possession of considerable resources to further their aims. Many supervillains share some typical characteristics of real world dictators and terrorists, with aspirations of world domination or universal leadership; the Joker, Lex Luthor, The Horde, Mr. Glass, Doctor Doom, Venom, Ra's al Ghul and Thanos are some notable male comic book supervillains and have been adapted to film and television; some notable examples of female supervillains are the Catwoman, Harley Quinn, Talia al Ghul, Poison Ivy and Dark Phoenix.
Just like superheroes, supervillains are sometimes members of supervillain groups, such as the Sinister Six, the Suicide Squad, the Brotherhood of Mutants, the Injustice League, the Legion of Doom, the Masters of Evil. Stephen Moffat and Mark Gatiss have claimed to regard James Moriarty as a super villain because he too possesses genius level intelligence and powers of observation and deduction setting him above ordinary people to the point where only he can pose a credible threat to Sherlock Holmes, and because Moriarty is a successful, sociopathic antagonist. The dictionary definition of supervillain at Wiktionary Media related to Supervillains at Wikimedia Commons
John Stewart (comics)
John Stewart, one of the characters known as Green Lantern, is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics and was the first African-American superhero to appear in DC Comics. The character was created by Dennis O'Neil and Neal Adams, first appeared in Green Lantern #87. Stewart's original design was based on actor Sidney Poitier. John Stewart debuted in Green Lantern vol. 2 #87 when artist Neal Adams came up with the idea of a substitute Green Lantern. The decision to make the character black resulted from a conversation between Adams and editor Julius Schwartz, in which Adams recounts saying that given the racial makeup of the world's population, "we ought to have a black Green Lantern, not because we’re liberals, but because it just makes sense." The character was DC's first black superhero. John Stewart has become a major recurring character in the Green Lantern mythos within the DC Universe, he became the primary character of Green Lantern vol. 2 from issues #182 through #200, when Hal Jordan relinquished his place in the Green Lantern Corps.
He continued to star in the book when the title changed to The Green Lantern Corps from issue #201 to #224. He would continue to make key appearances in Action Comics Weekly after The Green Lantern Corps' cancellation, he starred in the comic Green Lantern: Mosaic. 3, with a four-part storyline titled "Mosaic". DC published 18 issues of the ongoing Green Lantern: Mosaic title between June 1992 and November 1993. John Stewart was featured as one of the lead characters on the television cartoon Justice League from 2001 until 2004, he continued to appear as a major character on the show's 2004–2006 sequel, Justice League Unlimited. In 2011, John Stewart starred in the New 52 relaunch of Green Lantern Corps alongside Guy Gardner, became the sole lead character of the title from 2013 until the series' conclusion in 2015. Green Lantern Corps was replaced by Green Lantern: The Lost Army, which stars John Stewart as the lead. John Stewart is an architect "retconned" into a veteran U. S. Marine from Detroit, selected by the Guardians as a backup Green Lantern to then-current Green Lantern Hal Jordan, after the previous backup, Guy Gardner, was injured after getting hit by a car while trying to save a civilian.
Although Jordan objected to the decision after seeing that Stewart had a belligerent attitude to authority figures, the Guardians stood by their decision, chided Jordan for his supposed bigoted outlook on the issue. Jordan explained that he just felt that though Stewart might have the integrity for the task, he "obviously would have a chip on his shoulder bigger than the rock of Gibraltar." Jordan's opinion was. His assignment was to protect a racist politician, Stewart, while averting an accident, took advantage of the situation to embarrass Jordan in the process; when an assassin shoots at the politician, Stewart does not intervene with Jordan in response to the attack, which makes Stewart seem suspect. However, it turns out Stewart had good reasons for this apparent dereliction of duty because he was stopping a gunman from killing a police officer in the outside parking lot at the event while Jordan was pursuing a decoy; when Jordan confronts Stewart about his actions, Stewart explains that the politician had staged the attack for political advantage.
Jordan concludes that Stewart was an excellent recruit and has proven his worth. For some time, Stewart filled in as Green Lantern when Jordan was unavailable, including some missions of the Justice League. After Jordan gave up being Green Lantern in the 1980s, the Guardians selected Stewart for full-time duty. Stewart filled that role for some years. During that period he worked as an architect at Ferris Aircraft Company, battled many Green Lantern villains, fought against the Anti-Monitor's forces during the Crisis on Infinite Earths. John was trained in usage of his power ring by the Green Lantern of the planet Korugar; the duo went on many adventures together and fell in love. Kat and John went on to serve within the Green Lantern Corps of Earth alongside Hal Jordan, Kilowog and other alien Green Lanterns, during which time they were married. After John's ring was rendered powerless through the schemes of Sinestro, Katma Tui was murdered at the hands of the insane Star Sapphire, Stewart's life began to unravel.
First, he was falsely accused of killing Carol Ferris, Star Sapphire's alter ego, falsely accused of theft by South Nambia. Jailed and tortured in South Nambia for weeks, John freed himself with his old ring, now re-powered thanks to the efforts of Hal Jordan. In his escape, John inadvertently frees both a terrorist; when Jordan confronts John over his actions, the two friends come to blows until John realizes the "revolutionaries" he had been aiding intended to murder innocent civilians. Afterwards, John left Earth for space, where he participated in the Cosmic Odyssey miniseries event, failed to prevent the destruction of the planet Xanshi by an avatar of the Anti-Life Equation; the incident earned him the ire of J’onn J’onzz the Martian Manhunter, with him at the time. This series of tragedies left John a shattered man on the brink of suicide and created the villainess known as Fatality. J'onn J'onzz has at least civilly, forgiven him. John forgave himself for his past mistakes and grew into a stronger, more complex hero when he became the caretaker of the "Mosaic World", a patchwork of communities fr
Hawkgirl is the name of several fictional superheroines appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The original Hawkgirl, Shiera Sanders Hall, was created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Dennis Neville, first appeared in Flash Comics #1. Shayera Hol was created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Joe Kubert, first appeared in The Brave and the Bold #34. Kendra Saunders was created by writer David S. Goyer and artist Stephen Sadowski, first appeared in JSA: Secret Files and Origins #1. One of DC's earliest super-heroines, Hawkgirl has appeared in many of the company's flagship team-up titles including Justice Society of America and Justice League of America. Several incarnations of Hawkgirl have appeared in DC Comics, all of them characterized by the use of archaic weaponry and artificial wings, attached to a harness made from the special Nth metal that allows flight. Most incarnations of Hawkgirl work with a partner/romantic interest Hawkman. Since DC’s continuity was rewritten in the 1985 series Crisis on Infinite Earths, Hawkgirl history has become muddled with several new versions of the character appearing throughout the years, some associated with ancient Egypt and some with the fictional planet Thanagar.
These versions of the character have starred in several series of various durations. Hawkgirl has been adapted into various media, including direct-to-video animated films, video games, both live-action and animated television series, featuring as a main or recurring character in the shows Justice League Animated, Justice League Unlimited, The Flash, Young Justice, DC Super Hero Girls and DC's Legends of Tomorrow. Hawkgirl is ranked among one of the greatest female heroines from DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Dennis Neville, Shiera Sanders first appeared in Flash Comics #1, in the same 12-page story in which Fox and Neville introduced Hawkman. Shiera first appears as Hawkgirl in All Star Comics #5, in a costume created by Sheldon Moldoff, based on Neville's Hawkman costume. With the fading popularity of superheroes during the late 1940s, the Hawkman feature ended in the last issue of Flash Comics in 1949. In 1956, DC Comics resurrected the Flash by revamping the character with a new identity and backstory.
Following the success of the new Flash, DC Comics revamped Hawkman in a similar fashion with The Brave and the Bold #34 in 1961. The Silver Age versions of Hawkman and Hawkgirl became married alien police officers from the planet Thanagar who come to Earth in order to study police techniques. Silver Age Hawkgirl is introduced as Shayera Hol. Although Silver Age Hawkman joins the Justice League in Justice League of America #31 in 1964, Silver Age Hawkgirl was not offered membership because Justice League rules only allowed for one new member to be admitted at a time. In 1981, Silver Age Hawkgirl changed her name to Hawkwoman in the Hawkman backup feature of World's Finest Comics #274. With the establishment of DC's multiverse system, the Golden Age Hawkgirl was said to have lived on Earth-Two and the Silver Age Hawkgirl on Earth-One. Following the events of DC's miniseries, Crisis on Infinite Earths, the histories of Earth-One, Four, S, X were merged into one single Earth with a consistent past and future.
As a result, both the Golden Age and the Silver Age versions of Hawkman and Hawkgirl live on the same Earth. Shortly after Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC decided that having the Justice Society on the same Earth as all of the other superheroes was redundant and most of the team, including Golden Age Hawkman and Hawkgirl were given a sendoff in the Last Days of the Justice Society one-shot; the Justice Society were trapped in another dimension, where they would battle for all of eternity to prevent Ragnarök from occurring on the Earth. The Silver Age Hawkman and Hawkwoman were kept in continuity unchanged after Crisis on Infinite Earths. However, DC reversed this decision and rebooted Hawkman continuity after the success of the Hawkworld miniseries. Hawkworld was a miniseries set in the past that revised the origins of Hawkman and Hawkwoman, but after the series became a success, DC Comics made Hawkworld an ongoing series set in the present, with both heroes only appearing on Earth after the events in the Invasion! miniseries, resulting in a complete reboot of Hawkman continuity.
Several continuity errors regarding Hawkman and Hawkgirl's Justice League appearances needed to be fixed, including their appearance in the Invasion! miniseries. All previous appearances by the Silver Age Hawkgirl in the Justice League were explained by the Golden Age Hawkgirl taking the Silver Age Hawkgirl's place. However, Hawkwoman continued to appear in some pre-Hawkworld Justice League adventures during the time Golden Age Hawkgirl was trapped in Limbo. To explain this continuity error, a new Hawkwoman, Sharon Parker, was created and retconned into the Justice League during the time Golden Age Hawkgirl was in Limbo. After the Hawkworld reboot, Hawkgirl was now Shayera Thal and not married to Katar Hol, instead his police partner. In post-Hawkworld continuity, Shayera adopts the name Hawkwoman from the beginning of her costumed career and never uses the name Hawkgirl; the Golden Age Hawkgirl is returned from Limbo, but during the Zero Hour miniseries she is merged with Katar Hol and Golden Age Hawkman into a new persona.
A new Hawkgirl was introduced as part of the 1999 revival of the JSA monthly title. The new Hawkgirl is Kendra Saunders, granddaughter of the Golden Age Hawkgirl's cousin, Speed Saunders. Hawkgirl would continue to appear in the monthly JSA series and later
A dagger is a knife with a sharp point and two sharp edges designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon. Daggers have been used throughout human experience for close combat confrontations, many cultures have used adorned daggers in ritual and ceremonial contexts; the distinctive shape and historic usage of the dagger have made it symbolic. A dagger in the modern sense is a weapon designed for close-proximity self-defense. Double-edged knives, play different sorts of roles in different social contexts. In some cultures, they are neither a potent symbol of manhood. A wide variety of thrusting knives have been described as daggers, including knives that feature only a single cutting edge, such as the European rondel dagger or the Persian pesh-kabz, or, in some instances, no cutting edge at all, such as the stiletto of the Renaissance. However, in the last hundred years or so, in most contexts, a dagger has certain definable characteristics, including a short blade with a tapered point, a central spine or fuller, two cutting edges sharpened the full length of the blade, or nearly so.
Most daggers feature a full crossguard to keep the hand from riding forwards onto the sharpened blade edges. Daggers are weapons, so knife legislation in many places restricts their manufacture, possession, transport, or use; the earliest daggers were made of materials such as ivory or bone in Neolithic times. Copper daggers appeared first in the early Bronze Age, in the 3rd millennium BC, copper daggers of Early Minoan III were recovered at Knossos. In ancient Egypt, daggers were made of copper or bronze, while royalty had gold weapons. At least since pre-dynastic Egypt, daggers were adorned as ceremonial objects with golden hilts and even more ornate and varied construction. One early silver dagger was recovered with midrib design; the 1924 opening of the tomb of Tutankhamun revealed two daggers, one with a gold blade, one of smelted iron. It is held. Circa B. C. 1600. As late as Mene-ptah II. of the Nineteenth Dynasty, we read it in the list of his loot, after the Prosopis battle, of bronze armour and daggers.
Iron production did not begin until 1200 BC, iron ore was not found in Egypt, making the iron dagger rare, the context suggests that the iron dagger was valued on a level equal to that of its ceremonial gold counterpart. These facts, the composition of the dagger had long suggested a meteoritic origin, evidence for its meteoritic origin was not conclusive until June 2016 when researchers using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry confirmed similar proportions of metals in a meteorite discovered in the area, deposited by an ancient meteor shower. One of the earliest objects made of smelted iron is a dagger dating to before 2000 BC, found in a context that suggests it was treated as an ornamental object of great value. Found in a Hattic royal tomb dated about 2500 BC, at Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia, the dagger has a smelted iron blade and a gold handle; the artisans and blacksmiths of Iberia in what is now southern Spain and southwestern France produced various iron daggers and swords of high quality from the 5th to the 3rd century BC, in ornamentation and patterns influenced by Greek and Phoenician culture.
The exceptional purity of Iberian iron and the sophisticated method of forging, which included cold hammering, produced double-edged weapons of excellent quality. One can find technologically advanced designs such as folding knives rusted among the artifacts of many Second Iberian Iron Age cremation burials or in Roman Empire excavations all around Spain and the Mediterranean. Iberian infantrymen carried several types of iron daggers, most of them based on shortened versions of double-edged swords, but the true Iberian dagger had a triangular-shaped blade. Iberian daggers and swords were adopted by Hannibal and his Carthaginian armies; the Lusitanii, a pre-Celtic people dominating the lands west of Iberia held off the Roman Empire for many years with a variety of innovative tactics and light weapons, including iron-bladed short spears and daggers modeled after Iberian patterns. During the Roman Empire, legionaries were issued a pugio, a double-edged iron thrusting dagger with a blade of 7–12 inches.
The design and fabrication of the pugio was taken directly from short swords. Like the gladius, the pugio was most used as a thrusting; as an extreme close-quarter combat weapon, the pugio was the Roman soldier's last line of defense. When not in battle, the pugio served as a convenient utility knife; the term dagger appears only in the Late Middle Ages, reflecting the fact that while the dagger had been known in antiquity, it had disappeared during the Early Middle Ages, replaced by the hewing knife or seax. The dagger reappeared in the 12th century as the "knightly dagger", or more properly cross-hilt or quillon dagger, was developed into a common arm and tool for civilian use by the late medieval period; the earliest known depiction of a cross-hilt dagger is the so-called "Guido relief" inside the Grossmünster of Zürich. A number of depictio
Patrick Gleason (artist)
Patrick Gleason is a comic book artist. He has worked for DC Comics, Marvel Comics, Image Comics. Green Lantern Corps: Recharge Green Lantern Corps Aquaman JLA: Welcome to the Working Week JSA H-E-R-O Robin Batman and Robin Brightest Day Superman vol. 4 X-Men Unlimited Noble Causes Patrick Gleason at ComicBookDB.com Patrick Gleason at The Grand Comics Database The Straight Poop
Gardner Francis Cooper Fox was an American writer known best for creating numerous comic book characters for DC Comics. Comic book historians estimate that he wrote more than 4,000 comics stories, including 1,500 for DC Comics. Gardner was a science fiction author and wrote many novels and short stories. Fox is known as the co-creator of DC Comics heroes the Flash, Doctor Fate and the original Sandman, was the writer who first teamed those and other heroes as the Justice Society of America and recreated the team as the Justice League of America. Fox introduced the concept of the Multiverse to DC Comics in the 1961 story "Flash of Two Worlds!" Gardner F. Fox was born in the son of Julia Veronica and Leon Francis Fox, an engineer. Fox recalled being inspired at an early age by the great fantasy fiction writers. On or about his eleventh birthday, he was given The Gods of Mars and The Warlord of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs, books which "opened up a complete new world for me." He "read all of Burroughs, Harold Lamb, Talbot Mundy," maintaining copies "at home in my library" some 50 years later.
Fox received a law degree from St. John's College and was admitted to the New York bar in 1935, he practiced for about two years, but as the Great Depression continued he began writing for DC Comics editor Vin Sullivan. Debuting as a writer in the pages of Detective Comics, Fox "intermittently contributed tales to nearly every book in the DC lineup during the Golden Age." He was a frequent contributor of prose stories to the pulp science fiction magazines of the 1930s and 1940s. A polymath, Fox included numerous real-world historical and mythological references in his comic strips, once saying, "Knowledge is kind of a hobby with me". For instance, during a year's worth of Atom comic strip stories, Fox referred to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the space race, 18th-century England, miniature card painting, Norse mythology, numismatics, he revealed in letters to fan Jerry Bails that he kept large troves of reference material, mentioning during 1971, "I maintain two file cabinets chock full of stuff.
And the attic is crammed with books and magazines.... Everything about science, nature, or unusual facts, I can go to my files or the at least 2,000 books that I have". During his career writing for DC Comics, Fox wrote novels and short stories using a variety of male and female pseudonyms for a number of publishers, including Ace, Gold Medal, Tower Publications, Belmont Books, Dodd Mead, Pocket Library, Pyramid Books and Signet Books. During the mid-to-late 1940s, into the 1950s, Fox wrote a number of short stories and text pieces for Weird Tales and Planet Stories, was published in Amazing Stories and Marvel Science Stories, he wrote for a diverse range of pulp magazines, including Baseball Stories, Big Book Football Western, Fighting Western, Football Stories, Lariat Stories, Ace Sports, SuperScience, Northwest Romances, Thrilling Western, Ranch Romances for a number of publishing companies. Fox wrote a pair of science fiction novels titled Thief of Llarn. From 1969 to 1970, Belmont Books published a series of sword and sorcery novels by Fox, featuring the barbarian character Kothar.
These were Kothar: Barbarian Swordsman, Kothar of the Magic Sword and the Demon Queen and the Conjurer's Curse and Kothar and the Wizard Slayer. These were followed in 1976 by another series featuring the barbarian Kyrik: Kyrik: Warlock Warrior, Kyrik Fights the Demon World and the Wizard's Sword and Kyrik and the Lost Queen. Kothar and the Conjurer's Curse was adapted by Marvel Comics as a six-part Conan story starting with Conan the Barbarian #46 with scripter Roy Thomas and artists John Buscema, Joe Sinnott, Dan Adkins, Dick Giordano. Fox's earliest stories for DC Comics featured Speed Saunders with art by Creig Flessel and Fred Guardineer beginning at least with Detective Comics #4. Speed Saunders was credited to "E. C. Stoner," which many believe to be a Fox pseudonym; as the 1930s progressed, Fox added writing credits for Steve Malone and Bruce Nelson for Detective Comics to his workload, as well as Zatara for early issues of Action Comics. During World War II, Fox assumed responsibility for a variety of characters and books of several of his colleagues, drafted.
He worked for numerous companies including Timely Comics. With the waning popularity of superheroes, Fox contributed western, science fiction, humor and funny animal stories. During July 1939, just two issues after debut of the character Batman by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, Fox wrote the first of his several tales for that character, introducing an early villain in the story "The Batman Meets Doctor Death". Alongside Kane and Finger, Fox contributed to the evolution of the character, including the character's first use of his utility belt, which "contain choking gas capsules," as well as writing the first usages of both the Batarang and the Batgyro, an autogyro precursor to the Batcopter, two issues later. Fox returned to the Batman in 1964. During 1939, Fox and artist Bert Christman co-created the character of the Sandman, a gasmask-wearing costumed crime-fighter whose first appearance in Adventure Comics #40 was pre-empted by an appearance in New York World's Fair Comics. Fox is credited with writing the first three of six stories in the inaugural issue of Flash Comics, including the debut of the titular character, The Flash.