Hatmaking or millinery is the design and sale of hats and head-wear. A person engaged in this trade is called a hatter. Millinery is sold to women and children, though some definitions limit the term to women's hats. Milliners female shopkeepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men and children, sold these garments in their millinery shop. More the term milliner has evolved to describe a person who designs, sells or trims hats for a female clientele; the origin of the term is the Middle English milener, meaning an inhabitant of the city of Milan or one who deals in items from Milan, known for its fashion and clothing. Many styles of headgear have been popular through history and worn for different functions and events, they worn to indicate social status. Styles include the top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, cowboy hat, cocktail hat. A great variety of objects are or were used as trimmings on women's fashionable hats: see Trim #See also. In former times use of colorful bird feathers and wings and tails and whole stuffed birds as hat trimmings led to the formation of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
Link to images and descriptions of hats trimmed with birdsThis link, with references to 1880s newspaper issues, describes as ornaments on fashionable hats, bird feathers, stuffed birds and other small animals, fruit, flowers and lace. It says that in 1889 in London and Paris, over 8,000 women were employed in millinery, in 1900 in New York, some 83,000 people women, it described a fashion for stuffed kittens' heads as hat ornaments in or around 1883 in Paris posed looking out from among foliage and feathers, to the point where some people were reported to breed kittens for the millinery trade. This is a partial list of people who have had a significant influence on millinery. International Hat Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing one of America's most popular early 20th century harvest hats for field hands and workmen. Hawley Products Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing the tropical shaped, pressed fiber sun helmet used from World War II through the Persian Gulf War.
John Cavanagh, an American hatter whose innovations included manufacturing regular and wide-oval fitting hats to enable customers to find better-fitting ready-to-wear hats. James Lock & Co. of London, is credited with the introduction of the bowler hat in 1849. John Batterson Stetson, credited with inventing the classic cowboy hat Giuseppe Borsalino, with the famous "Borsalino" Fedora hat. Anna Ben-Yusuf wrote The Art of one of the first reference books on millinery technique. Rose Bertin and modiste to Marie Antoinette, is described as the world's first celebrity fashion designer. Coco Chanel: Creator of the fashion house and creator of Chanel No.5. John Boyd was one of London's most respected milliners and is known for the famous pink tricorn hat worn by Diana, Princess of Wales. Lilly Daché was a famous American milliner of the mid-20th century. Frederick Fox was an Australian born milliner noted for his designs for the British Royal family. Mr. John was an American milliner considered by some to be the millinery equivalent of Dior in the 1940s and 1950s.
Stephen Jones of London, is considered one of the world's most radical and important milliners of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Simone Mirman was known for her designs for Elizabeth II and other members of the British Royal Family. Barbara Pauli was the leading fashion modiste in Sweden during the Gustavian era. Caroline Reboux was a renowned milliner of the early 20th centuries. David Shilling is a renowned milliner and designer based in Monaco. Justin Smith is an award-winning milliner creating bespoke and couture hats under the J Smith Esquire brand. Philip Treacy Irish-born award-winning milliner. Draper Haberdasher Hat Works Mad hatter disease Mad as a hatter Marchandes de modes All Sewn Up: Millinery, Dressmaking and Costume 18th Century millinery Popular Science, November 1941, "Pulling Hats Out Of Rabbits" article on modern mass production hat making Individuality in millinery, a 1923 book on hatmaking from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Millinery guide
Lise Haavik is a Danish/Norwegian singer, best known for representing Denmark at the Eurovision Song Contest in Bergen, Norway in 1986. She is well-known domestically for her partnership in the duo Trax with John Hatting, her ex-husband. Lise Haavik was born in Narvik, Norway on 23 February 1962, she moved to Denmark in 1982 to study economics at the University of Odense and the Copenhagen Business School. Haavik partnered with John Hatting in late 1983 and they soon married. At that point, she stopped her economics studies. One year after moving to Denmark, Haavik entered the weekly magazine "Se & Hør" amateur song contest, where she placed second, she soon after met John Hatting late in 1983 when he advertised through a record company for a female singer with whom he could start a duo. The company sent Haavik, they formed the duo "Trax", she represented Denmark in the 1986 Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Du er fuld af løgn". While both partners were present at the Contest, only Haavik sang and was credited during the performance.
The song was successful in the Contest that evening. This would be the only time Haavik would appear at Eurovision, having tried and failed to represent Denmark in 1984 and 1985, she made an attempt to represent Norway in 1988. Haavik continues to work in music, with her most recent offering, the English language "Cry Me a River", released in 2007. 1980s#Music
Sankt Marienkirchen am Hausruck
Sankt Marienkirchen am Hausruck is a municipality in the district of Ried im Innkreis in the Austrian state of Upper Austria. Sankt Marienkirchen lies in the Innviertel. About 18 percent of the municipality is forest, 74 percent is farmland