Hibiscus tiliaceus is a species of flowering tree in the mallow family, native to the Old World tropics. Common names include sea hibiscus, beach hibiscus, coastal hibiscus, coastal cottonwood, green cottonwood, native hibiscus, native rosella, cottonwood hibiscus, sea rosemallow, malabago or malbago, waru, hau, fau and vau tree; the specific epithet, "tiliaceus", refers to its resemblance to the related Tilia species. Hibiscus tiliaceus reaches a height of 4–10 m, with a trunk up to 15 cm in diameter; the flowers of H. tiliaceus are bright yellow with a deep red center upon opening. Over the course of the day, the flowers deepen to orange and red before they fall; the branches of the tree curve over time. The leaves are heart shaped and deep red in the var. rubra. Hibiscus tiliaceus is a common coastal plant in Eastern and Northern Australia, Maldives, South Asia, Southeast Asia, it has become naturalized in parts of the New World, such as Florida, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands. It is uncertain if the species is native to Hawaii, as it may have been introduced by the Polynesians.
Hibiscus tiliaceus can be found at elevations from sea level to 800 m in areas that receive 900–2,500 mm of annual rainfall. It is found growing on beaches, by rivers and in mangrove swamps. Sea Hibiscus is well adapted to grow in coastal environment in that it tolerates salt and waterlogging and can grow in quartz sand, coral sand, marl and crushed basalt, it grows best in acidic to alkaline soils. The plant lends its name to a coastal community in Cotton Tree, Australia; the wood of H. tiliaceus has a specific gravity of 0.6. It has been used in a variety of applications, such as seacraft construction and wood carvings, it is easy to plane and turns well, so it is regarded by many as a high quality furniture wood. Its tough bark can be used for sealing cracks in boats; the bark and roots may be boiled to make a cooling tea to cool fevers, its young leafy shoots may be eaten as vegetables. Native Hawaiians used the wood to make ʻiako for waʻa, ʻau koʻi. Kaula ʻilihau was made from the bast fibers.
Hau would be used to make ʻama. Hibiscus tiliaceus is used in Asian countries as a subject for the art of bonsai Taiwan; the finest specimens are taken from Kenting National Park. Lending itself to free grafting, the leaf size is reduced quickly. In Indonesia H. tiliaceus is used for fermenting tempeh. The undersides of the leaves are covered in downy hairs known technically as trichomes to which the mold Rhizopus oligosporus can be found adhering to in the wild. Soybeans are pressed into the leaf, stored. Fermentation occurs resulting in tempeh. Cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in flowers of H. tiliaceus. Leaves of H. tiliaceus displayed strong free radical scavenging activity and the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity among 39 tropical plant species in Okinawa. With greater UV radiation in coastal areas, it is possible that leaves and flowers of natural coastal populations of H. tiliaceus have stronger antioxidant properties than planted inland populations. Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia Thespesia populnea
The Bassac River is a distributary of the Tonlé Sap and Mekong River. The river starts in Phnom Penh and flows southerly, crossing the border into Vietnam near Châu Đốc. In Vietnam it is known as the Hậu River; the Bassac River is an important transportation corridor between Cambodia and Vietnam, with barges and other craft plying the waters. A city of the same name was once the west-bank capital of the Kingdom of Champasak. USS Satyr, a recommissioned repair ship built for the United States Navy during World War II, served on the Bassac River during the Second Indochina War. Three bridges span the Bassac: the Monivong and Takhmao bridges in Phnom Penh and the Cần Thơ Bridge in Cần Thơ in Vietnam. 8.5 kilometers to prey basak lies an old ancient temple ruins Prasat Prey Basak, destroyed during the Vietnam war due to heavy bombing from the United States military. Prasat Prey Basak Temple was built during the Funan empire during the 3rd centuries; the temple is dated between 1900-2000 years old. It is considered to be the oldest Prasat in Cambodia since it was dated back before Chenla during the Funan era
The paʻanga is the currency of Tonga. It is controlled by the National Reserve Bank of Tonga in Nukuʻalofa; the paʻanga is not convertible and is pegged to a basket of currencies comprising the Australian, New Zealand, United States dollars and the Japanese yen. The paʻanga is subdivided into 100 seniti; the ISO code is TOP, the usual abbreviation is T$. In Tonga, the paʻanga is referred to in English as the dollar, the seniti as the cent and the hau as the union. There is the unit of hau, but this is not used in everyday life and can only be found on commemorative coins of higher denominations. Entada phaseoloides, native name paʻanga called box bean or St. Thomas’ bean, is a bean-like vine producing large pods with large reddish-brown seeds; the seeds are up to 5 cm diameter and 1 or 2 cm thick. When strung together they are used as anklets, part of the kailao dance costume, they were used as playing pieces in an ancient disc-throwing game, lafo. On 1 December 1806 Tongans attacked, they failed.
The chief of Haʻapai, Fīnau ʻUlukālala, resorted to the next plan, to plunder whatever was worthwhile. On his inspection tour, he found the ship's cash. Not knowing what money was, he considered the coins as paʻanga. Not seeing anything of value, he ordered the remains of the ship to be burned, it was much that William Mariner, the only survivor of this attack, told him that those pieces of metal were of great value and not playing stones. When Tonga introduced decimal currency, it decided not to call the main unit the dollar because the native word, translated into a pig's snout, the soft end of a coconut, or, in vulgar language, a mouth. Pa'anga, on the other hand, translated into money. Another fact is that the Norwegian word for money is "penger", in most Norwegian dialects "penga", in Swedish "pengar", in Danish "penge", it is found in Old English pening, Northumbrian penning "penny," from Proto-Germanic *panninga- (source of Old Norse penningr, Swedish pänning, Danish penge, Old Frisian panning, Old Saxon pending, Middle Dutch pennic, Dutch penning, Old High German pfenning, German Pfennig.
Whether this is a coincidence or not, is still not known. Mariner passed down the following statement of Fīnau ʻUlukālala: If money were made of iron and could be converted into knives and chisels there would be some sense in placing a value on it. If a man has more yams than he wants, let him exchange some of them away for pork. Money is much handier and more convenient but as it will not spoil by being kept, people will store it up instead of sharing it out as a chief ought to do, thus become selfish. I understand now well what it is that makes the papālangi so selfish – it is this money! The paʻanga was introduced on 3 April 1967, it replaced the pound at a rate of 1 pound. Until 11 February 1991, the pa'anga was pegged to the Australian dollar at par. Since that time, a basket of currencies is taken and the paʻanga has continuously declined; as in 2006, one needs about T$1.60 to get 1 Australian dollar. Official exchange rates are released daily by the National Reserve Bank, established 1 July 1989, but rather towards the end of the day than early in the morning.
In 1967, circulating coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 seniti and 1 and 2 paʻanga. The 1 and 2 seniti were struck in bronze with the other denominations in cupro-nickel; the 50 seniti, 1, 2 paʻanga were only struck in small numbers as these denominations were issued in note form. In 1974, dodecagonal 50 seniti were introduced but 50 seniti banknotes continued to be issued until 1983. In 1974, 1 seniti coins were struck in brass rather than bronze but reverted to bronze in 1975. In 1975, a new series of coins was issued, themed around FAO and food production and featuring a new portrait style effigy of the king; this was followed by another series of similar theme in 1981. 1 and 2 Pa'anga coins continued to be issued. Starting in 1978 the 1 Pa'anga coins were redesigned with an innovative, or at least unique rectangular shape while the 2 Pa'anga remained round and continued to be one of the world's largest circulating coins at the time, larger than standard "English crown sized" coins.
The reverses of both were changed annually to commemorate event. Seven sided Christmas themed pa'anga coins exist. However, due to the 2 Pa'anga coin's large size and weight and the awkward shape of the 1 pa'anga, they failed to compete against the 1 and 2 Pa'anga notes that were issued so production of these denominations ended in the 1980s due to low commercial demand. All 1 and 2 pa'anga coins still remain legal tender but are used. In 2002, nickel-plated steel replaced cupro-nickel in the 10, 20, 50 seniti and the 5 seniti in 2005; the change did not occur in the 5 seniti as there was still a reasonable quantity of coins in stock at the time of the change. The move was made to reduce costs in production of the coins; the weight of the coins was slightly reduced, although they remained the same approximate size as earlier dated coins. In 2011, commercial demand for 20 and 50 seniti prompted these denominations to be issued featuring the effigy of Tupou IV posthumous, who had died in 2006. A new obverse design for George Tupou V had not yet been made or selected at this time due to increased health concerns regarding the latter monarch, who died in March 2012.
For a brief period, some of the higher deno
Phytohaemagglutinin is a lectin found in plants certain legumes. PHA consists of two related proteins, called leucoagglutinin and PHA-E; the letters E and L indicate these proteins agglutinate leukocytes. Phytohaemagglutinin has carbohydrate-binding specificity for a complex oligosaccharide containing galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, it is found in the highest concentrations in uncooked red kidney beans and white kidney beans, it is found in lower quantities in many other types of green beans and other common beans, as well as broad beans such as fava beans. It is used in medical research. In high doses, it is a toxin; the lectin has a number of effects on cell metabolism. It agglutinates most mammalian red blood cell types; as a toxin, it can cause poisoning in monogastric animals, such as humans, through the consumption of raw or improperly prepared kidney beans. Measured in haemagglutinating units, a raw red kidney bean may contain up to 70,000 hau; this can be reduced to safe levels by correct cooking.
Insufficient cooking, such as in a slow cooker at 75 °C/ 167 °F, may not destroy the toxins. Beans contain alpha amylase inhibitor, but not in sufficient quantities to affect the digestion of starch after consumption of beans. Poisoning can be induced from as few as five raw beans, symptoms occur within three hours, beginning with nausea vomiting, which can be severe and sustained, followed by diarrhea. Recovery occurs within four or five hours of onset without the need for any medical intervention. In medicine these proteins are useful and are used as a mitogen to trigger T-lymphocyte cell division and to activate latent HIV-1 from human peripheral lymphocytes. In neuroscience, anterograde tracing is a research method that uses the protein product phytohaemagglutinin PHA-L as a molecular tracer that can be taken up by the cell and transported across the synapse into the next cell thereby tracing the path of axonal projections and relative connections that nerve impulses travel beginning with the source located at the perikaryon and through the presynaptic part located on neuron's efferent axon all the way to the point of termination at the efferent synapse which provides input to another neuron.
Lymphocytes cultured with phytohaemagglutinin can be used for karyotype analysis. Stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes by phytohaemagglutinin presents a classic model of transition of cells from the quiescent G0 phase of the cell cycle into G1-, subsequently progression through S-, G2- and M- phases of the cycle. PHA was discovered by Peter Nowell in the 1960s. Phytohemagglutinins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is a public funded agricultural university located at Hisar in the Indian state of Haryana. It is one of the biggest agricultural universities in Asia; the university has 8645 acres of land. It is named after Chaudhary Charan Singh, it was a satellite campus of Punjab Agricultural University at Hisar. It was established as a university by Haryana and Punjab Agricultural Universities Act, ratified 2 February 1970 and was named as Haryana Agricultural University. So it is considered as the first established university of state Haryana. On 31 October 1991, it was renamed as Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University. A. L. Fletcher was the first vice-chancellor of the university; the university publishes the largest number of research papers among agricultural universities in India. It won the Indian Council of Agricultural Research's Award for the Best Institute in 1997 and in 2017, it contributed to Green Revolution and White Revolution in India.
Golden Jubilee Year celebrations have started in the university from February 2, 2019 and will conclude on February 1, 2020. It is located about 5 km from the Guru Jambheshwar University of Technology; the main campus of CCS HAU has four gates, Gate No-1 near Mahabir Stadium, Gate No-2 and Gate No-3 behind Campus School and next to Giri Centre both on the MDR107 Balsamand road, Gate No-4 on NH52 Rajgarh road. According to the data maintained by the Government of India's Department of Statistics, the HAU's Department of Agronomy was established in 1930 and department of Entomology was founded in 1956 in Punjab Agricultural University. In February 1948, the Punjab College of Veterinary Sciences was opened at Railway Road Hisar in a rented building, shared with the Govt College Hisar from 1950 onward. In 1961, the Punjab College of Veterinary Sciences moved to the Government Livestock Farm, Hisar and it came under the Punjab Agricultural University as a satellite campus when PAU was established in 1962.
In 1962, the College of Agriculture was established. In 1964, the College of Basic Sciences and Humanities was established. In 1966, the College of Animal Sciences was established. In 1966, when Haryana was formed, it was declared as an autonomous institution. On 2 February 1970, it was ratified and established as a university by Haryana and Punjab Agricultural Universities Act, was named as Haryana Agricultural University, with A. L. Fletcher as its first Vice-Chancellor; the four constituent colleges of HAU located at Hisar, College of Agriculture, College of Basic Sciences, College of Animal Sciences and College of Veterinary Sciences became a part of Haryana Agricultural University. In 1971, A regional campus of the university was opened at Kaul in 1971. In 1972, the College of Sports and in 1973 the College of Home Science were established. In 1973, College of Home Sciences was added. On 31 October 1991, the HAU was renamed as Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University. In 1992, the College of Agricultural Engineering was established.
In 2010, College of Veterinary Sciences and College of Animal Sciences were separated from the university and became a part of the newly formed Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Board of Management is the main policy making body responsible for the management of the university; the Governor of Haryana is the Chancellor of the university and the Honorary Chairman of the Board of Management. The Vice-Chancellor is the working chairman of the board, is the principal executive and academic head of the university. Official members include the secretaries of agriculture and community development of the Government of Haryana. Non-official members are nominated by the Government of Haryana. Director of Agriculture and Director of Animal Husbandry of the Government of Haryana act as Technical Advisors whereas the Registrar is the Secretary of the Board; the Office of the Registrar is responsible for academics and faculty related affairs of the university. The Office of the Comptroller is responsible for finance, investment and expenditure related affairs of the university and Directorate of Students Welfare is responsible for housing and welfare of the students and for various non-academic activities.
The supreme academic authority is the Academic Council, chaired by the Vice-Chancellor. There are Board of Studies headed by one for each college in the university. There are some Non Statutory Committees to assist the general administration.== Campus Core ==This institutions autonomous bodies. The development plan of the University is based on the concept of a Central Campus Core around which academic buildings for various colleges and departments, residential and common facilities such as Faculty House and Club, Farmers' Hostel, Students' Hostel, Shopping Centre etc. are built. The buildings comprising the Core are Gandhi Bhawan, Nehru Library, Indira Gandhi Auditorium and the Administration Building, situated on three sides of great Plazza, the greater part of, four feet above ground level; the main campus of the University is situated at Hisar at a distance of162 km North-West of Delhi on National Highway No.10 and is 2 km from th
Haugesund Airport, Karmøy
Haugesund Airport, Karmøy is an international airport serving the Haugesund region in Norway. It is located on the Hauganes peninsula on the island of Karmøy in the municipality of Karmøy, Rogaland county, Norway; the airport features a 2,120-meter runway aligned 13/31. Scandinavian Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle provide services to Oslo. Haugesund Airport offers discounts on international routes and has some service from low-cost carriers; the airport handled 694,005 passengers in 2014. The airport opened on 8 April 1975. In addition to SAS flights to the capital, the airport has variously seen services by Nordsjøfly, Braathens SAFE, Busy Bee, Coast Aero Center, Coast Air Norwegian and SAS Commuter to smaller domestic destinations. A new international terminal opened in 1989. Except occasional routes to Aberdeen, regular international flights commenced in 1998. Ryanair started services in 2003. Two water aerodromes served Haugesund before the opening of the airport at Helganes. Haugesund Naval Air Station was in use by the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service from 1918 to 1919.
Haugesund Airport, Storesundsskjær was taken into use in 1936 and served various coastal seaplane services operated by Widerøe, Norwegian Air Lines and West Norway Airlines until its closing in 1956. The opening of Bergen Airport, Flesland in 1956 caused the coastal seaplane services to be terminated. Haugesund Municipality preemptively started working with plans for a land airport ahead of this. With Storesundsskjær closed, the townspeople had to travel to Stavanger Airport, Sola to catch an aircraft. A proposed feeder service was rejected and the municipal council instead asked that the state grants be used to help fund a land airport. An inter-municipal commission was established in 1954, which in November 1956 recommended that Utvik in Avaldsnes in today's Karmøy be selected as a site for a regional airport with a 600-meter runway; this led to Haugesund Municipality spending NOK 1.1 million in 1959 to buy a suitable lot there. The 1962 state commission led by Preben Munthe recommended in a 1965 white paper that Haugesund receive an airport.
It prioritized Haugesund second—after the completion of Harstad/Narvik Airport and Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget—and parallel with proposed airports in Leknes and Sandnessjøen. This led to a new debate about the location of an airport for Haugesund; the main concern with Utvik was. Twenty-three other locations were considered by a local commission, including sites in Sveio, Tysvær and southern Karmøy, they found Sør-Karmøyheia to be the most suitable. The Civil Aviation Administration considered those places and looked into Kongsheiene; these sites limited the runway length to 1,600 meters, respectively. Karmøy Municipal Council rejected the Utvik alternative in May 1966 of concern to farmland. At this time Helganes was launched as a proposal by its land-owner; this proposal was followed up and chosen by the authorities. Parliament approved the airport on 2 June 1972. Prior to this the inter-municipal commission had bought the land and built water and sewer lines to the site, costing NOK 20 million.
Construction took thirteen months, costing 65 million kr.. The small lake Tyviktjønn was drained in the process, the airport received a runway measuring 1,720 by 45 meters; the first landing was a Convair Metropolitan on 22 November 1974 operated by the CAA to test the navigational aids. The official opening took place on 8 April 1975; the route concessions were split between Scandinavian Airlines System and Braathens SAFE. The former was allowed to fly the route to Oslo Airport, while the latter was permitted to fly to Bergen and Stavanger. Braathens chose to not operate this concession. Two airlines were established at the airport in 1975: Nordsjøfly; these both started various air taxi services. Haugaland Flyklubb was established as an aviation club. Nordsjøfly commenced a services between Stavanger and Bergen in 1976, they flew three times daily to Bergen and twice daily to Stavanger, while SAS flew twice daily to Oslo. From 1979 this increased to three daily flights. In the first years the opening hours were a contended issue as the airport was closed in the middle of the day and late evenings.
From 27 December 1976 a third shift was introduced increasing the airport's operational hours. The general aviation and helicopter operator Fonnafly established an office at the airport the following year; the airport opened with an instrument landing system. This was changed in 1978, when a localizer from runway 31 was installed. There was a political discussion about Helilift establishing an offshore helicopter terminal at Haugesund Airport, to compete with Helikopter Service which at the time was operating out of Stavanger Airport, Forus. However, the government found. By 1981 all the airlines at the airport were losing money; the third departure to Oslo did not generate sufficient patronage, after threatening to terminate the extra flight, SAS introduced a surcharge on all Haugesund tickets to covers its NOK 3 million per year deficit on the route. Nordsjøfly was struggling, was bought by Norving in 1981, it made an interlining agreement with KLM which allowed passengers to fly from Haugesund via Stavanger to Amsterdam for the same prices as from Stavanger.
Similar agreements were soon struck with other international airlines operating out of Stavanger. After only being allowed to carry a maximu
In Māori mythology, Tāwhirimātea is the god of weather, including thunder and lightning, wind and storms. He is a son of Ranginui. In his anger at his brothers for separating their parents, Tāwhirimātea destroyed the forests of Tāne, drove Tangaroa and his progeny into the sea, pursued Rongo and Haumia-tiketike till they had to take refuge in the bosom of their mother Papa, only found in Tūmatauenga a worthy opponent and eternal enemy. To fight his brothers, Tāwhirimātea gathered an army of his children and clouds of different kinds - including Apū-hau, Apū-matangi, Ao-nui, Ao-roa, Ao-pōuri, Ao-pōtango, Ao-whētuma, Ao-whekere, Ao-kāhiwahiwa, Ao-kānapanapa, Ao-pākinakina, Ao-pakarea, Ao-tākawe. Grey translates these as'fierce squalls, dense clouds, massy clouds, dark clouds, gloomy thick clouds, fiery clouds, clouds which preceded hurricanes, clouds of fiery black, clouds reflecting glowing red light, clouds wildly drifting from all quarters and wildly bursting, clouds of thunder storms, clouds hurriedly flying on'.
Other children of Tāwhirimātea are the various kinds of rain and fog. Tāwhirimātea's attacks on his brothers led to the flooding of large areas of the land; the names of the beings involved in this flooding include Ua-nui, Ua-roa, Ua-whatu, Ua-nganga. Tregear mentions Hau-maringiringi as a personification of mists. Tāwhirimātea live on the sky with his father Rangi and star Rehua. Eons ago, the Sky Father and Papa, the Earth Mother, were in an eternal embrace because of their love for each other, their union gave rise to many powerful sons. As their sons grew up, they soon began to grow tired of living in a cramped up space, forever in darkness. One brother, Tūmatūenga, the God of War and Humans, suggested. However, his brother, Tāne, the God of Forests, suggested. Except for Tāwhirimātea, all other brothers accepted the proposal; the brothers individually tried to separate their parents, but Tāne put his head on the earth and feet in the sky and pushed them apart. Tāwhirimātea was enraged. So the god communed with his father.
Rangi reluctantly agreed to help his son wage a brutal war on his siblings. Rangi and Tāwhirimātea together had many children, they were the spirits of winds and rain. Tāwhirimātea set out to conquer his brothers. Tāwhirimātea first attacked Tāne, razed his forests, causing Tāne to flee. Next Tāwhirimātea attacked his brother, the Sea God, he caused huge waves, spreading panic in Tangaroa. Tangaroa was himself helpless before Tāwhirimātea, as the sea was in such a chaotic rage, harming all living beings. Having never seen such chaos at sea, many of Tangaroa's children deserted their father and took shelter with Tāne. Since Tangaroa is at war with Tāne. Tāwhirimātea pursued his brother and Haumia, the gods of cultivated and uncultivated food, but they were cleverly hidden by their mother, who still loved her children. Tāwhirimātea began to fight Tumatuenga; this time, Tumatuenga embedded his feet in earth, saving him from Tāwhirimātea's storms. He cast spells, but neither brother could prevail against each other.
Tāwhirimātea withdrew. To punish his brothers for cowardice, Tumatuenga invented the arts of hunting, agriculture and fishing, to subjugate their respective denizens as food for humans; however and Tawhirimatea still fight each other to this day. Another result of the war was that, most of the land was submerged into the ocean, because of Tāwhirimātea causing heavy rains and thunderstorms. G. Grey, Polynesian Mythology, Illustrated edition, reprinted 1976. 1956. G. Grey, Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna, fourth edition. First published 1854. 1971. E. R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891. Tāwhirimātea – the weather in Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand