SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Haumea

Haumea is an IAU-recognized dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit. It was discovered in 2004 by a team headed by Mike Brown of Caltech at the Palomar Observatory in the United States and independently in 2005, by a team headed by José Luis Ortiz Moreno at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain, though the latter claim has been contested. On September 17, 2008, it was named after Haumea, the Hawaiian goddess of childbirth, under the expectation by the International Astronomical Union that it would prove to be a dwarf planet. Haumea's mass is about one-third that of Pluto, 1/1400 that of Earth. Although its shape has not been directly observed, calculations from its light curve indicate that it is a Jacobi ellipsoid, with its major axis twice as long as its minor, its gravity was until thought to be sufficient for it to have relaxed into hydrostatic equilibrium. Haumea's elongated shape together with its rapid rotation and high albedo, are thought to be the consequences of a giant collision, which left Haumea the largest member of a collisional family that includes several large trans-Neptunian objects and Haumea's two known moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka.

Haumea is the third-largest known trans-Neptunian object, after Eris and Pluto. Two teams claim credit for the discovery of Haumea. Mike Brown and his team at Caltech discovered Haumea in December 28, 2004 on images they had taken on May 6, 2004. On July 20, 2005, they published an online abstract of a report intended to announce the discovery at a conference in September 2005. At around this time, José Luis Ortiz Moreno and his team at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía at Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain found Haumea on images taken on March 7–10, 2003. Ortiz emailed the Minor Planet Center with their discovery on the night of July 27, 2005. Brown conceded discovery credit to Ortiz, but came to suspect the Spanish team of fraud upon learning that his observation logs were accessed from the Spanish observatory the day before the discovery announcement; these logs included enough information to allow the Ortiz team to precover Haumea in their 2003 images, they were accessed again just before Ortiz scheduled telescope time to obtain confirmation images for a second announcement to the MPC on July 29.

Ortiz admitted he had accessed the Caltech observation logs but denied any wrongdoing, stating he was verifying whether they had discovered a new object. Precovery images of Haumea have been identified back to March 22, 1955. IAU protocol is that discovery credit for a minor planet goes to whoever first submits a report to the MPC with enough positional data for a decent determination of its orbit, that the credited discoverer has priority in choosing a name. However, the IAU announcement on September 17, 2008, that Haumea had been named by dual committee established for bodies expected to be dwarf planets, did not mention a discoverer; the location of discovery was listed as the Sierra Nevada Observatory of the Spanish team, but the chosen name, was the Caltech proposal. Until it was given a permanent name, the Caltech discovery team used the nickname "Santa" among themselves, because they had discovered Haumea on December 28, 2004, just after Christmas; the Spanish team were the first to file a claim for discovery to the Minor Planet Center, in July 2005.

On July 29, 2005, Haumea was given the provisional designation 2003 EL61, based on the date of the Spanish discovery image. On September 7, 2006, it was numbered and admitted into the official minor planet catalogue as 2003 EL61. Following guidelines established at the time by the IAU that classical Kuiper belt objects be given names of mythological beings associated with creation, in September 2006 the Caltech team submitted formal names from Hawaiian mythology to the IAU for both 2003 EL61 and its moons, in order "to pay homage to the place where the satellites were discovered"; the names were proposed by David Rabinowitz of the Caltech team. Haumea is the matron goddess of the island of Hawaiʻi. In addition, she is identified with Papa, the goddess of the earth and wife of Wākea, which, at the time, seemed appropriate because Haumea was thought to be composed entirely of solid rock, without the thick ice mantle over a small rocky core typical of other known Kuiper belt objects. Lastly, Haumea is the goddess of fertility and childbirth, with many children who sprang from different parts of her body.

The two known moons believed to have formed in this manner, are thus named after two of Haumea's daughters, Hiʻiaka and Nāmaka. The proposal by the Ortiz team, did not meet IAU naming requirements, because the names of chthonic deities were reserved for stably resonant trans-Neptunian objects such as plutinos that resonate 3:2 with Neptune, whereas Haumea was in an intermittent 7:12 resonance and so by some definitions was not a resonant body; the naming criteria would be clarified in late 2019, when the IAU decided that chthonic figures were to be used for plutinos. Haumea has an orbital period of 284 Earth years, a perihelion of 35 AU, an orbital inclination of 28°, it passed aphelion in early 1992, is more than 50 AU from the Sun. Haumea's orbit has a greater eccentricity than that of the other members of its collisional family; this is thought to be due to Haumea's weak 7:12 orbita

LDS-1 (Line Drawing System-1)

LDS-1 was a calligraphic display processor and display device created by Evans & Sutherland. This was the first graphics device with a graphics processing unit, it was controlled by a variety of host computers. Straight lines were smoothly rendered in real-time animation. General principles of operation were similar to the systems used today: 4x4 transformation matrices, 1x4 vertices. Possible uses included scientific imaging and GIS systems; the first LDS-1 was shipped to the customer in August 1969. Only a few of these systems were built. One was used by the Los Angeles Times as their first typesetting/layout computer. One went to NASA Ames Research Center for Human Factors Research. Another was bought by the Port Authority of New York to develop a tugboat pilot trainer for navigation in the harbor; the MIT Dynamic Modeling had one, there was a program for viewing an ongoing game of Maze War. Case Western Reserve University#Computing, where Project Logos had an LDS-1. LDS-1 documentation

St. Wenceslaus Catholic Church and Parish House

St. Wenceslaus Parish is a Catholic parish of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sioux Falls in Tabor, South Dakota in the Midwestern United States, its historic red brick church, built in 1898, was listed as St. Wenceslaus Catholic Church and Parish House on the National Register of Historic Places on December 13, 1984, as part of a "Thematic Nomination of Czech Folk Architecture of Southeastern South Dakota". Czech immigrants from Bohemia started arriving in the area part of the Dakota Territory, in 1868, church services were being held by 1871; the first church, of chalk rock, built with donated labor, was completed in 1874. This structure outgrown, was replaced with the current red brick church in 1898, with the parish house in the similar style built in 1910; the church was built by contractor August Goetz. A brick schoolhouse and dormitory was built in 1903–4; the school moved to a new campus in 1960, but was closed in 1970. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bon Homme County, South Dakota