Haumea, minor-planet designation 136108 Haumea, is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptunes orbit. On September 17,2008, it was recognized as a planet by the International Astronomical Union and named after Haumea. Haumeas mass is about one-third that of Pluto, and 1/1400 that of Earth, although its shape has not been directly observed, calculations from its light curve indicate that it is a triaxial ellipsoid, with its major axis twice as long as its minor. Its gravity is thought to be sufficient for it to have relaxed into hydrostatic equilibrium, two teams claim credit for the discovery of Haumea. Mike Brown and his team at Caltech discovered Haumea in December 2004 on images they had taken on May 6,2004, on July 20,2005, they published an online abstract of a report intended to announce the discovery at a conference in September 2005. At around this time, José Luis Ortiz Moreno and his team at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía at Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain found Haumea on images taken on March 7–10,2003. Ortiz emailed the Minor Planet Center with their discovery on the night of July 27,2005, Ortiz later admitted he had accessed the Caltech observation logs but denied any wrongdoing, stating he was merely verifying whether they had discovered a new object. However, the IAU announcement on September 17,2008, that Haumea had been accepted as a dwarf planet, did not mention a discoverer. Until it was given a permanent name, the Caltech discovery team used the nickname Santa among themselves, because they had discovered Haumea on December 28,2004, the Spanish team were the first to file a claim for discovery to the Minor Planet Center, in July 2005. On July 29,2005, Haumea was given the provisional designation 2003 EL61, on September 7,2006, it was numbered and admitted into the official minor planet catalogue as 2003 EL61. The names were proposed by David Rabinowitz of the Caltech team, Haumea is the matron goddess of the island of Hawaiʻi, where the Mauna Kea Observatory is located. The two known moons, also believed to have formed in this manner, are named after two of Haumeas daughters, Hiʻiaka and Nāmaka. The proposal by the Ortiz team, Ataecina, did not meet IAU naming requirements, Haumea is a plutoid, a dwarf planet beyond Neptunes orbit. Haumea appears to have an ellipsoid shape resulting its rapid rotation complicated by tidal interactions with its moons. This contrasts with the simpler oblate shape typically assumed by less rapidly rotating astronomical bodies such as the Earth, in other words, Haumea is spinning so fast that if it spun much faster these bulges would distort into a dumbbell shape and split the planet in two. Haumea was initially listed as a classical Kuiper belt object in 2006 by the Minor Planet Center, the nominal trajectory suggests that it is in the weak 7,12 resonance with Neptune, because its perihelion distance of 35 AU is near the limit of stability with Neptune. There are precovery images of Haumea dating back to March 22,1955 from the Palomar Mountain Digitized Sky Survey, further observations of the orbit will be required to verify its dynamic status. Haumea has a period of 284 Earth years, a perihelion of 35 AU
Image: 2003 EL61 Haumea, with moons
Artist's conception of Haumea with its moons Hiʻiaka and Namaka. The moons are much more distant than depicted here.
Haumea's orbit outside of Neptune is similar to Makemake's. The positions are as of 1 January 2018.
A scale diagram of the size of Haumea, the ring, and 2 moons