Yoko Ono is a Japanese-American multimedia artist, singer and peace activist. Her work encompasses performance art, which she performs in both English and Japanese and filmmaking. Singer-songwriter John Lennon of the Beatles was her third husband. Ono grew up in Tokyo and spent several years in New York City, she studied at Gakushuin University, but withdrew from her course after two years and moved to New York in 1953 to live with her family. She spent some time at Sarah Lawrence College and became involved in New York City's downtown artists scene, which included the Fluxus group, she first met Lennon in 1966 at her own art exhibition in London, they became a couple in 1968 and wed the following year. With their performance Bed-Ins for Peace in Amsterdam and Montreal in 1969, Ono and Lennon famously used their honeymoon at the Hilton Amsterdam as a stage for public protests against the Vietnam War; the feminist themes of her music have influenced musicians as diverse as the B-52s and Meredith Monk.
She achieved commercial and critical acclaim in 1980 with the chart-topping album Double Fantasy, a collaboration with Lennon, released three weeks before his murder. Public appreciation of Ono's work has shifted over time and was helped by a retrospective at a Whitney Museum branch in 1989 and the 1992 release of the six-disc box set Onobox. Retrospectives of her artwork have been presented at the Japan Society in New York City in 2001, in Bielefeld and the UK in 2008, Bilbao, Spain, in 2013 and The Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 2015, she received a Golden Lion Award for lifetime achievement from the Venice Biennale in 2009 and the 2012 Oskar Kokoschka Prize, Austria's highest award for applied contemporary art. As Lennon's widow, Ono works to preserve his legacy, she funded Strawberry Fields in Manhattan's Central Park, the Imagine Peace Tower in Iceland, the John Lennon Museum in Saitama, Japan. She has made significant philanthropic contributions to the arts, peace and Japan disaster relief, other causes.
In 2012, Ono received the Dr. Rainer Hildebrandt Human Rights Award; the award is given annually in recognition of nonviolent commitment to human rights. Ono continued her social activism when she inaugurated a biennial $50,000 LennonOno Grant for Peace in 2002, she co-founded the group Artists Against Fracking in 2012. She has a daughter, Kyoko Chan Cox, from her marriage to Anthony Cox and a son, Sean Taro Ono Lennon, from her marriage to Lennon, she collaborates musically with Sean. Ono was born on February 18, 1933, in Tokyo, Japan, to Isoko Ono and Eisuke Ono, a wealthy banker and former classical pianist. Isoko's maternal grandfather Zenjiro Yasuda was an affiliate of the Yasuda clan and zaibatsu. Eisuke came from a long line of samurai warrior-scholars; the kanji translation of Yōko means "ocean child". Two weeks before Ono's birth, Eisuke was transferred to San Francisco by his employer, the Yokohama Specie Bank; the rest of the family followed soon with Ono meeting her father when she was two.
Her younger brother Keisuke was born in December 1936. Ono was enrolled in piano lessons from the age of 4. In 1937, the family was transferred back to Japan and Ono enrolled at Tokyo's elite Gakushuin, one of the most exclusive schools in Japan; the family moved to New York City in 1940. The next year, Eisuke was transferred from New York City to Hanoi, the family returned to Japan. Ono was enrolled in an exclusive Christian primary school run by the Mitsui family, she remained in Tokyo throughout World War II and the great fire-bombing of March 9, 1945, during which she was sheltered with other family members in a special bunker in Tokyo's Azabu district, away from the heavy bombing. Ono went to the Karuizawa mountain resort with members of her family. Starvation was rampant in the destruction. Ono said it was during this period in her life that she developed her "aggressive" attitude and understanding of "outsider" status. Other stories tell of her mother bringing a large number of goods with them to the countryside, where they were bartered for food.
In one anecdote, her mother traded a German-made sewing machine for 60 kilograms of rice to feed the family. During this time, Ono's father, in Hanoi, was believed to be in a prisoner of war camp in China. However, unbeknownst to them, he remained in the city. Ono told Amy Goodman of Democracy Now on October 16, 2007, that "He was in French Indochina, Vietnam actually.... in Saigon. He was in a concentration camp."By April 1946, Gakushuin was reopened and Ono re-enrolled. The school, located near the Tokyo Imperial Palace, had not been damaged by the war, Ono found herself a classmate of Prince Akihito, the future emperor of Japan, she graduated in 1951 and was accepted into the philosophy program of Gakushuin University as the first woman to enter the department. However, she left the school after two semesters. After the war ended in 1945, Ono remained in Japan when her family moved to the United States and settled in Scarsdale, New York, an affluent town 25 miles north of midtown Manhattan.
When Ono rejoined her family, she enrolled at nearby Sarah Lawrence College. Ono's parents approved of her college choice but she said that they disapproved of her lifestyle and chastised her for befriending people that they felt were beneath her. In spite of her parents' disapproval, Ono loved meeting artists
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Hamburger Bahnhof is the former terminus of the Hamburg-Berlin Railway in Berlin, Germany, on Invalidenstrasse in the Moabit district opposite the Charité hospital. Today it serves as a contemporary art museum, the Museum für Gegenwart, part of the Berlin National Gallery; the station was built to Friedrich Neuhaus's plans in 1846/47 as the starting point of the Berlin–Hamburg Railway. It is the only surviving terminus building in Berlin from the late neoclassical period and one of the oldest station buildings in Germany; the building has not been used as a station since 1884, when northbound long distance trains from Berlin began leaving from Lehrter Bahnhof, just 400 m to the southwest. On 14 December 1906, the former station became home to the new Royal Museum of Building and Transport, supervised by the Prussian State Railways, incorporated into the new all-German national railways Deutsche Reichsbahn in 1920; the term'royal' was dropped with the end of the Prussian monarchy in 1918. The museum attracted crowds and was twice extended with additional wings to the left and right of the main building in 1909–11 and 1914–16.
Hit by Allied bombing in 1944, the museum was closed. After the war, although located in what had become the British sector of Berlin, the museum remained under the supervision of the East German Reichsbahn, which—by agreement of all the Allies—operated the railways in all of Berlin in addition to East Germany; the Reichsbahn's East German management had no interest in reopening a museum now located in West Berlin, but only in the exhibits, which the Western Allies did not allow to be brought to the East. In 1984 the Reichsbahn transferred both the collection into Western hands; the collection included examples of industrial and technological developments of its time—many locomotives and rolling stock—and was thus a precursor of the Museum of Technology, which now displays many of the exhibits once shown in Hamburger Bahnhof. In 1987, the empty halls were used for temporary exhibitions. In the mid-1980s the Berlin entrepreneur Erich Marx offered his private collection of contemporary art to the city.
The Berlin Senate decided in 1987 to establish a museum of contemporary art in the former railway station. The Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation agreed to operate the museum as part of the National Gallery. A competition for the renovation of the station was announced by the Senate in 1989, was won by the architect Josef Paul Kleihues. Between 1990 and 1996, Kleihues refurbished the building, in November 1996 the museum was opened with an exhibition of works by Sigmar Polke; the Museum für Gegenwart exhibits contemporary art. Permanent loans from the Marx collection, including works by artists such as Joseph Beuys, Anselm Kiefer, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol, are on permanent display. An emphasis of the Nationalgalerie collection is art on video and film, including a collection of 1970s video art—a gift of Mike Steiner—and the Joseph Beuys media archives. Between 2004 and 2010, the Museum für Gegenwart exhibited parts of the Friedrich Christian Flick Collection, whose main focus is on the late 20th century.
The collection contains large-format works by Paul McCarthy, Jason Rhoades, Rodney Graham, Peter Fischli and David Weiss, Stan Douglas, including elaborate installations and complex filmic spaces. Due to its connection with the Flick family, the display gave rise to protests in 2004. Berlin State Museums Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation List of museums and galleries in Berlin Official website
Jitish Kallat is an Indian contemporary artist. He lives and works in Mumbai, India. Kallat's work includes painting, collage, sculpture and multimedia works, he was the artistic director of the second edition of the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, held in Kochi in 2014. Kallat is represented by Nature Morte, New Delhi, Chemould Prescott Road, Mumbai, ARNDT, Berlin and Galerie Daniel Templon in France and Belgium. Kallat sits on the Board of Trustees of the India Foundation for the Arts, he is married to artist Reena Saini Kallat. Jitish Kallat was born in 1974 in India. In 1996 he received his Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in painting from the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Mumbai. Having received his BFA in painting in 1996, Kallat had his debut solo exhibition titled "PTO" at Chemould Prescott Road, his large-format paintings and drawings had in them the themes that would recur throughout his work until today. With the self at the centre of an unfolding narrative, these paintings were connected to ideas of time, cycles of life, references to the celestial, familial ancestry.
It was only in the next three or four years that an image of the city, otherwise seen at the margins of his paintings, began to take centre stage. In those days Kallat referred to the city street as his university carrying within it pointers to the perennial themes of life that have remained a subtext to his work that have taken form in diverse media. "Other indigenous painters before him had flirted with international styles such as Pop and the mix and match of Postmodernism, but no one had turned the textures and surfaces of urban India into the fracture of painting quite so successfully," noted artist, co-director of Nature Morte, Peter Nagy in an essay titled "Jitish Kallat: 21st Century Boy". "Parts of Kallat's canvases appear as if they had been left outdoors during the monsoon season, other sections seem blistered and scorched by the unrelenting sun. The works appear much older than they are, aged as soon as they are born, not unlike all manner of objects and people through the subcontinent.
The distressed and tortured surfaces create a field in which to submerge images while the images themselves are processed and mutilated in a variety of ways. All of which combine to create works that both participate intimately with the artist's mise en scene and comment upon the unique idiosyncrasies of his home. Degradation, the destruction and retrieval of culture and history became Kallat's subjects through the astute handling of both subject matter and technique."Kallat’s work has developed in response to museum collections in the case of projects such as "Field Notes, " at the Dr Bhau Daji Lad Museum, for which he was shortlisted for The Skoda Prize in 2012, or "Circa," at the Ian Potter Museum in Melbourne. Both these projects had several of his recurring preoccupations find their form and structure in conversation with the museum viewed both as an infrastructure of signs but a field of stimuli and meaning. Works which begin with a private narrative or an autobiographical impulse might be materialized in a form where the self remains invisible within the space of the artwork and could be traced back by observing several bodies of work alongside each other.
The theme of time, for instance, could be rendered as date in works such as Public Notice 3, where two historical moments are overlaid like a palimpsest or in works such as Epilogue, every moon that his father saw in his lifetime becomes a labyrinth of fullness and emptiness with the image of the moon morphing with the form of a meal. Kallat is known for working with a variety of media, including painting, large-scale sculpture installations and video art, he employs a bold and vivid visual language that references both Asian and European artistic traditions, along with popular advertising imagery that fuels urban consumerism. Kallat exploits images and materials chanced upon around Mumbai's sprawling metropolis, affording his works an inherent spontaneity and a handcrafted aesthetic. For instance, in 2014 the artist unveiled a series of large-scale sculptures made out of resin that were inspired by the urban environment of Mumbai, he unites these various media through themes that endure within Kallat's work, such as the relationship between the individual and the masses.
He references those of Mumbai's other inhabitants. His work speaks of both the self and the collective, fluctuating between intimacy and monumentality, characterized by contrasting themes of pain and survival. Kallat's paintings address the problem of painting in an age dominated by mass media, writes art dealer and collector, Amrita Jhaveri, in A Guide to 101 Modern & Contemporary Indian Artists. "Using images from newspapers and magazines, advertising billboards and graffiti, his works are richly layered and replete with metaphor. Kallat has reinvented the painted surface to mimic the appearance of a television still or a computer monitor, complete with its surface striations and auras." Much of Kallat’s work has been based on his encounters with the multi-sensory environment of Bombay/Mumbai, as well as the economic and historical events that have contributed to its making, wrote art historian Chaitanya Sambrani. "His practice as painter has highlighted a concern he shares with the founders of Indian modernism in visual and literary art.
Kallat has couched his references to the “underdog” in a hyper-pop language in order to signal the ironies that attend the lives of migrant workers