Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Viola Township, Olmsted County, Minnesota
Viola Township is a township in Olmsted County, United States. The population was 555 at the 2000 census; the township includes the unincorporated community of Viola. Viola Township was organized in 1858, named after Viola, Wisconsin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.8 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 555 people, 199 households, 160 families residing in the township; the population density was 15.5 people per square mile. There were 208 housing units at an average density of 5.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.10% White, 0.18% African American, 0.36% Asian, 0.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.18% of the population. There were 199 households out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.9% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.1% were non-families. 16.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.17. In the township the population was spread out with 28.8% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.7 males. Of the 1,522 employed civilians reported in the 2000 census, 33.6% were in management-related occupations and 23.2% were in office and sales-related occupations. The median income for a household in the township was $54,250, the median income for a family was $57,500. Males had a median income of $34,250 versus $27,422 for females; the per capita income for the township was $21,587. About 3.5% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 21.8% of those age 65 or over. Gopher Count festival – June
Salem Township, Olmsted County, Minnesota
Salem Township is a township in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The population was 1,061 at the 2000 census; the township hall is located at the junction of County Road 25 and County Road 3 at the unincorporated community of Salem Corners. Salem Township was organized in 1858, named after Salem, Illinois. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.7 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,061 people, 399 households, 308 families residing in the township; the population density was 29.7 people per square mile. There were 409 housing units at an average density of 11.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.87% White, 0.28% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.19% of the population. There were 399 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.7% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.6% were non-families.
16.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 2.99. In the township the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 10.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.3 males. The median income for a household in the township was $54,107, the median income for a family was $61,875. Males had a median income of $37,917 versus $29,135 for females; the per capita income for the township was $28,340. About 2.3% of families and 2.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.0% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Eyota is a city in Olmsted County, United States. The population was 1,977 at the 2010 census. Eyota was platted in 1864; the name Eyota is derived from the Sioux Indian word iyotak, meaning "greatest" or "most". A post office has been in operation at Eyota since 1864; the city was incorporated in 1875. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.69 square miles, all of it land. The south branch of the Whitewater River passes through the northern edge of the city. U. S. Route 14 and Minnesota State Highway 42 are two of the main routes in the community. Interstate 90 is south of the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,977 people, 758 households, 542 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,169.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 790 housing units at an average density of 467.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 758 households of which 41.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.5% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the city was 34.4 years. 30.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.8% male and 50.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,644 people, 597 households, 456 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,058.4 people per square mile. There were 614 housing units at an average density of 395.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.36% White, 0.18% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population. There were 597 households out of which 44.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.5% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.7% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $47,500, the median income for a family was $53,036. Males had a median income of $36,548 versus $28,259 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,471. About 2.8% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
The city government consists of four council members. Mayoral terms are two years. Eyota is part of the Dover-Eyota School District. Donald T. Franke, Minnesota state legislator, was born in Eyota
Haverhill is a historic city in Essex County, United States. Haverhill is located 35 miles north of Boston on the New Hampshire border and about 17 miles from the Atlantic Ocean; the population was 60,879 at the 2010 census. Located on the Merrimack River, it began as a farming community of Puritans from Newbury Plantation; the land was purchased from the Pentuckets on November 15, 1642 for three pounds, ten shillings. Pentucket was renamed Haverhill and evolved into an important industrial center, beginning with sawmills and gristmills run by water power. In the 18th and 19th century, Haverhill developed woolen mills, tanneries and shipbuilding; the town was for many decades home to a significant shoe-making industry. By the end of 1913, one tenth of the shoes produced in the United States were made in Haverhill, because of this the town was known for a time as the "Queen Slipper City"; the city was known for the manufacture of hats. Haverhill has played a role in nearly every era of American history, from the initial colonial settlement, to the French and Indian Wars, the American Revolutionary and Civil wars.
The town was founded in 1640 by settlers from Newbury, was known as Pentucket, the Native American word for "place of the winding river". Settlers such as John Ward, Robert Clements, Tristram Coffin, Hugh Sheratt, William White, Thomas Davis aided in the purchase of land known by Indians as Pentuckett; the land was purchased from native Indian chiefs Passaquo and Saggahew and permission was granted by Passaconaway, chief of the Pennacooks. Settlers, Thomas Hale, Henry Palmer, Thomas Davis, James Davis and William White were its first selectman. First Court appointments. At the same court, it was John Osgood and Thomas Hale that were appointed to lay the way from Haverhill to Andover, it is said that these early settlers worshipped under a large oak tree, known as the "Worshipping Oak". The town was renamed for the town of Haverhill, England, in deference to the birthplace of the settlement's first pastor, Rev. John Ward; the original Haverhill settlement was located around the corner of Water Street and Mill Street, near the Linwood Cemetery and Burying Ground.
The home of the city's father, William White, still stands, although it was expanded and renovated in the 17th and 18th centuries. White's Corner was named for his family. Judge Nathaniel Saltonstall was chosen to preside over the Salem witch trials in the 17th century. Historians cite his reluctance to participate in the trials as one of the reasons that the witch hysteria did not take as deep a root in Haverhill as it did in the neighboring town of Andover, which had among the most victims of the trials. However, a number of women from Haverhill were accused of witchcraft, a few were found "guilty" by the Court of Oyer and Terminer. One of the initial group of settlers, Tristram Coffin, ran an inn. However, he grew disenchanted with the town's stance against his strong ales, in 1659 left Haverhill to become one of the founders of the settlement at Nantucket. Haverhill was for many years a frontier town, was subjected to Indian raids, which were sometimes accompanied by French colonial troops from New France, in which dozens of civilians were murdered.
During King William's War, Hannah Dustin became famous for killing and scalping her native captors, who were converts to Catholicism, after being captured in the Raid on Haverhill. The city has the distinction of featuring the first statue erected in honor of a woman in the United States. In the late 19th century, it was Woolen Mill Tycoon Ezekiel J. M. Hale that commissioned a statue in her memory in Grand Army Republic Park; the statue depicts Dustin brandishing an axe and several Abenaki scalps. Her captivity narrative and subsequent escape and revenge upon her captors caught the attention of Cotton Mather, who wrote about her, she demanded from the colonial leaders the reward per Indian scalp. In recent years some have criticized Hannah Dustin since the Native American Indians she killed and scalped in order to escape were not her original captors and among the people she killed were young children. However, the Indians killed were holding her and others captive, Hannah and the others still might have been killed.
These Indians were allies of the Indians who murdered dozens of Dustin's neighbors and who killed Dustin's newborn by bashing the baby's head against a tree. Such criticisms of Hannah neglect to take into account the mortal danger these children posed, since not only might they be able to overpower the escapees, they could spread the word of the escape and monitor the escapee's movements, which would result in the certain deaths of the escaping women. In 1708, during Queen Anne's War, the town about thirty homes, was raided by a party of French and Abenaki Indians. Like most towns, Haverhill has been struck by several epidemics. Diphtheria killed 256 children in Haverhill between November 17, 1735 and December 31, 1737. George Washingto
Rochester is a city founded in 1854 in the U. S. State of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County located on the Zumbro River's south fork in Southeast Minnesota, it is Minnesota's third-largest city and the largest city located outside the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of 2015, the Rochester metropolitan area has a population of 215,884. According to the 2010 United States Census the city has a population of 106,769; the U. S. Census Bureau estimated that the 2017 population was 115,733, it is the home of the Mayo Clinic and an IBM facility one of the company's largest. The city has long been rated as one of the best places to live in the United States by multiple publications such as Money; the area developed as a stagecoach stop between Saint Paul and Dubuque, Iowa near the Zumbro River. The community was founded by George Head and his wife Henrietta who built log cabin Head's Tavern in 1854 and named the city after his hometown of Rochester, New York; when the Winona and St Peter Railroad initiated service in October 1864, it brought new residents and business opportunities further spurring growth and expansion.
In 1863, Dr. William W. Mayo arrived as the examining surgeon for Union draftees in the Civil War. Rochester celebrated its sesquicentennial in 2004. On August 21, 1883, the Great Tornado demolished much of Rochester, leaving 37 dead and 200 injured; as there was no medical facility in the immediate area at the time, Dr. Mayo and his two sons worked together to care for the wounded. Donations of US$60,000 were collected and the Sisters of St. Francis, assisted by Mayo, opened a new facility named St. Marys Hospital in 1889; the Mayo practice grew and is today among the largest and most well-respected medical facilities in the world. Many notable people from around the world, including former Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, George H. W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, have visited Rochester as patients of the Mayo Clinic. Rochester has been hit by two F4 tornadoes since 1950. Rochester lies alongside the South Fork of the Zumbro River, 57.6 miles long and is ringed by gentle hills and surrounded by farmland within a deciduous forest biome.
The Zumbro Watershed flows through 1,422 square miles of urban lands. Located in southeast Minnesota, the City of Rochester falls within the Driftless Area: the only region in North America, never glaciated and contains deeply-carved river valleys; the rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.75 square miles, of which 54.59 square miles of it is land and 0.16 square miles is water. The city is located 85 miles southeast of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Rochester is in one of only four counties in Minnesota without a natural lake. Artificial lakes exist in the area, including Silver Lake, a dammed portion of the South Fork Zumbro River just below the convergence with Silver Creek near the city center. Silver Lake was once used as a cooling pond when the coal-burning power plant was operated by Rochester Public Utilities at the lake.
When operational, the RPU coal plant's heated water output prevented the lake from freezing over during the winter months. Rochester has an extensive parks system, the largest of which are Silver Lake and Soldiers Field in the central part of the city. A major flood in 1978 led the city to embark on an expensive and successful flood-control project that involved altering many nearby rivers and streams; the Zumbro river flowing through the center of the city is presently being readdressed for increased development and use as part of city planning in conjunction with funding from the Destination Medical Center project. Rochester features a humid continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters; the city features four distinct seasons. Rochester sees on 48 inches of snowfall per year. Significant snow accumulation is common during the winter months. Spring and fall are transitional seasons, with a general warming trend during the spring and a general cooling trend during the fall. However, it is not uncommon to see some snowfall during the early months of spring and the months of fall.
Rochester is the second windiest city in the United States, with wind speeds averaging 12.6 mph. January to April are the windiest months on average, according to The Weather Channel; as of the census of 2010, there were 106,769 people, 43,025 households, 26,853 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,955.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 45,683 housing units at an average density of 836.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.0% White, 6.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 6.8% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, the 2005–2007 American Community Survey found German Americans to be the largest single ethnic group in Rochester, making up 35.5% of the city's population. Norwegian Americans made up 15.9%, while Irish Americans contributed to 11.6% of the city's populace. English Americans made up 8.2% of the populatio