Saints Cyril and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries. Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they received the title "Apostles to the Slavs", they are credited with devising the Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet used to transcribe Old Church Slavonic. After their deaths, their pupils continued their missionary work among other Slavs. Both brothers are venerated in the Orthodox Church as saints with the title of "equal-to-apostles". In 1880, Pope Leo XIII introduced their feast into the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1980, Pope John Paul II declared them co-patron saints of Europe, together with Benedict of Nursia; the two brothers were born in Thessalonica, in present-day Greece – Cyril in about 827–828 and Methodius about 815–820. Cyril was reputedly the youngest of seven brothers. Methodius was born Michael and was given the name Methodius upon becoming a monk at Mysian Olympus, in northwest Turkey.
Their father was Leo, a droungarios of the Byzantine theme of Thessalonica, their mother was Maria. The exact ethnic origins of the brothers are unknown, there is controversy as to whether Cyril and Methodius were of Slavic or Byzantine Greek origin, or both; the two brothers lost their father when Cyril was fourteen, the powerful minister Theoktistos, logothetes tou dromou, one of the chief ministers of the Empire, became their protector. He was responsible, along with the regent Bardas, for initiating a far-reaching educational program within the Empire which culminated in the establishment of the University of Magnaura, where Cyril was to teach. Cyril was ordained as priest some time after his education, while his brother Methodius remained a deacon until 867/868. About the year 860, Byzantine Emperor Michael III and the Patriarch of Constantinople Photius, sent Cyril on a missionary expedition to the Khazars who had requested a scholar be sent to them who could converse with both Jews and Saracens.
It has been claimed that Methodius accompanied Cyril on the mission to the Khazars, but this may be a invention. The account of his life presented in the Latin "Legenda" claims that he learned the Khazar language while in Chersonesos, in Taurica. After his return to Constantinople, Cyril assumed the role of professor of philosophy at the University while his brother had by this time become a significant player in Byzantine political and administrative affairs, an abbot of his monastery. In 862, the brothers began the work; that year Prince Rastislav of Great Moravia requested that Emperor Michael III and the Patriarch Photius send missionaries to evangelize his Slavic subjects. His motives in doing so were more political than religious. Rastislav had become king with the support of the Frankish ruler Louis the German, but subsequently sought to assert his independence from the Franks, it is a common misconception that Cyril and Methodius were the first to bring Christianity to Moravia, but the letter from Rastislav to Michael III states that Rastislav's people "had rejected paganism and adhere to the Christian law."
Rastislav is said to have expelled missionaries of the Roman Church and instead turned to Constantinople for ecclesiastical assistance and a degree of political support. The Emperor chose to send Cyril, accompanied by his brother Methodius; the request provided a convenient opportunity to expand Byzantine influence. Their first work seems to have been the training of assistants. In 863, they began the task of translating the Bible into the language now known as Old Church Slavonic and travelled to Great Moravia to promote it, they enjoyed considerable success in this endeavour. However, they came into conflict with German ecclesiastics who opposed their efforts to create a Slavic liturgy. For the purpose of this mission, they devised the Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet to be used for Slavonic manuscripts; the Glagolitic alphabet was suited to match the specific features of the Slavic language. Its descendant script, the Cyrillic, is still used by many languages today; the missionaries to the East and South Slavs had great success in part because they used the people's native language rather than Latin or Greek.
In Great Moravia and Methodius encountered Frankish missionaries from Germany, representing the western or Latin branch of the Church, more representing the Holy Roman Empire as founded by Charlemagne, committed to linguistic, cultural uniformity. They insisted on the use of the Latin liturgy, they regarded Moravia and the Slavic peoples as part of their rightful mission field; when friction developed, the brothers, unwilling to be a cause of dissension among Christians, travelled to Rome to see the Pope, seeking an agreement that would avoid quarrelling between missionaries in the field. Pope Adrian II gave Methodius the title of Archbishop of Sirmium and sent him back in 869, with jurisdiction over all of Moravia and Pannonia, authorisation to use the Slavonic Liturgy. Soon, Prince Ratislav, who had invited the brothers to Moravia and his successor did not support Methodius. In 870 the Frankish king Louis and his bishops deposed Methodius at a synod at Ratisbon, imprisoned him for a little over two years.
Old East Slavic
Common Eastern Slavic, Common Russian or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'. Dialects of it were spoken, though not in the area today occupied by Belarus and northern Ukraine, parts of western Russia, it is descended from Proto-Slavic. The most neutral, supranational terms for Old East Slavic can be translated to English as "Old Russian"; the term "Rusian", with one "s", is used by western scholars such as Horace Lunt. However, because many linguists from Belarus and Ukraine tend to discuss Old East Slavic only in the sense of it being a direct predecessor of their own language, they give it names such as: "Old Belarusian language", "Old Russian language", or "Old Ukrainian language" or "Old Kievan language"; the language was a descendant of the Proto-Slavic language and faithfully retained many of its features. A striking innovation in the evolution of this language was the development of so-called pleophony, which came to differentiate the newly evolving East Slavic from other Slavic dialects.
For instance, Common Slavic *gordъ'settlement, town' was reflected as OESl. gorodъ, Common Slavic *melko'milk' > OESl. moloko, Common Slavic *korva'cow' > OESl korova. Other Slavic dialects are differed by resolving the closed-syllable clusters *eRC and *aRC as liquid metathesis, or by no change at all. Since extant written records of the language are sparse, it is difficult to assess the level of its unity. In consideration of the number of tribes and clans that constituted Kievan Rus, it is probable that there were many dialects of Old East Slavonic. Therefore, today we may speak definitively only of the languages of surviving manuscripts, according to some interpretations, show regional divergence from the beginning of the historical records. Nonetheless, by 1150 it had more unity than any other branch of Slavic, showing the fewest local variations. With time, it evolved into several more diversified forms, which were the predecessors of the modern Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian languages.
The Ukrainian branch split away first, between 1200 and 1500, whereas Russian separated from Belarusian by 1700. Each of these languages preserves much of vocabulary; when after the end of the'Tatar yoke' the territory of former Kievan Rus was divided between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the medieval Rus' principality Grand Principality of Moscow, two separate literary traditions emerged in these states, Ruthenian in the west and medieval Russian in the east. The political unification of the region into the state called Kievan Rus', from which modern Belarus and Ukraine trace their origins, occurred a century before the adoption of Christianity in 988 and the establishment of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and literary language; the Old Church Slavonic language was introduced. Documentation of the language of this period is scanty, making it difficult at best to determine the relationship between the literary language and its spoken dialects. There are references in Arab and Byzantine sources to pre-Christian Slavs in European Russia using some form of writing.
Despite some suggestive archaeological finds and a corroboration by the tenth-century monk Chernorizets Hrabar that ancient Slavs wrote in "strokes and incisions", the exact nature of this system is unknown. Although the Glagolitic alphabet was introduced, as witnessed by church inscriptions in Novgorod, it was soon superseded by the Cyrillic; the samples of birch-bark writing excavated in Novgorod have provided crucial information about the pure tenth-century vernacular in North-West Russia entirely free of Church Slavonic influence. It is known that borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the vernacular at this time, that the literary language in its turn began to be modified towards Eastern Slavic; the following excerpts illustrate two of the most famous literary monuments. NOTE:; the spelling of the original excerpt has been modernized. The translations are best attempts at being literal, not literary. C. 1110, from the Laurentian Codex, 1377: Early language. South Slavic features include времѧньнъıх "bygone".
Correct use of perfect and aorist: єсть пошла "is/has come", нача "began" Note the style of punctuation. Слово о пълку Игоревѣ. C. 1200, from the Pskov manuscript, fifteenth cent. Illustrates the sung epics, with typical use of metaphor and simile, it has been suggested that the phrase растекаться мыслью по древу, which has become proverbial in modern Russian with the meaning "to speak ornately, at length, excessively," is a misreading of an original мысію from "run like a squirrel/mouse on a tree".
Old Novgorod dialect
Old Novgorod dialect is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak to describe the dialect found in the Old East Slavic birch bark writings. Dating from the 11th to 15th centuries, the letters were excavated in its surroundings. For linguists, Old Novgorodian is of interest in that it has retained some archaic features which were lost in other Slavic dialects, such as the absence of second palatalization. Furthermore, letters provide unique evidence of the Slavic vernacular, as opposed to the Church Slavonic which dominated the written literature of the period. Most of the letters feature everyday business and personal correspondence, complaints, reminders etc; such widespread usage indicates a high level of literacy, including among children. Today, the study of Novgorodian birch bark letters is an established scholarly field in Russian historical linguistics, with far-ranging historical and archaeological implications for the study of the Russian Middle Ages; the first birch bark letter was found on July 1951 by Nina Fedorovna Akulova.
At least 1025 have been unearthed since. All of them were written with styluses of bronze and iron, never ink; the letters were preserved due to the swampy soil. Many letters are found buried amidst the layers under streets which were paved with logs; the short birch-bark texts are written in a peculiar Slavic vernacular, reflecting living speech, entirely free of the heavy Church Slavonic influence seen in the literary language of the period. Some of the observed linguistic features are not found in any other Slavic dialect, representing important Proto-Slavic archaisms. Zaliznyak differentiates the Old Novgorod features that were known before the discovery of the birch bark letters and those that have been ascertained after their study during the last few decades such as these: tsokanye secondary pleophony, e.g. мълъвити as opposed to мълвити retention of stem-final *x in Proto-Slavic *vьx- "all" whereas other Slavic languages have undergone the third progressive palatalization, e.g. вьхо lack of the Slavic second palatalization in root-final position, e.g. рукѣ, моги the change vl’ > l’, e.g. Яколь, Яковлев nominative singular masculine of o-stems -e, e.g. Иване, посаднике, хлѣбе genitive singular of а-stems in "soft" -ě, instead of the "hard" -y, e.g. бес кунѣ.
The same substitution is found in accusative plural of a-stems. Replacement of "hard" и by their "soft" counterparts in other non-nominal cases, such as the dual and plural of the imperative, nominative singular masculine of the present active participle, pronominal endings absence of palatalization of the stem with the new -ѣ and -и desinences, as in Old East Slavic nominative-accusative plural of а-stems in -ě, e.g. кобылѣ, сиротѣFeatures of the Old Novgorod dialect ascertained by the philological study in the last decades are: lack of the second palatalization in root-initial position, e.g. кѣл-, хѣр- a particular reflex of Proto-Slavic *TьRT, *TъRT clusters, yielding TьRьT, TъRъT. However, in some dialects these yielded TroT, TreT. West-Slavic-like reflex of *TоRT clusters, e.g. погродье versus погородие the change ml’ > n’, e.g. емлючи > енючи no merger of nominative and accusative singular of masculines regardless of animacy, e.g. Nom. sg. погосте: Acc. sg. на погостъ Proto-Slavic *kv, *gv clusters were retained instead of being transformed to cv, zv before front vowels as in other East Slavic dialectsOften the orthography is domestic, using ъ and о on the one hand and ь and е on the other synonymously.
The Novgorod material is divided by Zaliznyak into seven chronological groups: According to Zaliznyak, the Old Novgorod linguistic features, instead of being isolated deviations, represent a bundle of peculiar isoglosses. The deviations are more abundant in older birch bark letters than in the more recent finds; this fact indicates, contrary to what may be expected, that the development was convergent rather than divergent, with regard to other northern East Slavic dialects. According to Zaliznyak, the discovery of Old Novgorod dialect suggests that earlier conceptions which held East Slavic as a homogeneous linguistic grouping, have been dispelled by a view advancing it instead as an area of much greater dialectal diversity. Zaliznyak divides the East Slavic area into two dialectal groupings: Proto-Novgorodian-Pskovian on one side, singled out chiefly on the basis of two instances lacking second palatalization of velars and the ending -e in nominative singular of masculine o-stems, all the remaining East Slavic dialects on the other.
Original text: грамота ѡтъ жизномира къ микоуле коупилъ еси робоу плъскове а ныне мѧ въ томъ ѧла кънѧгыни а ныне сѧ дроужина по мѧ пороучила а ныне ка посъли къ томоу моужеви грамотоу е ли оу него роба а се ти хочоу коне коупивъ и кънѧжъ моужъ въсадивъ та на съводы а ты атче еси не възалъ коунъ техъ а не емли ничъто же оу него Transliteration: gramota otŭ žiznomira kŭ mikule kupilŭ esi robu plŭskove a nyne mę vŭ tomŭ ęla kŭnęgyni a nyne sę družina po mę poručila a nyne ka posŭli kŭ tomu muževi gramotu e li u nego roba a se ti xoču kone kupivŭ i kŭnęžŭ mužŭ vŭcadivŭ ta na sŭvody a ty atče esi ne vŭzalŭ kunŭ texŭ a ne emli ničŭto že u nego Translation: Letter from Zhiznomir to Mikula: You have
The Glagolitic script is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saint Cyril, a Byzantine monk from Thessaloniki, he and his brother, Saint Methodius, were sent by the Byzantine Emperor Michael III in 863 to Great Moravia to spread Christianity among the West Slavs in the area. The brothers decided to translate liturgical books into the Old Slavic language, understandable to the general population, but as the words of that language could not be written by using either the Greek or Latin alphabets, Cyril decided to invent a new script, which he based on the local dialect of the Slavic tribes from the Byzantine theme of Thessalonica. After the deaths of Cyril and Methodius, the Glagolitic alphabet ceased to be used in Moravia, but their students continued to propagate it in the First Bulgarian Empire, where it was subsequently displaced by the Cyrillic alphabet; the Glagolitic alphabet was preserved only by the clergy of Croatia to write Church Slavonic until the early 19th century.
The name was not created until many centuries after the script's creation, comes from the Old Church Slavonic глаголъ glagol "utterance". The verb glagolati means "to speak", it has been conjectured that the name glagolitsa developed in Croatia around the 14th century and was derived from the word glagolity, applied to adherents of the liturgy in Slavonic. The creation of the characters is popularly attributed to Saints Cyril and Methodius, who may have created them to facilitate the introduction of Christianity, it is believed. The number of letters in the original Glagolitic alphabet is not known, but it may have been close to its presumed Greek model; the 41 letters known today include letters for non-Greek sounds, which may have been added by Saint Cyril, as well as ligatures added in the 12th century under the influence of Cyrillic, as Glagolitic lost its dominance. In centuries, the number of letters dropped to fewer than 30 in modern Croatian and Czech recensions of the Church Slavic language.
Twenty-four of the 41 original Glagolitic letters derive from graphemes of the medieval cursive Greek small alphabet but have been given an ornamental design. The source of the other consonantal letters is unknown. If they were added by Cyril, it is that they were taken from an alphabet used for Christian scripture, it is proposed that the letters sha Ⱎ, tsi Ⱌ, cherv Ⱍ were taken from the letters shin ש and tsadi צ of the Hebrew alphabet, that Ⰶ zhivete derives from Coptic janja Ϫ. However, Cubberley suggests that if a single prototype were presumed, the most source would be Armenian. Other proposals include the Samaritan alphabet, which Cyril learned during his journey to the Khazars in Cherson. Glagolitic letters were used as numbers to Cyrillic numerals. Unlike Cyrillic numerals, which inherited their numeric value from the corresponding Greek letter, Glagolitic letters were assigned values based on their native alphabetic order; the two monks canonized as Saints Cyril and Methodius, brothers from Thessaloniki, were sent to Great Moravia in 862 by the Byzantine emperor at the request of Prince Rastislav, who wanted to weaken the dependence of his country on East Frankish priests.
The Glagolitic alphabet, however it originated, was used between 863 and 885 for government and religious documents and books and at the Great Moravian Academy founded by the missionaries, where their followers were educated. The Kiev Missal, found in the 19th century in Jerusalem, was dated to the 10th century. In 886 an East Frankish bishop of Nitra named Wiching banned the script and jailed 200 followers of Methodius students of the original academy, they were dispersed or, according to some sources, sold as slaves by the Franks. Many of them, reached Bulgaria and were commissioned by Boris I of Bulgaria to teach and instruct the future clergy of the state in the Slavic languages. After the adoption of Christianity in Bulgaria in 865, religious ceremonies and Divine Liturgy were conducted in Greek by clergy sent from the Byzantine Empire, using the Byzantine rite. Fearing growing Byzantine influence and weakening of the state, Boris viewed the introduction of the Slavic alphabet and language into church use as a way to preserve the independence of the Bulgarian Empire from Byzantine Constantinople.
As a result of Boris' measures, two academies, one in Ohrid and one in Preslav, were founded. From there, the students spread the use of their alphabet; some went to Croatia, where the squared variant arose and where Glagolitic remained in use for a long time. In 1248, Pope Innocent IV granted the Croatians of southern Dalmatia the unique privilege of using their own language and this script in the Roman Rite liturgy. Formally granted to bishop Philip of Senj, permission to use the Glagolitic liturgy extended to all Croatian lands along the Adriatic coast; the Holy See had several Glagolitic missals published in Rome. Authorization for the use of this language was extended to some other Slavic regions between 1886 and 1935. In missals, the Glagolitic script was replaced with the Latin alphabet, but the use of the Slavic language in the Mass continued, until replaced by modern vernacular languages; some students of the Ohrid academy went to Bohemia where the alphabet was used in the 10th and 11th centuries, along with other scripts.
It is not clear whether the G
Slavonic-Serbian, Slavo-Serbian, or Slaveno-Serbian was a literary language used by the Serbs in the Habsburg Empire in what is now Vojvodina, from the mid-18th century to the first decades of the 19th century. It was a linguistic blend of Church Slavonic of the Russian recension, vernacular Serbian, Russian. At the beginning of the 18th century, the literary language of the Serbs was the Serbian recension of Church Slavonic, with centuries-old tradition. After the Great Serb Migration of 1690, many Serbs left Ottoman-held territories and settled in southern areas of the Kingdom of Hungary in the Habsburg Empire in what is now Vojvodina; the Serbian Orthodox Church in these areas was in need of liturgical books, the Serbian schools were in need of textbooks. The Habsburg court, did not allow the Serbs to establish their printing presses; the Serbian Church and schools received ample help in teachers from the Russian Empire. By the mid-18th century, Serbo-Slavonic had been replaced with Russo-Slavonic as the principal literary language of the Serbs.
Around that time, laymen became more numerous and notable than monks and priests among active Serbian writers. The secular writers wanted their works to be closer to the general Serbian readership, but at the same time, most of them regarded Church Slavonic as more prestigious and elevated than the popular Serbian language. Church Slavonic was identified with the Proto-Slavic language, its use in literature was seen as the continuation of an ancient tradition; the writers began blending Russo-Slavonic, vernacular Serbian, Russian, the resulting mixed language is called Slavonic-Serbian. The first printed work in Slavonic-Serbian appeared in 1768, written by Zaharije Orfelin. Before that, a German–Slavonic-Serbian dictionary was composed in the 1730s; the blended language became dominant in secular Serbian literature and publications during the 1780s and 1790s. At the beginning of the 19th century, it was attacked by Vuk Karadžić and his followers, whose reformatory efforts formed modern literary Serbian based on the popular language.
The last notable work in Slavonic-Serbian was published in 1825. Slavonic-Serbian was used in literary works, including prose and poetry, school textbooks and theological works, popular scientific and practical books, other kinds of publications. Various laws and proclamations by the Habsburg authorities were printed in Slavonic-Serbian, in which the first Serbian newspapers, Serbskija novini, appeared in 1791. Other periodicals include Slaveno-serbskij Magazin and Slaveno-serbskija vědomosti, as well as the Novine serbske iz carstvujuščega grada Vienne. A bidirectional German–Serbian dictionary, with around 20,000 headwords in each direction, was composed by adapting a German–Russian dictionary into Slavonic-Serbian. Slavonic-Serbian texts exhibit lexical, phonological and syntactical blending of Russo-Slavonic, vernacular Serbian, and, to a lesser degree, Russian. There are no definite rules determining, it depends on the writer's linguistic attitude and the subject he writes about. So, in an Italian grammar written by Vikentije Ljuština, objects of everyday use are referred to by their Serbian names, while Russo-Slavonic names are used for religious holidays.
During the short existence of Slavonic-Serbian, some forms became more or less standard, the share of vernacular Serbian elements grew in it. Some authors argue that the application of Russo-Slavonic and Russian elements in a given work was regulated by stylistic conventions. In an individual sentence, the word stems or affixes could be either predominantly Serbian, or predominantly Russo-Slavonic, or combined in any other ratio. A sentence in the newspapers Slaveno-serbskija vědomosti, written by Stefan Novaković, is an example of elements from both languages being used, regarding both stems and affixes: Albin, Alexander. "The Creation of the Slaveno-Serbski Literary Language". The Slavonic and East European Review. London: Modern Humanities Research Association – via JSTOR. 48. ISSN 0037-6795. JSTOR 4206278. Gudkov, Vladimir Pavlovich. Сербская лексикография XVIII века. Moscow: Philological Faculty of the Moscow State University. Ivanova, Najda. Славеносрпски језик између'простоте' и'совершенства'.
Južnoslovenski filolog. Belgrade: Institute for the Serbian Language of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. 66. Doi:10.2298/JFI1066255I. ISSN 0350-185X. Ivić, Pavle. Преглед историје српског језика. Целокупна дела Павла Ивића. 8. Novi Sad: Izdavačka knjižarnica Zorana Stojanovića. OCLC 500282371. Paxton, Roger V.. "Identity and Consciousness: Culture and Politics among the Habsburg Serbs in the Eighteenth Century". In Ivo Banac. Nation and Ideology: Essays in Honor of Wayne S. Vucinich. Boulder, Colorado: East European Monographs. ISBN 978-0914710899
Moravian dialects are the varieties of Czech spoken in Moravia, a historical region in the southeast of the Czech Republic. There are more forms of the Czech language used in Moravia than in the rest of the Czech Republic; the main four groups of dialects are the Bohemian-Moravian group, the Central Moravian group, the Eastern Moravian group and the Lach group. While the forms are viewed as regional variants of Czech, some Moravians claim them to be one separate Moravian language. Southeastern Moravian dialects form a dialect continuum with the related Slovak language, are thus sometimes viewed as dialects of Slovak rather than Czech; until the 19th century, the language used in Slavic-speaking areas of Moravia was referred to as “Moravian” or as “Czech”. When regular censuses started in Austria-Hungary in 1880, the choice of main-communication languages in the forms prescribed in Cisleithania did not include Czech language but included the single item Bohemian–Moravian–Slovak. Respondents who chose Bohemian–Moravian–Slovak as their main communicating language were counted in the Austrian censuses as Czechs.
On the occasion of 2011 Census of the Czech Republic, several Moravian organizations led a campaign to promote the Moravian nationality and language. The Czech Statistical Office assured the Moravané party that filling in “Moravian” as language would not be treated as ticking off “Czech”, because forms were processed by a computer and superseding Czech for Moravian was technically impossible. According to the results of the census, there was a total number of 108,469 native speakers of Moravian in 2011. Of them, 62,908 consider Moravian to be their only native language, 45,561 are native speakers of both Moravian and Czech. While the former regional dialects of Bohemia have merged into one interdialect, Common Czech, the territory of Moravia is still linguistically diversified; this may be due to absence of a single Moravian cultural and political centre for most of the history, as well as the fact that both of its major cities—Brno and Olomouc—used to be predominantly inhabited by a German-speaking population.
The most common classification distinguishes three major groups of Moravian dialects: Central Moravian, Eastern Moravian and Silesian. Some typical phonological differences between the Moravian dialects are shown below on the sentence ‘Put the flour from the mill in the cart’: Central Moravian dialects, or Hanakian dialects, are spoken in the central part of Moravia around Znojmo, Třebíč, Olomouc, Přerov, Zábřeh and Šumperk. While the Central Moravian group traditionally contained many dialects native to specific microregions, today's spoken language across Central Moravia is moving towards a unified "Common Hanakian dialect". Features of this group include A prevalence of the vowels e and é in place of i/y, í/ý, ej. O and ó in place of u and ou, respectively. By extension, the third person plural ending of verbs which would be -í in standard Czech, -ej or -ou in Common Czech, is -ijó, or sometimes just -ó in Central Moravian; the instrumental ending -í is replaced by -ó. The ending -a instead of -e for feminine nouns and possessive adjectives is retained, as in Slovak.
The verb “to be” has the 1st person singular present tense form su rather than jsem. In contrast to Common Czech, the -l on past tense verbs is always retained; the dialects spoken in and around Brno have seen a lot of lexical influence from Hantec slang, a jargon incorporating many German and Yiddish loanwords into the local Central Moravian dialect. Although by the 21st century the slang had declined in use, some vocabulary from Hantec is still used in everyday speech, for example šalina instead of tramvaj for “tram”, from German elektrischelinie; the Hanakian dialect has a literary presence. Writers who have written in Hanakian dialect include Alois and Vilém Mrštík, Ondřej Přikryl and Jakub Obrovský. Written Hanakian dialect distinguishes between "wide" or "open" ê and ô, "closed" e and o, to reflect dialects which pronounce these two sounds differently. Bêl jednó jeden člověk tôze chôdobné na sfětě. Narodil se mô chlapeček, ale nigdo nechtěl mô jiť za kmotra, že bêl tôze chôdobné. Otec si povidá: "tak sô chôdobné, že mně nihdo nechce poslóžeť v té věce.
Ptal jô za kmotřêčkô. Ona se nevêmlóvala a hneď ho přêvitala kmôcháčkem, vzala chlapca na rôkê a nesla ho do kostela. Chasnička pokřtilê jak se patři. Czech translation: Byl jednou na světě jeden velmi chudý člověk. Narodil se mu chlapeček, ale nikdo mu nechtěl jít za kmotra, protože byl velmi chudý. Otec si povídá: „Milý Bože, jsem tak chudý, že mi v té věci nikdo nechce posloužit.
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic known as Old Church Slavic or Old Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. It is referred to as Paleo-Slavic or Palaeo-Slavic, not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, it is abbreviated to OCS. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs, it is thought to have been based on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica. It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for Church Slavonic traditions, some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day; as the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
The language was standardized for the mission of the two apostles to Great Moravia. For that purpose and his brother Methodius started to translate religious literature to Old Church Slavonic based on the Slavic dialects spoken in the hinterland of their hometown, Thessaloniki, in today's Greece; as part of the preparation for the mission, in 862/863, the Glagolitic alphabet was created and the most important prayers and liturgical books, including the Aprakos Evangeliar, the Psalter, Acts of the Apostles, were translated. The language and the alphabet were taught at the Great Moravian Academy and were used for government and religious documents and books between 863 and 885; the texts written during this phase contain characteristics of the Slavic vernaculars in Great Moravia. In 885, the use of Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by Pope Stephen V in favour of Latin. Students of the two apostles, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the First Bulgarian Empire.
There it was taught at two literary schools: the Preslav Literary School and the Ohrid Literary School. The Glagolitic alphabet was used at both schools, though the Cyrillic script was developed early on at the Preslav Literary School where it superseded Glagolitic; the texts written during this era exhibit certain linguistic features of the vernaculars of the First Bulgarian Empire. Old Church Slavonic spread to other South-Eastern and Eastern European Slavic territories, most notably Croatia, Bohemia, Lesser Poland, principalities of the Kievan Rus' while retaining characteristically South Slavic linguistic features. Texts written in each of those territories began to take on characteristics of the local Slavic vernaculars and, by the mid-11th century, Old Church Slavonic had diversified into a number of regional varieties; these local varieties are collectively known as the Church Slavonic language. Apart from the Slavic countries, Old Church Slavonic has been used as a liturgical language by the Romanian Orthodox Church, as well as a literary and official language of the princedoms of Wallachia and Moldavia, before being replaced by Romanian during the 16th to 17th centuries.
Church Slavonic maintained a prestigious status in Russia, for many centuries – among Slavs in the East it had a status analogous to that of Latin in Western Europe, but had the advantage of being less divergent from the vernacular tongues of average parishioners. Some Orthodox churches, such as the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Orthodox Church and Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric, as well as several Eastern Catholic Churches, still use Church Slavonic in their services and chants today. Old Church Slavonic was written with the Glagolitic alphabet, but Glagolitic was replaced by Cyrillic, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire by a decree of Boris I of Bulgaria in the 9th century; the local Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet, known as Bosančica, was preserved in Bosnia and parts of Croatia, while a variant of the angular Glagolitic alphabet was preserved in Croatia. See Early Cyrillic alphabet for a detailed description of the script and information about the sounds it expressed.
For Old Church Slavonic, the following segments are reconstructible. A few sounds are given in Slavic transliterated form rather than in IPA, as the exact realisation is uncertain and differs depending on the area that a text originated from; the letter щ is not shown in the table. In Bulgaria, it represented the sequence /ʃt/, it is transliterated as št for that reason. Farther west and north, it was /c/ or /tɕ/ like in modern Macedonian and Serbian/Croatian. /dz/ appears in early texts, becoming /z/ on. The distinction between l, n and r, on one hand, palatal l', n' and r', on the other, is not always indicated in writing; when it is, it is shown by a palatization diacritic over the letter: л҄ н҄ р҄. Accent is not indicated in writing and must be inferred from languages and from reconstructions of Proto-Slavic; the pronunciation of yat differed by area. In Bulgaria it was a relatively