Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
Autodesk 3ds Max
Autodesk 3ds Max 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models and images. It is produced by Autodesk Media and Entertainment, it has modeling capabilities and a flexible plugin architecture and can be used on the Microsoft Windows platform. It is used by video game developers, many TV commercial studios and architectural visualization studios, it is used for movie effects and movie pre-visualization. For its modeling and animation tools, the latest version of 3ds Max features shaders, dynamic simulation, particle systems, normal map creation and rendering, global illumination, a customizable user interface, new icons, its own scripting language; the original 3D Studio product was created for the DOS platform by Gary Yost and the Yost Group, published by Autodesk. The release of 3D Studio made Autodesk's previous 3D rendering package AutoShade obsolete. After 3D Studio DOS Release 4, the product was rewritten for the Windows NT platform, renamed "3D Studio MAX".
This version was originally created by the Yost Group. It was released by Kinetix, at that time Autodesk's division of media and entertainment. Autodesk purchased the product at the second release update of the 3D Studio MAX version and internalized development over the next two releases; the product name was changed to "3ds max" to better comply with the naming conventions of Discreet, a Montreal-based software company which Autodesk had purchased. When it was re-released, the product was again branded with the Autodesk logo, the short name was again changed to "3ds Max", while the formal product name became the current "Autodesk 3ds Max". MAXScript MAXScript is a built-in scripting language that can be used to automate repetitive tasks, combine existing functionality in new ways, develop new tools and user interfaces, much more. Plugin modules can be created within MAXScript. Character Studio Character Studio was a plugin which since version 4 of Max is now integrated in 3D Studio Max; the system works using a character rig or "Biped" skeleton which has stock settings that can be modified and customized to fit the character meshes and animation needs.
This tool includes robust editing tools for IK/FK switching, Pose manipulation and Keyframing workflows, sharing of animation data across different Biped skeletons. These "Biped" objects have other useful features that help accelerate the production of walk cycles and movement paths, as well as secondary motion. Scene Explorer Scene Explorer, a tool that provides a hierarchical view of scene data and analysis, facilitates working with more complex scenes. Scene Explorer has the ability to sort and search a scene by any object type or property. Added in 3ds Max 2008, it was the first component to facilitate. NET managed code in 3ds Max outside of MAXScript. DWG import 3ds Max supports both linking of DWG files. Improved memory management in 3ds Max 2008 enables larger scenes to be imported with multiple objects. Texture assignment/editing 3ds Max offers operations for creative texture and planar mapping, including tiling, decals, rotate, blur, UV stretching, relaxation; the texture workflow includes the ability to combine an unlimited number of textures, a material/map browser with support for drag-and-drop assignment, hierarchies with thumbnails.
UV workflow features include Pelt mapping, which defines custom seams and enables users to unfold UVs according to those seams. General keyframing Two keying modes — set key and auto key — offer support for different keyframing workflows. Fast and intuitive controls for keyframing — including cut and paste — let the user create animations with ease. Animation trajectories may be edited directly in the viewport. Constrained animation Objects can be animated along curves with controls for alignment, velocity and looping, along surfaces with controls for alignment. Weight path-controlled animation between multiple curves, animate the weight. Objects can be constrained to animate with other objects in many ways — including look at, orientation in different coordinate spaces, linking at different points in time; these constraints support animated weighting between more than one target. All resulting constrained animation can be collapsed into standard keyframes for further editing. Skinning Either the Skin or Physique modifier may be used to achieve precise control of skeletal deformation, so the character deforms smoothly as joints are moved in the most challenging areas, such as shoulders.
Skin deformation can be controlled using direct vertex weights, volumes of vertices defined by envelopes, or both. Capabilities such as weight tables, paintable weights, saving and loading of weights offer easy editing and proximity-based transfer between models, providing the accuracy and flexibility needed for complicated characters; the rigid bind skinning option is useful for animating low-polygon models or as a diagnostic tool for regular skeleton animation. Additional modifiers, such as Skin Wrap and Skin Morph, can be used to drive meshes with other meshes and make targeted weighting adjustments in tricky areas. Skeletons and inverse kinematics Characters can be rigged with custom skeletons using 3ds Max bones, IK solvers, rigging tools powered by Motion Capture Data. All animation tools — including
Valve Corporation is an American video game developer and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. It is the developer of the software distribution platform Steam and the Half-Life, Counter-Strike, Day of Defeat, Team Fortress, Left 4 Dead, Dota 2 games. Valve was founded in 1996 by Mike Harrington, their debut product, the PC first-person shooter Half-Life, was released in 1998 to critical acclaim and commercial success, after which Harrington left the company. In 2003, Valve launched Steam, which accounted for around half of digital PC game sales by 2011. By 2012, Valve employed around 250 people and was worth over US$3 billion, making it the most profitable company per employee in the United States. In 2015, Valve entered the game hardware market with the Steam Machine, a line of third-party built gaming PCs running Valve's SteamOS operating system. Valve was founded by former longtime Microsoft employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington on August 24, 1996, as Valve, L.
L. C. based in Washington. Alternative names explored by Newell and Harrington include "Fruitfly Ensemble" and "Rhino Scar". Harrington left the company in 2000. In 2003, the company moved from its original location to Bellevue, re-incorporated as Valve Corporation. In 2010, the office was moved again to a larger location in Bellevue. In 2016, Valve signed a nine-floor lease in the Lincoln Square complex in downtown Bellevue, doubling the size of their offices. For its first product, Valve settled on a concept for a horror first-person shooter using a modified Quake engine licensed from id Software known as GoldSrc. Half-Life was released in November 1998, it was praised by numerous publications as one of the best and most influential games of all time. The Team Fortress Classic mod, a port of the original Team Fortress mod for Quake, was released for Half-Life in 1999. Gearbox Software created the expansion packs Opposing Force, Blue Shift, Decay, ported the game to PlayStation 2. A port to Dreamcast was canceled in 2001.
After the success of Half-Life, the team worked on mods, spin-offs, sequels, including Half-Life 2. All current Valve games are built on its Source engine; the company has developed six game series: Half-Life, Team Fortress, Counter-Strike, Left 4 Dead and Day of Defeat. Valve is noted for its support of its games' modding community, most prominently, Counter-Strike, Team Fortress, Day of Defeat. Valve has branched out with this tradition to continue developing Dota 2 as the standalone sequel to the Warcraft III mod; each of these games began as a third-party mod that Valve developed into a full game. They distribute community mods on Steam. Valve announced the Source 2 engine in March 2015 porting the entirety of Dota 2 to the engine in September of that year. Valve has grown both in commercial value. In January 2008, they announced the acquisition of Turtle Rock Studios, which would be renamed Valve South. Turtle Rock Studios spun out of Valve again in March 2010. In April 2010, the company won The Escapist Magazine's March Mayhem tournament for the best developer of 2010, beating out Zynga in the semi-finals and BioWare in the final.
In December 2012, Valve acquired Star Filled Studios, a two-man gaming company, to open a San Francisco office. However, Valve ended the operation in August 2013 when it was decided that there was little benefit coming from the arrangement. In April 2018, Valve acquired the independent developer Campo Santo, known for the 2016 adventure game Firewatch. Campo Santo will continue to develop its own titles under Valve. Valve's internal network has been infiltrated by hackers three times, in 2003 where content of the yet to be released Half-Life 2 was leaked onto the internet, Newell's email account was compromised, keyloggers were installed on several Valve systems. In 2011 the Steam customer databases and forums were compromised. In September 2011, a hacker broke into the network and downloaded the beta code of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3. In June 2014, a developer from SCS Software reported an exploit that allowed announcement pages to be injected with code, after no response, he edited an announcement to redirect users to a Harlem Shake video.
In March 2016, a vulnerability on the Steam Store allowed a user to publish a game without any authorization from Valve. Valve has developed and published the main games in both the Half-Life and Portal series, as well as published both and developed one of the Left 4 Dead games, the other of, developed by Valve South. Valve developed and published Team Fortress, Team Fortress 2, Dota 2, Artifact. Several of Valve's series feature only two primary games, such as Half-Life and Half-Life 2. With no apparent announcements of a third title in these series, Valve has acquired a joking reputation for being unable to count to 3. In the absence of an official announcement of a Half-Life 3, players and journalists have claimed to have found proof that a sequel remained under active development, many of which have been revealed as hoaxes or leaks of dubious authenticity. Unreleased and cancelled games include a fairy-themed role-playing game and Stars of Blood. Valve worked with Arkane Studios on The Crossing, canceled in May 2009.
Arkane tried to develop Return to Ravenholm without consent by Valve, canceled. Valve announced Steam, its digital distribution software platfor
Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system, produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. The operating system was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, with general availability on October 26, 2012. Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS. In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro" design language, the Start screen, a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services, Windows Store, an online store for downloading and purchasing new software. Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreen phishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.
Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was criticized for being confusing and difficult to learn when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs. On October 17, 2013, Microsoft released Windows 8.1. It addressed some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system. Windows 8 was succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015. Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for Windows 8 RTM on January 12, 2016, per Microsoft lifecycle policies regarding service packs, Windows 8.1 must be installed to maintain support and receive further updates.
Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store. Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011, it was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work.
However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy was Enterprise edition; the OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011; the traditional Blue Screen of Death was replaced by a new black screen, although this was scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version was leaked on May 1, 2011; the "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked, it introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, scrapped, the circling dots as featured in the final. It had the text Welcome below them, although this was scrapped. On June 1, 2011, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California; the "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, 2011, featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.
Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011. Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows Developer Preview at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was distributed to conference attendees; the build was released for download in the day in standard 32-bit and 64-bit versions, plus a special 64-bit version which included SDKs and developer tools for developing Metro-style apps. The Windows Store was not available in this build. According to Microsoft, there were about 535,000 downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release. Set to expire on March 11, 2012, in February 2012 the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 2013. On February 19, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rend
Second Life is an online virtual world and owned by the San Francisco-based firm Linden Lab and launched on June 23, 2003. By 2013, Second Life had one million regular users. In many ways, Second Life is similar to massively multiplayer online role-playing games; the virtual world can be accessed via Linden Lab's own client programs or via alternative third-party viewers. Second Life users called residents, create virtual representations of themselves, called avatars, are able to interact with places and other avatars, they can explore the world, meet other residents, participate in both individual and group activities, create and trade virtual property and services with one another. The platform principally features 3D-based user-generated content. Second Life has its own virtual currency, the Linden Dollar, exchangeable with real world currency. Second Life is intended for people aged 16 and over, with the exception of 13–15-year-old users, who are restricted to the Second Life region of a sponsoring institution.
Built into the software is a 3D modeling tool based on simple geometric shapes that allows residents to build virtual objects. There is a procedural scripting language, Linden Scripting Language, which can be used to add interactivity to objects. Sculpted prims, textures for clothing or other objects and gestures can be created using external software and imported; the Second Life terms of service provide that users retain copyright for any content they create, the server and client provide simple digital rights management functions. However, Linden Lab changed their terms of service in August 2013 to be able to use user-generated content for any purpose; the new terms of service prevent users from using textures from third-party texture services, as some of them pointed out explicitly. In 1999, Philip Rosedale formed Linden Lab with the intention of developing computer hardware to allow people to become immersed in a virtual world. In its earliest form, the company struggled to produce a commercial version of the hardware, known as "The Rig", which in prototype form was seen as a clunky steel contraption with computer monitors worn on shoulders.
That vision changed into the software application Linden World, in which people participated in task-based games and socializing in a three-dimensional online environment. That effort transformed into the better known, user-centered Second Life. Although he was familiar with the metaverse of Neal Stephenson's novel Snow Crash, Rosedale has said that his vision of virtual worlds predates that book, that he conducted early virtual world experiments during his college years at the University of California, San Diego, where he studied physics. In 2005 and 2006, Second Life began to receive significant media attention, including a cover story in BusinessWeek magazine featuring the virtual world and Second Life avatar Anshe Chung. By that time, Anshe Chung had become Second Life's poster child and symbol for the economic opportunities that the virtual world offers to its residents. At the same time, the service saw a period of exponential growth of its user base. On December 11, 2007, Cory Ondrejka, who helped program Second Life, was forced to resign as chief technology officer.
In January 2008, residents spent a total of 28,274,505 hours "inworld" and on average 38,000 residents were logged in at any moment. The maximum concurrency recorded is 88,200 in the first quarter of 2009On March 14, 2008, Rosedale announced plans to step down from his position as Linden Lab CEO and to become chairman of Linden Lab's board of directors. Rosedale announced Mark Kingdon as the new CEO effective May 15, 2008. In 2010, Kingdon was replaced by Rosedale, who took over as Interim CEO. After four months, Rosedale abruptly stepped down from the Interim CEO position, it was announced in October 2010 that Bob Komin, Linden Lab's chief financial officer and chief operating officer, would take over the CEO job for the immediate future. In 2008, Second Life was honored at the 59th Annual Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards for advancing the development of online sites with user-generated content. Rosedale accepted the award. In May 2009, concurrent users averaged about 62,000; as of May 2010, concurrent users averaged about 54,000.
According to Tateru Nino of Engadget, the decline was due to new policies implemented by Linden Lab reducing the number of bots and campers. In June 2010, Linden Lab announced layoffs of 30% of its workforce. In November 2010, 21.3 million accounts were registered, although the company has not made public any statistics regarding actual long-term consistent usage. However, Wagner James Au, who blogs and writes about Second Life, said in April 2013 that he had it on "good authority" that "Second Life's actual active userbase is about 600,000". In 2015 alone, Second Life users had cashed out $60,000,000 and Second Life had an estimated GDP of $500,000,000, higher than some small countries. During a 2001 meeting with investors, Rosedale noticed that the participants were responsive to the collaborative, creative potential of Second Life; as a result, the initial objective-driven, gaming focus of Second Life was shifted to a more user-created, community-driven experience. Second Life's status as a virtual world, a computer game, or a talker, is debated.
Unlike a traditional computer game, Second Life does not have a designated objective, nor traditional game