Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo known as DR Congo, the DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes anachronistically referred to by its former name of Zaire, its official name between 1971 and 1997, it is, by area, the largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa, the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of over 78 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populated Francophone country, the fourth-most-populated country in Africa, the 16th-most-populated country in the world. Eastern DR Congo is the scene of ongoing military conflict in Kivu, since 2015. Centred on the Congo Basin, the territory of the DRC was first inhabited by Central African foragers around 90,000 years ago and was reached by the Bantu expansion about 3,000 years ago. In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In the centre and east, the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century.
In the 1870s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo Basin was carried out, first led by Henry Morton Stanley under the sponsorship of Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in 1885 and made the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the colonial military unit, the Force Publique, forced the local population to produce rubber, from 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of disease and exploitation. In 1908, despite initial reluctance, formally annexed the Free State, which became the Belgian Congo; the Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name Republic of the Congo. Congolese nationalist Patrice Lumumba was elected the first Prime Minister, while Joseph Kasa-Vubu became the first President. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory; the provinces of Katanga, under Moïse Tshombe, South Kasai attempted to secede.
After Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in the crisis, the U. S. and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January 1961. On 25 November 1965, Army Chief of Staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko came into power through a coup d'état. In 1971, he renamed the country Zaire; the country was run as a dictatorial one-party state, with his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. By the early 1990s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the 1994 Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge population led to a 1996 invasion led by Tutsi FPR-ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War. On 17 May 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, a leader of Tutsi forces from the province of South Kivu, became President after Mobutu fled to Morocco, reverting the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tensions between President Kabila and the Rwandan and Tutsi presence in the country led to the Second Congo War from 1998 to 2003. Nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war, which resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. The two wars devastated the country. President Laurent-Désiré Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards on 16 January 2001 and was succeeded eight days as President by his son Joseph; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is rich in natural resources but has had political instability, a lack of infrastructure, issues with corruption and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little holistic development. Besides the capital Kinshasa, the two next largest cities Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting over 50% of DRC's exports in 2012. In 2016, DR Congo's level of human development was ranked 176th out of 187 countries by the Human Development Index.
As of 2018, around 600,000 Congolese have fled to neighbouring countries from conflicts in the centre and east of the DRC. Two million children risk starvation, the fighting has displaced 4.5 million people. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, COMESA; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is named after the Congo River, which flows throughout the country. The Congo River is the world's second largest river by discharge; the Comité d'études du haut Congo, established by King Leopold II of Belgium in 1876, the International Association of the Congo, established by him in 1879, were named after the river. The Congo River itself was named by early European sailors after the Kingdom of Kongo and its Bantu inhabitants, the Kongo people, when they encountered them in the 16th century; the word Kongo comes from the Kongo language. According to American writer Samuel Henry Nelson "It is probable that the word'Kongo' itself implies a public gathering and that it is based on the root konga,'to gather'."
The modern name of the Kongo people, Bakongo was introduced in the early 20th century. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been known in the past as, in chronological order, the Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, the Repub
African French is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries. This includes those who speak French as a first or second language in these 31 francophone African countries, but it does not include French speakers living in non-francophone African countries. Africa is thus the continent with the most French speakers in the world. French arrived in Africa as a colonial language; these African French speakers are now a large part of the Francophonie. In Africa, French is spoken alongside indigenous languages, but in a number of urban areas it has become a first language, such as in the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in the urban areas of Douala and Yaoundé in Cameroon, or in Libreville, Gabon. In some countries it is a first language among some classes of the population, such as in Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria where French is a first language among the upper classes, but only a second language among the general population.
In each of the francophone African countries, French is spoken with local specificities in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary. There are many different varieties of African French, but they can be broadly grouped into four categories: the French spoken by people in West and Central Africa – spoken altogether by about 75 million people as either a first or second language; the French variety spoken by Maghrebis and Berbers in Northwest Africa, which has about 36 million first and second language speakers. The French variety spoken in Djibouti in the Horn of Africa; the French variety spoken by Creoles in the Indian Ocean, which has around 1.6 million first and second language speakers. The French spoken in this region is not to be confused with the French-based creole languages, which are spoken in the area. All the African French varieties differ from standard French both in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary, but the formal African French used in education and legal documents is based on standard French vocabulary.
In the colonial period, a vernacular form of creole French known as Petit nègre was present in West Africa. The term has since, become a pejorative term for poorly spoken African French. V. Y. Mudimbe describes African French as possessing "approximate pronunciation, repressed syntax, bloated or tortured vocabulary, intonation and accent stuck in the original African language flow; the differences from European French are due to influence from the mother tongues and the complexity of French grammatical rules, which inhibit its learning by most non-native speakers. The difficulty linguists have in describing African French comes from variations, such as the "pure" language used by many African intellectuals and writers versus the mixtures between French and African languages. For this, the term "creolization" is used in a pejorative way, in the areas where French is on the same level with one or more local languages. According to G. Manessy, "The consequences of this concurrency may vary according to the social status of the speakers, to their occupations, to their degree of acculturation and thus to the level of their French knowledge."Code-switching, or the alternation of languages within a single conversation, takes place in both Senegal and Congo-Kinshasa, the latter having four "national" languages – Kikongo, Lingala and Swahili – which are in a permanent opposition to French.
Code-switching has been studied since colonial times by different institutions of linguistics. One of these, located in Dakar, Senegal spoke of the creolization of French in 1968, naming the result "franlof": a mix of French and Wolof which spreads by its use in urban areas and through schools, where teachers speak Wolof in the classroom despite official instructions; the omnipresence of local languages in francophone African countries – along with insufficiencies in education – has given birth to a new linguistic concept: le petit français. Le petit français is the result of a superposition of the structure of a local language with a narrowed lexical knowledge of French; the specific structures, though different, are juxtaposed, marking the beginning of the creolization process. In the urban areas of francophone Africa, another type of French has emerged: Français populaire africain or FPA, it is used in the entirety of sub-Saharan Africa, but in cities such as Abidjan, Ivory Coast. At its emergence, it was associated with the ghetto.
It has become a symbol of social acceptance. FPA can be seen as a progressive evolution of Ivorian French. After diffusing out of Ivory Coast, it became Africanized under the influence of young Africans and cinema and dance. FPA has lexicon. For example, "Il ou elle peut me tuer!" or "Il ou elle peut me dja!" can either mean "This person annoys me much" or "I'm dying for him/her" depending on the circumstances. "Il ou elle commence à me plaire" signifies a feeling of exasperation, friendship can be expressed with "c'est mon môgô sûr" or "
Goma is the capital of North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is located on the northern shore of Lake Kivu, next to the Rwandan city of Gisenyi; the lake and the two cities are in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift system. Goma lies only 13–18 km south of the active Nyiragongo Volcano; the recent history of Goma has been dominated by the volcano and the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, which in turn fuelled the First and Second Congo Wars. The aftermath of these events was still having effects on the city and its surroundings in 2010; the city was captured by rebels of the March 23 Movement during the M23 rebellion in late 2012, but has since been retaken by government forces. The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 was perpetrated by the provisional Rwandan government on the Tutsi population and Hutu moderates. In response the Rwandan Patriotic Front, formed by Tutsi refugees in Uganda, which controlled large areas of northern Rwanda following its 1990 invasion and the ongoing Civil War, overthrew the Hutu government in Kigali and forced it out.
One of the many UN missions attempted to provide a safe zone in the volatile situation and provided safe passage for the refugees. From 13 June to 14 July 1994, 10,000 to 12,000 refugees per day crossed the border to Goma; the massive influx created a severe humanitarian crisis, as there was an acute lack of shelter and water. However, the Zaïrean government took it upon itself to garner attention for the situation. Shortly after the arrival of nearly one million refugees. A deadly cholera outbreak claimed thousands of lives in the Hutu refugee camps around Goma. RPF aligned forces actors in the conflict, crossed the border and in acts of revenge claimed several lives. Hutu militias and members of the Hutu provisional government were among the refugees, they set up operations from the camps around Goma attacking ethnic Tutsis in the Kivus and Rwandan government forces at the border. For political reasons the Kinshasa government of the Zaire led by Joseph Mobutu did not prevent the attacks, so the Rwandan government and its Ugandan allies threw their support behind the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Zaire, a rebel movement led by Laurent Kabila against Mobutu.
Rwandan forces stormed the camps at Goma, resulting in thousands of additional deaths, with their help and that of Uganda, Kabila went on to overthrow Mobutu's regime in the First Congo War, which ended in 1997. Within a year Kabila had quarrelled with his former allies, in 1998 the Rwandan government backed a Goma-based rebel movement against Kabila, the Congolese Rally for Democracy made of Banyamulenge people, related to the Tutsis, they captured Bukavu and other towns, the Second Congo War began. The Goma refugee camps, in which the Hutu had created a militia called the FDLR, were again attacked by Rwandan government forces and the RCD; the Second Congo War was unprecedented in Africa for the loss of civilian life in massacres and atrocities. By 2003 the Banyamulenge had become tired of the friction emerged between them and Rwanda. In 2002 and 2003 a fragile negotiated peace emerged between the many sides involved in the war. There have been numerous outbreaks of violence since 2003; the Hutu FDLR remains in the forests and mountains north and west of Goma, carrying out attacks on the Rwandan border and on the Banyamulenge.
The Congolese defence forces are unable or unwilling to stop them, as a consequence Rwanda continues to support Banymulenge rebels such as the RCD and General Nkunda, to carry out incursions into North Kivu in pursuit of the FDLR. In September 2007 large-scale fighting threatened to break out again as the 8,000-strong militia of General Nkunda, based around Rutshuru, broke away from integration with the Congolese army and began attacking them in the town of Masisi north-west of Goma. MONUC began airlifting Congolese troops into Goma and transferring them by helicopter from Goma International Airport to Masisi. On October 27, 2008, the Battle of Goma broke out in the city between the Congolese army, supported by MONUC, Nkunda's CNDP rebels. On 3 November 2012 there was a clash between Congolese and Rwandan troops on the border just north of Goma. Goma was seized by the M23 movement on November 20, 2012. "Tens of thousands" of civilians fled the area. See also: List of governors of North Kivu provinceGoma is represented in the National Assembly by six deputies: Désiré Konde Jason Luneno Butondo Muhindo Naasson Kubuya Ndoole Elvis Mutiri Dieudonné Kambale Francois-Xavier Nzabara Masetsa, circa 1994??
Roger Rachid Tumbala, circa 2009? Jean Busanga Malihaseme, 2011-? Kubuya Ndoole Naso, 2012-? Dieudonné Malere, 2015–present The Great Rift Valley is being pulled apart, leading to earthquakes and the formation of volcanoes in the area. In January 2002, Nyiragongo erupted, sending a stream of lava 200 metres to one kilometre wide and up to two metres deep through the center of the city as far as the lake shore. Agencies monitoring the volcano were able to give a warning and most of the population of Goma evacuated to Gisenyi; the lava destroyed 40% of the city. There were some fatalities caused by the lava and by emissions of carbon dioxide, which causes asphyxiation; the lava covered over the northern 1 km of the 3-kilometre runway of Goma International Airport, isolating the terminal and apron which were at that end. The lava can be seen in satellite photographs, aircraft can be seen using the 2-km
Bandundu is one of eleven former provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It bordered the provinces of Kinshasa and Bas-Congo to the west, Équateur to the north, Kasai-Occidental to the east; the provincial capital is called Bandundu. Bandundu was formed in 1966 by merging the three post-colonial political regions: Kwilu and Mai-Ndombe. Under the 2006 constitution, Bandundu was to be broken up again into the aforementioned political regions. Kwilu province was to be formed by combining Kwilu district and the city of Kikwit, Kwango province was to be formed from Kwango district, Mai-Ndombe province was to be formed by combining Plateaux District, Mai-Ndombe District and the city of Bandundu. Following much delay, by 2016 the change had taken effect; the landscape of Bandundu province consisted of plateaus covered in savanna, cut by rivers and streams that are bordered by thick forest. The province was bisected by the Kasai River, which flows into the Congo River on the province's western boundary.
Other major rivers are the Kwango, Kwenge and Lukenie. Lake Mai-Ndombe is the largest lake, with this lake and the surrounding swamp forest forming the southern portion of the Tumba-Ngiri-Maindombe Ramsar wetlands. Most villages are situated on the higher ground, with the villagers practicing shifting slash-and-burn agriculture in the valleys; the main crops are manioc, maize and beans. The villagers raise chickens, goats and cattle, supplement their diet with fish and bushmeat. A few Indian and Chinese business people selling electronics, such as cell phones and sound systems, have opened shop recently; the province was divided into the cities of Bandundu and Kikwit and the districts of Kwango, Mai-Ndombe and Plateaux. Cities and towns, with their 2010 populations, are: Mateko is a town located in the Bandundu Province; the total population of the town in 2,367. It is located in the North-West of Idiofa Territory in the Kwilu District; the name Mateko designates: Mateko as a Sector, Mateko as a local municipality and Mateko as a town.
It is about 45 km to one of the major harbours of Idiofa territory. Mateko is surrounded by beautiful small and big rivers such as Kamuntsha, Diambala river and Kimpele. Kamuntsha river is the nearest big river to Mateko, a tributary of the Kasai river and one of the important rivers of the region that facilitates trading between Mateko and Kinshasa. Kikongo is the main language of Mateko. University of Bandundu University of Kikwit Many citizens of Bandundu make their living with small provision shops selling basic food items, various beauty products and other beauty products such as weave hair. There has been an increase in foreign entrepreneurs opening electronics shops and other electronic items increasing the market awareness. Today's bus transportation from Kinshasa to Bandundu is twice a week, but the ferry crossing only operates from 7am to 5 pm. There are two television stations showing local news from Kinshasa, religion or the country's national sport. Hotels, like the Hotel Vendome, are evolving in the center of town, offering full services to include its own dedicated internet.
Although international visitors are minimal, there are occasional visitors connected to NGOs and local government work. Chez Jacque, an outdoor disco, provides a nightlife of Congolese music for the younger population. Local transportation in Bandundu is bicycles and motorbikes referred to as "Toleka" meaning "Let's go" in the Lingala language. Traffic flows are directed by the street police at each intersection to avoid clashes between the few cars, motor bikes, foot traffic, push carts; the local cultural center is used for graduations, public services, church. There are enormous money changing outlets for local and international money, such as Soficom and Western Union. Music is an enormous part of life in the Congo where the love of the rhumba can dominate the dance floor with the likes for King Kester Emeneya, etc. crooning to the old samba beat from a Cuban influence. Two main trade languages are spoken in the Bandundu Province: Lingala, spoken north of the Kasai River, Kituba spoken south of the river.
These languages have become so commonplace that many have grown up using them as their first language. There are many local dialects such as Lele, Kimbala and Wongo
Lingala is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo. It is spoken to a lesser degree in the Central African Republic. There are over 70 million lingalophones. In the 19th century, before the creation of the Congo Free State, the Bangala were a group of similar Bantu peoples living and trading along the bend of the Congo River that reached from Irebu at the mouth of the Ubangi River to the Mongala River, they spoke similar languages, such as Losengo, but their trade language was Bangi, the most prestigious language between Stanley Pool and Irebu. As a result, people upstream of the Bangala mistook Bangi for the language of the Bangala and called it Lingala, European missionaries followed suit. In the last two decades of the 19th century, after the forces of Leopold II of Belgium conquered the region and started exploiting it commercially, Bangi came into wider use; the colonial administration, in need of a common language for the region, started to use the language for administrative purposes.
It had simplified, compared to local Bantu languages, in its sentence structure, word structure and sounds, speakers borrowed words and constructs liberally from other languages. This allowed the language to spread amongst the Congolese population. However, the fact that speakers had similar native languages prevented Lingala from becoming as radically restructured as Kituba, which developed among speakers of both Bantu and West African languages. Around 1900, CICM missionaries started a project to "purify" the language in order to make it "pure Bantu" again. Meeuwis writes: issionaries, such as the Protestant W. Stapleton and and more influentially, E. De Boeck himself, judged that the grammar and lexicon of this language were too poor for it to function properly as a medium of education and other types of vertical communication with the Africans in the northwestern and central-western parts of the colony, they set out to'correct' and'expand' the language by drawing on lexical and grammatical elements from surrounding vernacular languages.
The importance of Lingala as a vernacular has since grown with the size and importance of its main center of use and Brazzaville. European missionaries called the language Bangala, after Lingala; the latter was intended to mean' of the Bangala' or'of the River'. However, this was an error; the name Lingala first appears in writing in a publication by the CICM missionary Egide De Boeck. According to some linguists, Lingala is a Bantu-based creole of Central Africa with roots in the Bobangi language.. In its basic vocabulary, Lingala has many borrowings from different other languages such as in French, Spanish and English. In practice, the extent of borrowing varies with speakers of different regions, during different occasions. French momie, comes from'ma mie' in old French meaning'my dear" although it can sound like it means grandmother, is used in Lingala to mean girlfriend kelasi for class/schoolSpanish chiclé for chewing gumPortuguese manteka for butter mésa for table sapátu for shoesEnglish miliki for milk supou for soup mamiwata for mermaid mammy/seareine búku for book mótuka, from motor-car, for car The Lingala language can be divided into several dialects or variations.
The major variations are considered to be Standard Lingala, Spoken Lingala, Kinshasa Lingala and Brazzaville Lingala. Standard Lingala is used in educational and news broadcastings on radio or television, in religious services in the Roman Catholic Church and is the language taught as a subject at all educational levels. Standard Lingala is associated with the work of the Catholic Church and missionaries, it has a seven-vowel system /a/ /e/ /ɛ/ /i/ /o/ /ɔ/ /u/ with an obligatory tense-lax vowel harmony. It has a full range of morphological noun prefixes with mandatory grammatical agreement system with subject–verb, or noun–modifier for each of class. Standard Lingala is used in formal functions. Spoken Lingala is the variation used in the day-to-day lives of Lingalaphones, it has a full morphological noun prefix system, but the agreement system is more lax than the standard variation, i.e. noun-modifier agreement is reduced to two classes. Regarding phonology, there is a seven-vowel system but the vowel harmony is not mandatory.
This variation of Lingala is associated with the Protestant missionaries' work. Spoken Lingala is used in informal functions, the majority of Lingala songs use spoken Lingala over other variations. Modern spoken Lingala is influenced by French. Lingala words show vowel harmony to some extent; the close-mid vowels /e/ and /o/ do not mix with the open-mid vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ in words. For example, the words ndɔbɔ'fishhook' and ndobo'mouse trap' are found, but not *ndɔbo or *ndobɔ; the Lingala spoken in Kinshasa shows a vowel shift from /ɔ/ to /o/, leading to the absence of the phoneme /ɔ/ in favor of /o/. The same occurs with /ɛ/ and /e/, leadin