The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Energy in Hawaii
Energy in Hawaii is complicated by the state's isolated location and lack of fossil fuel resources. The state relies on imports of petroleum and coal for power although renewable energy is increasing. Hawaii is the state with the highest share of petroleum use in the United States, with about 62% of electricity coming from oil in 2017; as of 2016, 26.6% of electricity was from renewable sources, including solar, wind and geothermal. Hawaii has the highest electricity prices in the United States; as of 2016 the average cost of electricity was $0.24 per kilowatt-hour, followed by Alaska at $0.19. The U. S. average was $0.10. Hawaii's primary energy consumption is dominated by oil, which in 2016 provided 83%. Other sources in 2016 included renewable energy. In 2017, sources of renewable power were: Hawaii allows solar energy facilities to be located on less-productive agricultural lands. HB 3179 made it easier for biofuel producers to lease state lands. SB 3190 and HB 2168 authorized special purpose revenue bonds to help finance a solar energy facility on Oahu and hydrogen generation and conversion facilities at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, located on Hawaii island.
In 2010 SB644 mandated solar water heaters for new construction. The bill excluded homes located in areas with poor solar energy resources, homes using other renewable energy sources, homes employing on-demand gas-fired water heaters; the bill eliminated solar thermal energy tax credits for homes. SB988 allowed the Hawaii Public Utility Commission to establish a rebate for photovoltaic systems, HB2550 encouraged net metering for residential and small commercial customers. In 2008 HB 2863 provided streamlined permitting for new renewable energy facilities of at least 200 megawatts capacity. HB 2505 created a full-time renewable energy facilitator to help the state expedite permits. HB 2261 provided loans of up to $1.5 million and up to 85% of the cost of renewable energy projects at farms and aquaculture facilities. On January 28, 2008, the State of Hawaii and the US Department of Energy signed a memorandum of understanding and announced the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, which has a goal to use renewable energy to supply 70 percent or more of Hawaii's energy needs by 2030.
The Initiative will focus on working with public and private partners on clean energy projects including: designing cost-effective approaches for 100 percent use of renewable energy on smaller islands, designing systems to improve stability of electrical grids operating with variable generating sources, such as wind power plants on the Island of Hawaii and Maui, expanding Hawaii's capability to use locally grown crops as byproducts for producing fuel and electricity. Partners include United States Department of Energy - EERE, the state of Hawaii, Hawaiian Electric Company, Phoenix Motorcars and Better Place; the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority is a test site for experimental renewable energy generation methods and pilot plants for them. Built to test Ocean thermal energy conversion, it added research into other sustainable uses of natural energy sources such as aquaculture, biofuel from algae, solar thermal energy, concentrating solar and wind power; the electric Honolulu Rail Transit network expected to begin operation in late 2020, as of 2019 was scheduled for 2025 at the earliest.
95% of the population in Hawaii is supplied by Hawaiian Electric Industries. Kauai is instead supplied by the consumer-owned Kauai Island Utility Cooperative; as of 2018, the total dispatchable capacity is 1,727 MW, the intermittent generation capacity is 588 MW. Each island generates its own power. Most of the electricity in Hawaii is produced from oil. Solar power in Hawaii grew as photovoltaic panel prices dropped putting household energy generation below the cost of purchased electricity. In 2013, Hawaii was second only to Arizona in per capita solar power and about 10% of Oahu customers had solar panels. Several utility scale solar farms exist along with distributed household generation. In 2017, solar power produce 38.4% of the state's electricity. The island of Kauai has an abundance of solar energy, installed batteries to permit renewable energy to be used at night. In 2017, Hawaii produced 26.6% of its power from wind. Hawaii began research into wind power in the mid-1980s with a 340 kW turbine on Maui, the 2.3MW Lalamilo Wells wind farm on Oahu and the 9 MW Kamaoa wind farm on Hawaii Island.
The MOD-5B, a 3.2 MW wind turbine, on Oahu was the largest in the world in 1987. These early examples were all out of service by 2010. Hawaii has several biomass electric plants including the 10 MW Honolulu International Airport Emergency Power Facility, the 6.7 MW Green Energy Agricultural Biomass-to-Energy Facility on Kauai, the 6.6 MW waste-to-energy Honua Power Project on Oahu. The 21.5 MW Hu Honua plant came online in 2016. Wärtsilä sold Hawaii Electric to be installed at Schofield Barracks Army Base on Oahu in 2017; the plant can run on solid or gas fuels including biomass. Hawaii has banned new coal plants. One plant operates in AES Hawaii Power Plant, which generates 180 MWe; the U. S. Navy and the University of Hawaii operate a Wave Energy Test Site in Kaneohe Bay; the Puna Geothermal Venture was constructed on the island of Hawaii between 1989 and 1993. It operated until May 2018. Cellana produces oil from algae at a 2.5 hectares research site at Kailua-Kona on Hawaii island. Microalgae have significant potential as an energy crop, with the levels of oil production per acre far exceeding that of vegetable oil crops.
Cellana worked with Royal Dutch Shell on a pilot f
Seal of Hawaii
The Great Seal of the State of Hawaii was designated by Act 272 of the 1959 Territorial Legislature and is based on the territorial seal. Modifications to the territorial seal included the use of the words "State of Hawaii" at the top and "1959" within the circle. Provisions for a seal for the state of Hawaii were enacted by the Territorial Legislature and approved by Governor William F. Quinn on June 8, 1959; the passage of the Admission Act in 1959, admitted Hawaii as the 50th State of the United States of America on August 21, 1959. The seal of the Territory of Hawaii was the same as the seal of the republic, except that it had "Territory of Hawaii" placed at the top and "1900" within the circle; the 1901 Territorial Legislature authorized the modified republic seal as the Seal of the Territory of Hawaii. The seal of the Republic of Hawaii had the words "Republic of Hawaii" at the top and "MDCCCXCIV" within the circle; the year 1894 signified the date. The republic seal was designed by Viggo Jacobsen, a Honolulu resident, itself was derived from the Kingdom of Hawaii coat of arms used during the reign of King Kamehameha III, King Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani, designed by the College of Arms in London in 1842 and adopted in 1845.
The Great Seal of the State of Hawaii is circular in shape and three-quarters inches in diameter, of the design being described, with the tinctures added as the basis for the coat of arms. The Hawaii state seal represents Hawaii's nation. In the center of the seal is a heraldic shield, quartered; the first and fourth quarters display the white and blue stripes of Ka Hae Hawaiʻi or the flag of Hawaiʻi. The second and third quarters are on a yellow field with a white Puloʻuloʻu, or kapu sticks with tapa-covered balls on the end. In the center of the heraldic shield is a green escutcheon with a five-pointed yellow star in the center. On the left side is Kamehameha I, standing in the attitude as represented by the bronze statue in front of Ali'iolani Hale, Honolulu, his cloak and helmet are in yellow. Kamehameha I's figure is in proper. Kamehameha I unified the Hawaiian Islands into a single united kingdom. On the right side is goddess Liberty wearing a Phrygian cap and laurel wreath, she is holding Ka Hae Hawaiʻi in her right hand, unfurled.
A rising sun irradiated in gold surrounded by the legend "State of Hawaii, 1959" on a scroll in black lettering. The state motto: Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono is on the scroll on the seal's bottom in gold lettering. Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono is translated into English as "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness." The motto was adopted by the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1843 and was used in an address by King Kamehameha III at ceremonies following the return of his kingdom from the British. British captain Lord George Paulet of HMS Carysfort demanded that Hawaiʻi was ceded to Great Britain in response to claims of political abuses against British residents made by British Consul Richard Charlton. After Kamehameha III notified London of the captain's actions, Admiral Richard Darton Thomas returned sovereignty back to the King; the motto is featured in Israel Kamakawiwo'ole's song "Hawaii'78" and is used on the Hawaii state quarter. Below the heraldic shield, the bird phoenix has it wings outstretched arising from flames.
The phoenix's body is half dark red. Below the heraldic shield are eight taro leaves having on either side banana foliage and sprays of maidenhair fern trailed upwardly. 1959 represents the year of admission into the Union as a state. The rising sun replaced the royal crown from the original coat of arms; this represents the birth of a new state. King Kamehameha the Great and the Goddess of Liberty holding the Hawaiian flag replace the two warriors on the royal coat of arms; this may represent the new government leader. The quartered design of the heraldic shield is retained from the original coat of arms; the eight stripes in two of the quarters of the shield represent the eight main islands. The Puloʻuloʻu, or tabu ball and stick, in the second and third quarters was carried before the king and placed before the door of his home, signifying his authority and power. In the seal it is a symbol of the power of the government; the star in the middle of the shield signifies. The phoenix, symbol of death and resurrection, symbolizes the change from an absolute monarchy to a free, democratic form of government.
The eight taro leaves, flanked by banana foliage and maidenhair fern are typical Hawaiian flora and represent the eight main islands. Taro has great spiritual significance. Taro is still cultivated and is the ingredient of the popular dish called poi; the state motto, "Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono", "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness," is retained from the royal coat of arms. List of Hawaii state symbols Flag of Hawaii Flower of Hawaii The Great Seal of the State of Hawai'i
United States congressional delegations from Hawaii
These are tables of congressional delegations from Hawaii to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Starting in 1971, Hawaii's representatives were elected from districts instead of statewide At-large. Abercrombie, Neil Representative Akaka, Daniel Kahikina Representative, Senator Baldwin, Henry Alexander Delegate Burns, John Anthony Delegate Case, Ed Representative Charles Djou Representative Farrington, Joseph Rider Delegate Farrington, Mary Elizabeth Pruett Delegate Fong, Hiram Leong Senator Gabbard, Tulsi Representative Gill, Thomas Ponce Representative Hanabusa, Colleen Representative Heftel, Cecil Landau Representative Hirono, Mazie Representative, Senator Houston, Victor Stewart Kaleoaloha Delegate Inouye, Daniel Ken Representative, Senator Jarrett, William Paul Delegate Kalanianaole, Jonah Kuhio Delegate King, Samuel Wilder Delegate Long, Oren Ethelbirt Senator Matsunaga, Spark Masayuki Representative, Senator McCandless, Lincoln Loy Delegate Mink, Patsy Takemoto Representative Saiki, Patricia Fukuda Representative Schatz, Brian Senator Takai, Mark Representative Wilcox, Robert William Delegate As of January 2019, there are no living former senators.
As of January 2019, there are five living former members of the House
Hiram Bingham I
Hiram Bingham, formally Hiram Bingham I, was leader of the first group of American Protestant missionaries to introduce Christianity to the Hawaiian islands. Like most of the missionaries, he was from New England. Bingham was descended from Deacon Thomas Bingham, who immigrated to the American colonies in 1650 and settled in Connecticut, he was born October 30, 1789, in Bennington, one of thirteen children of his mother Lydia and father Calvin Bingham. He attended the Andover Theological Seminary. After breaking his first engagement, Bingham found Sybil Moseley, he needed to be married to be accepted as a missionary. On October 23, 1819, the young couple sailed out of Boston aboard the brig Thaddeus, along with Asa and Lucy Goodale Thurston, to lead a mission in the Sandwich Islands for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Bingham and his wife arrived first on the Island of Hawaii in 1820, sailed on to Honolulu on Oahu on April 19. In 1823, Queen Kaʻahumanu and six high chiefs requested baptism.
Soon after, the Hawaiian government banned prostitution and drunkenness, which resulted in the shipping industry and the foreign community resenting Bingham's influence. Bingham wrote extensively about the natives and was critical of their land-holding regime and of their "state of civilization". Bingham supported; those writings are now used by historians to illustrate the imperial values that were central to the attitudes of the United States towards Hawaii. Bingham was involved in the creation of the spelling system for writing the Hawaiian Language, translated some books of the Bible into Hawaiian. Bingham designed the Kawaiahaʻo Church in Honolulu on the Hawaiian Island of Oʻahu; the church was constructed between 1836 and 1842 in the New England style typical of the Hawaiian missionaries. It is one of the oldest standing Christian places of worship in Hawaiʻi. Bingham used his influence with Queen Kaʻahumanu to instigate a anti-Catholic policy in Hawaii impeding the work of the French Catholic missionary Alexis Bachelot and resulting in decades of persecution of Hawaiians who were converted to Catholicism.
This was motivated by opposition to the spread of French influence in Hawaii as well as by the religious Protestant-Catholic rivalry and enmity. A math building in Punahou School is named after Bingham. Bingham Tract School was an academically rigorous elementary school named for him that operated on the Bingham lands until the mid-1990s; the board grew concerned that Bingham was interfering too in Hawaiian politics and recalled him. The Binghams left August 3, 1840 and reached New England February 4, 1841, it was intended to be a sabbatical due to Sybil's poor health, but the board refused to reappoint Bingham as a missionary after Sybil's death on February 27, 1848. He published a memoir, A Residence of Twenty-One Years in the Sandwich Islands in 1847. Bingham remained in New England, he remarried to Naomi Morse in 1852. He was buried at Grove Street Cemetery, in New Haven, Connecticut. Leonard Bacon gave the address at his funeral. Bingham was the leader of a group of missionaries, that included Asa Thurston, Artemas Bishop and himself, who translated the Christian Bible into the Hawaiian language.
The New Testament was published in 1832, the Old Testament in 1839. The entire NT/OT Bible was revised in 1868, was re-published as Ka Baibola Hemolele in 2018, in the forms of book and electronic document.. Binamu composed Hawaiian hymns, such as "Himeni Hope", starting with "Ho'omaika'i i ka Makua Ke Akua o kakou...", meaning "Blessings to the Father, the God of us all..."), which were quiet, but powerful. His hymns are still sung in Hawaii by the choruses in concert. Bingham's son, Hiram Bingham II, was a missionary to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, his daughter Lydia married the Hawaiian missionary Titus Coan. His grandson Hiram Bingham III was an explorer who brought Machu Picchu to the attention of the west and became a US Senator and Governor of Connecticut, his great-grandson Hiram Bingham IV was the US Vice Consul in Marseilles, during World War II who rescued Jews from the Holocaust. Another great-grandson, Jonathan Brewster Bingham, was a long-time Reform Democratic Congressman from The Bronx from the mid-1960s through the early 1980s.
In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS Hiram Bingham was named in his honor. It was hull number 1726. Bingham was caricatured as the character Reverend Abner Hale in James Michener's novel Hawaii. Bible translations into Hawaiian Hiram Bingham I. Char Miller, ed. Selected writings of Hiram Bingham, Missionary to the Hawaiian Islands: To Raise the Lord's Banner. E. Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY. ISBN 978-0-88946-675-3. Char Miller. Fathers and sons, the Bingham family and the American mission. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-0-87722-248-4. Darlene E. Kelley. "Queen Kaahumanu — Part 2: First Arrival of Missionaries". Keepers of the Culture. U. S. GenWeb Archives web site. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved 2010-02-20. Hiram Bingham at Find a Grave
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. It is an unincorporated part of and the county seat of the City and County of Honolulu along the southeast coast of the island of Oʻahu; the city is the main gateway to a major portal into the United States. The city is a major hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture and traditions. Honolulu is the most remote city of its size in the world and is the westernmost and southernmost major U. S. city. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau recognizes the approximate area referred to as "City of Honolulu" as a census county division. Honolulu is a major financial center of the islands and of the Pacific Ocean; the population of the Honolulu census designated place was 359,870 as of the 2017 population estimate, while the Honolulu CCD was 390,738 and the population of the consolidated city and county was 953,207. Honolulu means "sheltered harbor" or "calm port".
The old name is Kou, a district encompassing the area from Nuʻuanu Avenue to Alakea Street and from Hotel Street to Queen Street, the heart of the present downtown district. The city has been the capital of the Hawaiian Islands since 1845 and gained historical recognition following the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan near the city on December 7, 1941; as of 2015, Honolulu was ranked high on world livability rankings, was ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U. S, it is the most populated Oceanian city outside Australasia and ranks second to Auckland as the most-populous city in Polynesia. Evidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts; these indicate. However, after Kamehameha I conquered Oʻahu in the Battle of Nuʻuanu at Nuʻuanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiʻi to Waikīkī in 1804, his court relocated in 1809 to. The capital was moved back to Kailua-Kona in 1812. In 1794, Captain William Brown of Great Britain was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor.
More foreign ships followed, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia. In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu, he and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital, erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, ʻIolani Palace, Aliʻiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu. Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, such as the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, Hawaiʻi's subsequent annexation by the United States in 1898, followed by a large fire in 1900, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Honolulu remained the capital, largest city, main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands. An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiʻi.
Modern air travel brings, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the islands, with 62.3% entering at Honolulu International Airport. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiʻi, with thousands of hotel rooms; the UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Urban Honolulu Census-designated place has a total area of 68.4 square miles. 60.5 square miles of it is land, 7.9 square miles of it is water. Honolulu is the most remote major city in the world; the closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arena Lighthouse in California, at 2,045 nautical miles. However, islands off the Mexican coast, part of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska are closer to Honolulu than the mainland. Downtown Honolulu is the financial and governmental center of Hawaiʻi.
On the waterfront is Aloha Tower, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaiʻi. The tallest building is the 438-foot tall First Hawaiian Center, located on King and Bishop Streets; the downtown campus of Hawaiʻi Pacific University is located there. The Arts District Honolulu in downtown/Chinatown is on the eastern edge of Chinatown, it is a 12-block area bounded by Bethel & Smith Streets and Nimitz Highway and Beretania Street – home to numerous arts and cultural institutions. It is located within the Chinatown Historic District, which includes the former Hotel Street Vice District; the Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaiʻi's state government, incorporating the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu Hale, State Library, the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings. Kakaʻako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopmen