Adak Island is an island near the western extent of the Andreanof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Alaska's southernmost town, Adak, is located on the island; the island has a land area of 274.59 square miles, measuring 33.9 miles on length and 22 miles on width, making it the 25th largest island in the United States. Due to harsh winds, frequent cloud cover, cold temperatures, vegetation is tundra at lower elevations; the highest point is Mt. Moffett, near the northwest end of the island, at an elevation of 3,924 feet, it is snow covered the greater part of the year. Adak, Alaska, is principal city; the word Adak is from the Aleut word adaq, which means "father". Adak Island has been the home to Aleut peoples since ancient times. Russian explorers in the 18th century visited the island but made no permanent settlements. During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army took control of two of the westernmost Aleutian Islands - Attu and Kiska; the Japanese attacked the American base at Dutch Harbor by air.
The Japanese campaign coincided with the more well-known Battle of Midway. In response, the United States military began a campaign to oust the invaders. Since the nearest U. S. military presence was in Cold Bay, the U. S. began to construct bases in the western Aleutian Islands from which to launch operations against the Japanese. Adak Island was chosen as the site of an airfield, flight operations began in September 1942. On May 11, 1943, four days after the initial invasion date was delayed by bad weather, American soldiers landed on Attu Island and defeated the Japanese garrison there, at the cost of 2,300 Japanese and 550 American lives. Expecting a similar battle for Kiska Island, U. S. soldiers landing there August 15, 1943, found the occupiers had been stealthily evacuated by Japanese naval forces since the end of May, 1943. So, over 313 American soldiers died from friendly fire and other anti-personnel devices during U. S. operations to recover Kiska into U. S. territory. In 1953, remains of 236 Japanese dead, buried in Adak Cemetery were reburied in Japan's Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery.
After the war was over, the 6,000 American military men who served on Adak during World War II recalled Adak's cold, windy weather. Fresh food was a rarity. Adak Naval Air Station continued to be a military base during the Cold War but was designated a Base Realignment and Closure site in 1995 and closed in March 1997. Shortly thereafter, the town of Adak was incorporated at the site of the former base. Down from a peak population of 6,000, the island recorded a 2010 census population of 326 residents, all in the city of Adak, in the northern part of the island. In 1980, the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge was created and much of Adak Island lies within its boundaries; the Alaska Department of Fish and Game introduced 200 caribou to the island to help prevent emergency famine. The now large caribou herd is a popular hunting destination. Adak has a subpolar oceanic climate, characterized by persistently overcast skies, moderated temperatures, high winds, frequent cyclonic storms. At Adak, overcast conditions average nearly 75% of the time during June and July, dropping back to 50% of the time from October through February.
Adak averages 173 days per year with fog. The foggiest months are August when an average of 26 of the 31 days have fog; this number drops toward the winter season where the months of December through March have, on average, fewer than ten days with fog during any one month. Gales occur in all months of the year at Adak with the greatest chance from December through March. A peak gust of 109 knots occurred at Adak in March 1954. Adak's average temperatures range from 20 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit, with a record high of 75 °F and a record low of 3 °F. Average annual precipitation is about 54.8 inches. October to January are the wettest months due to frequent and intense mid-latitude cyclonic storms, while May to July represent markedly drier months. November is the average wettest month. Average snowfall is 100 inches, falling on the upper reaches of the volcanoes. Adak has an average of 341 days per year with measurable precipitation. Adak is served by the Aleutian Region Schools; the Adak School has around 20 students.
A land exchange between Aleut Corp. the U. S. Navy, the Department of the Interior has transferred most of the naval facilities to the Aleut Corp. A portion of the Island will remain within the National Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, managed by U. S. Fish & Wildlife. Adak provides a fueling port and crew transfer facility for foreign fishing fleets—an airport, housing facilities and food services are available. A grocery and ship supply store and restaurant opened in February 1999. Aleut Corporation maintains the facilities. Contractors are performing an environmental clean-up. Alaskan-owned Norquest-Adak Seafood Co. processes Pacific cod, mackerel, halibut and brown king crab. Four residents hold a commercial fishing permit for groundfish; the January 2006 National Geographic magazine presented pictures of the Sea-based X-band Radar in tow around Cape Horn to Adak for the purpose of anti-ballistic missile space surveillance. This operation required about one hundred technicians. Google Earth p
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic and the only overseas country of France. It is composed of 118 geographically dispersed islands and atolls stretching over an expanse of more than 2,000 kilometres in the South Pacific Ocean, its total land area is 4,167 square kilometres. French Polynesia is divided into five groups of islands: the Society Islands archipelago, composed of the Windward Islands and the Leeward Islands. Among its 118 islands and atolls, 67 are inhabited. Tahiti, located within the Society Islands, is the most populous island, having close to 69% of the population of French Polynesia as of 2017. Papeete, located on Tahiti, is the capital. Although not an integral part of its territory, Clipperton Island was administered from French Polynesia until 2007. Following the Great Polynesian Migration, European explorers visited the islands of French Polynesia on several occasions. Traders and whaling ships visited. In 1842, the French took over the islands and established a French protectorate they called Etablissements des français en Océanie.
In 1946, the EFOs became an overseas territory under the constitution of the French Fourth Republic, Polynesians were granted the right to vote through citizenship. In 1957, the EFOs were renamed French Polynesia. In 1983 French Polynesia became a member of the Pacific Community, a regional development organization. Since 28 March 2003, French Polynesia has been an overseas collectivity of the French Republic under the constitutional revision of article 74, gained, with law 2004-192 of 27 February 2004, an administrative autonomy, two symbolic manifestations of which are the title of the President of French Polynesia and its additional designation as an overseas country. French Polynesia was one of the last places on Earth to be settled by humans. Scientists believe the Great Polynesian Migration happened around 1500 BC as Austronesian people went on a journey using celestial navigation to find islands in the South Pacific Ocean; the first islands of French Polynesia to be settled were the Marquesas Islands in about 200 BC.
The Polynesians ventured southwest and discovered the Society Islands around AD 300. European encounters began in 1521 when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, sailing at the service of the Spanish Crown, sighted Puka-Puka in the Tuāmotu-Gambier Archipelago. In 1606 another Spanish expedition under Pedro Fernandes de Queirós sailed through Polynesia sighting an inhabited island on 10 February which they called Sagitaria the island of Rekareka to the southeast of Tahiti. Over a century British explorer Samuel Wallis visited Tahiti in 1767. French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti in 1768, while British explorer James Cook arrived in 1769. In 1772, the Spanish Viceroy of Peru Don Manuel de Amat ordered a number of expeditions to Tahiti under the command of Domingo de Bonechea, the first European to explore all of the main islands beyond Tahiti. A short-lived Spanish settlement was created in 1774, for a time some maps bore the name Isla de Amat after Viceroy Amat. In 1772, Dutchman Jakob Roggeveen came across Bora Bora in the Society Islands.
Christian missions began with Spanish priests. Protestants from the London Missionary Society settled permanently in Polynesia in 1797. King Pōmare II of Tahiti was forced to flee to Mo'orea in 1803. French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti in 1834. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate, to allow Catholic missionaries to work undisturbed; the capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843. In 1880, France annexed Tahiti; the island groups were not united until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1889. After France declared a protectorate over Tahiti in 1840, the British and French signed the Jarnac Convention in 1847, declaring that the kingdoms of Raiatea and Bora Bora were to remain independent from either powers and that no single chief was to be allowed to reign over the entire archipelago. France broke the agreement, the islands were annexed and became a colony in 1888 after many native resistances and conflicts called the Leewards War, lasting until 1897.
In the 1880s, France claimed the Tuamotu Archipelago, which belonged to the Pōmare Dynasty, without formally annexing it. Having declared a protectorate over Tahuata in 1842, the French regarded the entire Marquesas Islands as French. In 1885, France appointed a governor and established a general council, thus giving it the proper administration for a colony; the islands of Rimatara and Rūrutu unsuccessfully lobbied for British protection in 1888, so in 1889 they were annexed by France. Postage stamps were first issued in the colony in 1892; the first official name for the colony was Établissements de l'Océanie. In 1940, the administration of French Polynesia recognised the Free French Forces and many Polynesians served in World War II. Unknown at the time to the French and Polynesians, the Konoe Cabinet in Imperial Japan on 16 September 1940 included French Polynesia among the many territories whic
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Kapaʻa is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 10,699 at the 2010 census, up from 9,471 at the 2000 census. Kapaʻa is a Hawaiian adjective meaning "solid". Kapaʻa is located on the east side of the island of Kauai at 22°5′18″N 159°20′16″W, it is bordered to the south by the communities of Wailua and Wailua Homesteads and to the east by the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii Route 56 passes through the eastern part of the community, leading north 6 miles to Anahola and south 8 miles to Lihue. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Kapaa CDP has a total area of 10.3 square miles. 10.0 square miles of it are land and 0.35 square miles of it are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,471 people, 3,129 households, 2,281 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 971.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,632 housing units at an average density of 372.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 27.8% White, 0.3% Black, 0.5% Native American, 31.7% Asian, 10.0% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 28.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.5% of the population. There were 3,129 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.44. In the CDP the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,448, the median income for a family was $45,878. Males had a median income of $30,129 versus $25,680 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,878. About 14.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.6% of those under age 18 and 12.6% of those age 65 or over.
The town is served by a feeder elementary school and middle school. There is one private school, St. Catherine Catholic School, founded in 1947
The Aleutian Islands called the Aleut Islands or Aleutic Islands and known before 1867 as the Catherine Archipelago, are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U. S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai. They form part of the Aleutian Arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi and extending about 1,200 mi westward from the Alaska Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, mark a dividing line between the Bering Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. Crossing longitude 180°, at which point east and west longitude end, the archipelago contains both the westernmost part of the United States by longitude and the easternmost by longitude; the westernmost U. S. island in real terms, however, is Attu Island. While nearly all the archipelago is part of Alaska and is considered as being in the "Alaskan Bush", at the extreme western end, the small, geologically related Commander Islands belong to Russia.
The islands, with their 57 volcanoes, form the northernmost part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Physiographically, they are a distinct section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; these Islands are most known for the battles and skirmishes that occurred there during the Aleutian Islands Campaign of World War II. It was one of only two attacks on the United States during that war. Motion between the Kula Plate and the North American Plate along the margin of the Bering Shelf ended in the early Eocene; the Aleutian Basin, the ocean floor north of the Aleutian arc, is the remainder of the Kula Plate that got trapped when volcanism and subduction jumped south to its current location at c. 56 Ma. The Aleutian island arc formed in the Early Eocene when the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the North American Plate began; the arc is made of separate blocks. The basement underlying the islands is made of three stratigraphic units: an Eocene layer of volcanic rock, an Oligocene—Miocene layer of marine sedimentary rock, a Pliocene—Quaternary layer of sedimentary and igneous rock.
The islands, known before 1867 as the Catherine Archipelago, comprise five groups the Fox Islands Islands of Four Mountains Andreanof Islands Rat Islands, Near IslandsAll five are located between 51° and 55° N latitude and 172° E and 163° W longitude. The largest islands in the Aleutians are Attu, Unalaska and Unimak in the Fox Islands; the largest of those is Unimak Island, with an area of 1,571.41 mi2, followed by Unalaska Island, the only other Aleutian Island with an area over 1,000 square miles. The axis of the archipelago near the mainland of Alaska has a southwest trend, but at Tanaga Island its direction changes to the northwest; this change of direction corresponds to a curve in the line of volcanic fissures that have contributed their products to the building of the islands. Such curved chains are repeated about the Pacific Ocean in the Kuril Islands, the Japanese chain, in the Philippines. All these island arcs are at the edge of the Pacific Plate and experience much seismic activity, but are still habitable.
The general elevation is least in the western. The island chain is a western continuation of the Aleutian Range on the mainland; the great majority of the islands bear evident marks of volcanic origin, there are numerous volcanic cones on the north side of the chain, some of them active. The coasts are rocky and surf-worn, the approaches are exceedingly dangerous, the land rising from the coasts to steep, bold mountains; these volcanic islands reach heights of 6,200 feet. Makushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, is not quite visible from within the town of Unalaska, though the steam rising from its cone is visible on a clear day. Residents of Unalaska need only to climb one of the smaller hills in the area, such as Pyramid Peak or Mt. Newhall, to get a good look at the snow-covered cone; the volcanic Bogoslof and Fire Islands, which rose from the sea in 1796 and 1883 lie about 30 miles west of Unalaska Bay. In 1906, a new volcanic cone rose between the islets of Bogoslof and Grewingk, near Unalaska, followed by another in 1907.
These cones were nearly demolished by an explosive eruption on September 1, 1907. Newly found information in 2017, the volcanic cone erupted sending ash and ice particles 30,000 feet in the air; the Aleutians seen from space The climate of the islands is oceanic, with moderate and uniform temperatures and heavy rainfall. Fogs are constant. Summer weather is much cooler than Southeast Alaska, but the winter temperature of the islands and of the Alaska Panhandle is nearly the same. According to the Köppen climate classification system, the area southwest of 53.5°N 167.0°W / 53.5.
Kahului is a census-designated place on the island of Maui in the U. S. state of Hawaii. It hosts Maui's main airport, deep-draft harbor, light industrial areas, commercial shopping centers; the population was 26,337 at the 2010 census. Kahului is part of the Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina Metropolitan Statistical Area which includes nearby Wailuku and the town and former whaling village of Lahaina; the retail center for Maui residents, Kahului has major stores. Kahului is not considered a tourist destination, it does feature the Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum, Kanaha Pond State Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanaha Beach County Park, the Maui Arts and Cultural Center. Kahului is served by Kahului Airport, located outside the CDP. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 16.3 square miles, of which, 15.2 square miles of it is land and 1.2 square miles of it is water. The total area is 7.16% water. Kahului is directly adjacent to Wailuku located on the west side of town, to Spreckelsville on the east.
Kahului has a hot semi-arid climate zone with a dry summer season, due to its location on the leeward side of Maui, relative to the trade winds. The normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 71.8 °F in February to 79.7 °F. On average, there are 21 nights annually with a low below 60 °F and 25 days with a high at or above 90 °F. Temperature records range from 48 °F on January 20, 1969 up to 97 °F on August 31, 1994 and August 22, 2015; the record cool daily maximum is 65 °F on February 28, 1990, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 79 °F on October 8 and 17, 1979. Normal annual rainfall is 17.83 inches spread over an average 95 days, but observed annual rainfall has ranged from 6.76 inches in 1908 and 1998 to 40.63 inches in 1989. The wettest month on record is January 1980 with 14.46 inches, while the most rain to occur in a single calendar day is 5.82 inches on December 21, 1955. The most recent month without measurable rain is October 2013 with trace amounts, the last without any rain is June 1957.
The town is one of the windiest places in the U. S. averaging 13.7 mph per year. As of the 2000 Census, there were 20,146 people, 5,880 households, 4,421 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,328.7 people per square mile. There were 6,079 housing units at an average density of 400.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 10.06% White, 0.24% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 53.62% Asian, 9.91% Pacific Islander, 1.47% from other races, 24.42% from two or more races. 8.75 % of the population were Latino of any race. There are 5,880 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.8% are non-families. 20.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size is 3.76. In the CDP the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $46,656, the median income for a family was $52,610. Males had a median income of $30,659 versus $26,282 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,049. 11.8% of the population and 9.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 14.8% of those under the age of 18 and 11.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Major employers in Kahului include Walmart, Maui Electric Company, Macy's, Hale Makua Health Services, Aloha Air Cargo, Zippy's, Roberts Hawaii, University of Hawaii Maui College. Public schools in Kahului include Maui High School, Maui Waena Intermediate School, Kahului Elementary School, Lihikai Elementary School, Pomaika'i Elementary School. Alexander and Baldwin Sugar Museum in nearby Pu'unene Kanaha Pond State Wildlife Sanctuary Kanaha Beach County Park Maui Arts and Cultural Center Maui Nui Botanical Gardens Tasaka Guri-Guri — known for its "guri-guri" frozen dessert