Hawaii Belt Road
The Hawaiʻi Belt Road is a modern name for the Māmalahoa Highway and consists of Hawaiʻi state Routes 11, 19, 190 that encircle the Island of Hawaiʻi. The southern section, between Hilo and Kailua-Kona is numbered as Route 11; the section between Hilo and Waimea is Route 19. Between Waimea and Kailua-Kona, the road is split in two: the original "mauka" route and a "makai" Route 19, completed in 1975, which serves as access to the Kona and Kohala Coast resorts. In the Hawaiian language, mauka means "towards the mountain" and makai means "towards the sea"; these terms are used in travel directions. Parts of the southern half of the Hawaiʻi Belt Road were known during the Territorial days as the Kaʻū Belt Road; the names "Hawaiʻi Belt Road" and "Māmalahoa Highway" refer to the road system that encircles the entire island. Māmalahoa Highway was named for the royal decree by King Kamehameha I after an incident he and his party experienced in 1783; as he prepared to unite the Islands of Hawaiʻi, Kamehameha I would conduct shoreline raids on the neighboring ahupuaʻa.
It was on one such incursion that the King’s warriors encountered two local fishermen along the Puna coast. The two fled to warn others of the pending attack and Kamehameha and his men took chase; when they crossed a lava field, one of the King’s feet got caught in a crevice. The fishermen, seizing the opportunity to retaliate and attacked. In the ensuing brawl, one of the King’s steersmen was killed and Kamehameha himself received a blow to the head, so hard that it splintered the man’s weapon – a solid koa canoe paddle; the two Puna men escaped. Kamehameha I opted not to retaliate but instead took this as a lesson: The strong must not mistreat the weak, his people must be assured protection from harm’s way in their pursuits and that safe passage must be everyone’s entitlement. A decade King Kamehameha I, upon reflecting on his deliverance that day in Puna and on the memory of his fallen warrior, proclaimed Ke Kānāwai Māmalahoe – "The Law of the Splintered Paddle" – at Kahaleʻioleʻole in the Kaipalaoa area of Hilo.
Ke Kānāwai Māmalahoe is considered such an important law to the Hawaiians that at the 1978 Constitutional Convention it was added to the Constitution of Hawaiʻi. In it, the law protects the public and the safety of all who travel throughout the Islands, including fishermen, gatherers and visitors alike. Hawaiʻi Constitution - Public Safety The Law of the Splintered Paddle, Ke Kānāwai Māmalahoe, decreed by Kamehameha I, every elderly person and child lie by the roadside in safety, shall be a unique and living symbol of the State's concern for public safety; the State shall have the power to provide for the safety of the people from crimes against persons and property. The Māmalahoa trail was a foot trail built in the nineteenth century, which developed into this highway. Various parts were re-aligned over the years. Much of the Hawaiʻi Belt Road through North Hilo and Hāmākua districts was built on the roadbed and bridges of the Hawaii Consolidated Railway as part of the recovery from a tsunami that ravaged the island's northeast coast in 1946.
In 2007, Queen Ka‘ahumanu Highway was widened to four lanes from Henry Street in Kailua-Kona to Kealakehe Parkway. In September 2015, ground broke to extend the widening project from Kealakehe Parkway to Keāhole Airport Road, which provides access to Ellison Onizuka Kona International Airport; the project is expected to cost $105 million and be completed in November 2018. The mile 0 marker is at the intersection of Kamehameha Avenue, Banyan Drive and Kanoelehua Avenue in Hilo. After about a mile is the intersection with Pūʻāinakō Street, which connects to the Saddle Road. Route 11 continues along Kanoelehua Avenue towards Keaʻau where it becomes Volcano Highway near milepost 4 before crossing into Puna District. Volcano Highway intersects with the terminus of Keaʻau-Pāhoa Road past mile 6 and Old Keaʻau-Pāhoa Road continues through the towns of Kurtistown, Mountain View and Volcano Village. Just beyond the Kaʻū District line, the entrance to Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park at mile 28 marks another name change, back to Māmalahoa Highway.
The two lane road crests just before the mile 30 marker and heads down a long downhill stretch through the Kaʻū desert towards the black sands of Punaluʻu Beach Park, passing macadamia orchards near the town of Pāhala at mile 51 and the Sea Mountain Resort in Nīnole at mile 56. Next are Nāʻālehu, the southernmost community in the USA, Waiʻōhinu, a retreat for Mark Twain. A winding uphill climb yields to a meandering country lane where South Point Road, near mile 69, leads to Ka Lae. Another comfortable stretch of two lane road and a return to highway speeds begins past the mile 71 marker. Māmalahoa Highway crosses Mauna Loa's 1907 Lava Flow — there is a scenic point at mile 75 — before passing through Ocean View between Tiki Lane and Aloha Boulevard. Just past mile 82 is the South Kona District line. Starting at mile 89, Māmalahoa Highway has a steep drop-off along the coastal side. Many small fishing villages dot the coast, including Pāpā Bay, Kona Paradise and Hoʻokena; the macadamia orchards soon give way to another tree crop.
This is Kona coffee Country. Keala o Keawe Road, just before mile 104, serves as access to Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historic Park and St. Benedict's Catholic Church. Further along is the town of Captain Cook, named for the famed English explorer Captain James Cook. Nāpōʻopoʻo Ro
Akoni Pule Highway
The ʻAkoni Pule Highway, Hawaiʻi State Highway Route 270, is the main road along the North Kohala Coast on the Island of Hawaiʻi from Kawaihae to ʻUpolu Point and on to Pololū Valley Lookout. The entire route is 27.0 miles long. Prior to the 1970s, the only means of driving to North Kohala District was along the winding, narrow Kohala Mountain Road; the Hawaiʻi Department of Transportation had plans for a coastal Route 11 along the Kohala Peninsula in the early-1960s to connect with Routes 25 and 27 in Hāwī. However, about the only action taken over the next ten years was the reässignment of highway shield numbers and assigning number 270 to the proposed highway. ʻAkoni Pule, the State legislator who represented North Kohala from 1947 to 1965, pushed for a safer alternative to Kohala Mountain Road and a second access to the towns of Hāwī and Kapaʻau. He was instrumental in providing the necessary state and federal funds to complete construction; the new road was dedicated in his honor in July 1973.
Although Kawaihae Road begins in the town of Waimea as part of the Hawaiʻi Belt Road, Route 270 starts at the T junction near mile 67, where Route 19 becomes known as Queen Kaʻahumanu Highway. The first green mile marker on Kawaihae Road is mile 2 just past the “Queen K,” with the first two miles being absorbed into Route 19 when it was reäligned in 1975. Further south is Samuel M. Spencer Beach Park, a popular spot with a large sandy beach, shaded grassy areas, picnic tables. Adjacent to the park is Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site, a temple built by Kamehameha I in 1790–91 and dedicated to the war god Kū. Kū was pleased, allowed Kamehameha I to wage several subsequent battles using Western military strategy and weapons to extend his control over all Hawaiian Islands. At this site are the smaller Mailekini Heiau, the submerged Hale o Kapuni Heiau, home site of John Young. Passing mile 3, the next feature is the harbor of Kawaihae, built in 1959 as a fuel depot, shipping terminal and military landing site.
The small town surrounding the port features a number of restaurants and art galleries, as well as a popular surfing and canoeing spot. Route 270 branches right onto ʻAkoni Pule Highway at the T junction fronting the harbor (Kawaihae Road continues straight on the former Route 269 spur for another 1,000 feet; the intersection in Kawaihae marks the beginning of ʻAkoni Pule Highway. It starts as a narrow two-lane street but becomes wider, with higher speeds, past the Kāʻei Hana II industrial park; the terrain is dry and rocky since this area is in the rain shadow of Mauna Kea and the Kohala Mountains. Average annual rainfall is from 4–7 inches and wildfires are not uncommon here; the cobalt color of the Pacific Ocean provides a backdrop for the gated communities of Kohala Ranch and Kohala Waterfront. ʻAkoni Pule Highway crosses into North Kohala District near mile 6 and continues along the rocky coastline with only an occasional dirt road leading mauka into rangelands or makai providing access to favored fishing spots.
Just before the mile 14 marker is the entrance to Lapakahi State Historical Park, site of an ancient fishing village that illustrates the traditional land divisions known as ahupuaʻa. The next point-of-interest is Māhukona Park, an abandoned harbor once used by the adjacent Kohala Sugar Mill; this was the terminus for the Hawaiian Railroad, a 20-mile long, three feet gauge track that brought sugarcane from plantations to waiting steamships. The waters are clear and perfect for snorkeling around discarded mill equipment and a shipwreck; as ʻAkoni Pule Highway begins a long, sweeping right curve near mile 15, it moves away from the coast and the landscape takes on a different character: the grass is greener, the trees become more abundant, the air is cooler as the trade winds are able to bring more precipitation to this area. It is recommended that drivers adhere to the speed limit signs in North Kohala. With a low crime rate the police have more time to attend to traffic violations. Across from the mile 20 marker is ʻUpolu Point Road which leads to ʻUpolu Airport and provides access to Moʻokini Heiau and the birthplace of Kamehameha I in the Kohala Historical Sites State Monument.
The small town of Hāwī centers on the crossroads of Hāwī Road and ʻAkoni Pule Highway just beyond mile 21. This area was home to thousands of people in the early 20th century. No less than 56 general stores and operated by first-generation Asian immigrants, were established in the vicinity and a handful of these businesses still are in operation; the entire highway to this point is used for the bicycle leg of the Ironman World Championship Triathlon. At this junction the athletes turn around and return to the finish line at Kamakahonu in Kailua-Kona. Since there are no public roads past Kynnersley Road that connect to the rest of Hawaiʻi Island, Route 270 becomes, in a sense, a 6.5-mile-long cul-de-sac. A short drive further down ʻAkoni. Many public services are based here, including police and fire stations, a hospital, schools and a civic center. In front of the latter stands the original Statue of King Kamehameha the Great, once lost in a shipwreck off South America in 1880 but recovered and sent to Kapaʻau 32 years later.
The road resembles a country lane more than a highway as it passes the former plantation camps that dot the North Kohala Coast. There are three one-lane bridges: two cross gulches midway through the horseshoe curves and the other at mile 26. Caution needs to obey the yield signs. A county park with a picnic pavilion and a gazebo overlooks Kēōkea Bay at the end of Kēōk
Hawaii's 2nd congressional district
Hawaii's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Hawaii. The district encompasses all rural and most suburban areas of Oahu/Honolulu County, as well as the entire state outside of Oahu. Besides Honolulu, the district includes the counties of Kauai, Maui and Hawaii; the district spans 331 miles. The most populous community within the district is Hilo. Major segments of the economy include tourism and agriculture pineapple and sugarcane cultivation; the district is represented by Democrat Tulsi Gabbard. When Hawaii and Alaska were admitted to the Union in 1959, both new states were granted one at-large Representative to Congress pending the next United States Census. In the reapportionment following the 1960 U. S. Census, Hawaii was entitled to a second U. S. Representative. Instead of creating two congressional districts, the state continued to elect its U. S. Representatives at-large. Two representatives were first elected in 1962 and Hawaii was first represented by two U.
S. Representatives on January 2, 1963 upon the convening of the 88th Congress; the 2nd Congressional District was created in 1971 when Hawaii began electing its representatives from districts instead of electing an at-large U. S. Representative statewide; the 2nd Congressional District has been the more Democratic of the state's two districts, with a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+19. In 2004, President George W. Bush received 44 percent of the vote in this district to 56 percent for Democrat John Kerry. In 2008, Democrat and Hawaii native Barack Obama carried this district overwhelmingly with 73 percent of the vote. In 2012, Barack Obama carried this district by a large 71 percent of the vote. In 2016, President Donald Trump received 30 percent of the vote, while his Democratic opponent and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton carried the district with 61 percent of the vote. Under the U. S. Constitution, a candidate for this district only has to be a resident of Hawaii, but does not have to live in the district itself.
The first non-resident to be elected to this U. S. House seat was Ed Case, a Honolulu attorney, though Case was born and raised on the Big Island of Hawaii; the home state office of the Second Congressional District is at the Prince Kuhio Federal Building near Honolulu Harbor. As of April 2018, there are two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Hawaii's 2nd congressional district who are alive. Hawaii's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Mayor of Hawaii County
The Mayor of Hawaii is the chief executive officer of the County of Hawaii in the state of Hawaii. He or she has municipal jurisdiction over the Big Island of Hawaii; the current mayor is Harry Kim. The Mayor of Hawaii County is the successor of the Royal Governors of Hawaii Island of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Hawaii County began electing a mayor in 1968 when the present form of charter government was instituted. For most of the 20th century elected members of the Board of Supervisors, precursor to the Hawaii County Council, chose the chairman, that chairman was the chief operating officer of Hawaii County; that changed in 1964 a year after Act 73 of the 1963 Legislature which enabled counties to draft their own charters. Former Honolulu deputy County Corporation Counsel Shunichi Kimura was elected the last County Chairman in 1964 and the County elected its first mayor in 1968. Bruce McCall, Megumi Kon and Larry Tanimoto all filled out the last few months of their predecessor's terms, in the case of Tanimoto, for Bernard Akana, who died of cancer less than two years into his term.
Lorraine Inouye won a special election to serve out Akana's last two years
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Idaho County, Idaho
Idaho County is a county in the U. S. state of Idaho, the largest by area in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,267; the county seat is Grangeville. Previous county seats of the area were Florence and Mount Idaho. Idaho County's oldest non-native settlements are ghost towns. Discovery of gold occurred in succession at Elk City and Florence during the spring and summer of 1861. At the time, all of the settlements were within Washington Territory. Thousands flocked to Florence; as a result, Idaho County was founded 158 years ago as a region of Washington Territory in 1861, named for a steamer called Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860. It was reorganized by the Idaho Territorial Legislature on February 4, 1864. In this context, the Idaho Territory and the State of Idaho are both preceded by the county name. Settlements at Cottonwood, Mount Idaho, Warrens were established in 1862; the Warrens settlement was a fractured settlement as a result of settlement there by both Union and Confederate affiliated miners.
The Union affiliated miners on the northern edge of the settlement named their portion of the settlement Washington while the Confederate affiliated miners named their portion Richmond. Richmond dwindled by 1866 and Washington went on to become the county seat in 1868 and was the name of the settlement used in most government documents during the period of settlement. Out of all these settlements, only Cottonwood went on to become one of Idaho County's seven incorporated cities. Idaho Territory conducted a census in 1863 and another in 1864. Population data was returned for both years for Warrens, Elk City, Slate Creek, Clearwater Station, Newsome. For 1864, data was returned for the settlements of Mount Idaho, Miller's Camp, Cottonwood. Between 1863 and 1864, Idaho County saw a decrease from 1,601 residents to 955. Settlement at White Bird occurred some time prior to 1870 as a precinct under the same name is listed with 71 inhabitants at the 1870 census. Efforts to force White Bird's band of Nez Perce tribesmen to the Nez Perce Reservation led to a battle at White Bird in 1877.
The town was established in 1891. Grangeville emerged as a town at the 1880 census with 129 residents, it was incorporated as a city in 1904. Ferdinand and Kooskia were settled starting in 1895 and along with Cottonwood and Stites, were all incorporated prior to 1920. Development of Riggins started prior to 1930 with Riggins Village being incorporated in 1948. Idaho County's boundaries have changed more times than any other Idaho County with changes occurring on 20 separate dates over the county's first 57 years; the majority of those changes were from boundary realignment with only three counties taking territory from Idaho County at their creation. Originating at 75,789 square miles, its original boundary under Washington Territory contained the southern portion of Idaho County, Idaho's 34 southern counties, part of Ravalli County and parts of Fremont, Park and Teton counties in Wyoming. Boise was partitioned off in January 1863 with the Payette River being the primary dividing line. In 1864, two separate acts transferred the portion in Montana to Missoula County, established the southern boundary at 44° 30' latitude, made slight adjustments in the northern boundary to define the county as one of Idaho Territory's seven original counties.
Three boundary adjustments were made with Nez Perce and Ada between 1866 and 1867 and Lemhi was created in 1869 from territory east of the junction of the Middle Fork and main Salmon Rivers. In 1873, the southern border was moved north to the divide between the main Salmon River with the Payette River and Middle Fork of Salmon River, bringing the county to its smallest historical land area of 2,901 square miles; the boundary adjustment of 1875 created a county similar to present Idaho County containing an area of 8,165 square miles. Between 1879 and 1885, one change added territory on the Camas Prairie from Nez Perce while another brought back territory in present-day Adams, Valley and Lemhi counties in the south. In 1887, territory was exchanged with Boise County dividing present Valley County between the two counties. One change in 1889 transferred territory to Custer County while another change finalized the county's northern border at its present location; the southern border began to take shape after two changes in 1891 and 1895 exchanged territory between Washington and Idaho counties.
Adjustments with Lemhi in 1903 and 1911 and the creation of Valley County in 1918 brought the county to its present boundary. Idaho County is one of seven counties in the United States that has the same name as the state in which it lies; the other six are Arkansas, Iowa, New York and Utah. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 8,503 square miles, of which 8,477 square miles is land and 26 square miles is water, it is the largest county by area in Idaho. The southeast portion of the Nez Perce Indian Reservation is in the county's northwest corner. There are 4,431,720 acres of National Forest land within the county, more than in any county outside of Alaska. National Forests and their acreage within the county are: Nez Perce National Forest 2,224,091; the Nez Perce National Forest is located within the county's borders, is the largest National Forest lying within a single county. Ida
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance