Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, Gioachino Rossini, whose works influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history. In his early operas, Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy, he participated as an elected politician. The chorus "Va, pensiero" from his early opera Nabucco, similar choruses in operas, were much in the spirit of the unification movement, the composer himself became esteemed as a representative of these ideals. An intensely private person, however, did not seek to ingratiate himself with popular movements and as he became professionally successful was able to reduce his operatic workload and sought to establish himself as a landowner in his native region.
He surprised the musical world by returning, after his success with the opera Aida, with three late masterpieces: his Requiem, the operas Otello and Falstaff. His operas remain popular the three peaks of his'middle period': Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La traviata, the 2013 bicentenary of his birth was celebrated in broadcasts and performances. Verdi, the first child of Carlo Giuseppe Verdi and Luigia Uttini, was born at their home in Le Roncole, a village near Busseto in the Département Taro and within the borders of the First French Empire following the annexation of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza in 1808; the baptismal register, prepared on 11 October 1813, lists his parents Carlo and Luigia as "innkeeper" and "spinner" respectively. Additionally, it lists Verdi as being "born yesterday", but since days were considered to begin at sunset, this could have meant either 9 or 10 October. Following his mother, Verdi always celebrated his birthday on 9 October, the day he himself believed he was born.
Verdi had a younger sister, who died aged 17 in 1833. From the age of four, Verdi was given private lessons in Latin and Italian by the village schoolmaster, at six he attended the local school. After learning to play the organ, he showed so much interest in music that his parents provided him with a spinet. Verdi's gift for music was apparent by 1820–21 when he began his association with the local church, serving in the choir, acting as an altar boy for a while, taking organ lessons. After Baistrocchi's death, Verdi, at the age of eight, became; the music historian Roger Parker points out that both of Verdi's parents "belonged to families of small landowners and traders not the illiterate peasants from which Verdi liked to present himself as having emerged... Carlo Verdi was energetic in furthering his son's education...something which Verdi tended to hide in life... he picture emerges of youthful precocity eagerly nurtured by an ambitious father and of a sustained and elaborate formal education."In 1823, when he was 10, Verdi's parents arranged for the boy to attend school in Busseto, enrolling him in a Ginnasio—an upper school for boys—run by Don Pietro Seletti, while they continued to run their inn at Le Roncole.
Verdi returned to Busseto to play the organ on Sundays, covering the distance of several kilometres on foot. At age 11, Verdi received schooling in Italian, the humanities, rhetoric. By the time he was 12, he began lessons with Ferdinando Provesi, maestro di cappella at San Bartolomeo, director of the municipal music school and co-director of the local Società Filarmonica. Verdi stated: "From the ages of 13 to 18 I wrote a motley assortment of pieces: marches for band by the hundred as many little sinfonie that were used in church, in the theatre and at concerts, five or six concertos and sets of variations for pianoforte, which I played myself at concerts, many serenades and various pieces of church music, of which I remember only a Stabat Mater." This information comes from the Autobiographical Sketch which Verdi dictated to the publisher Giulio Ricordi late in life, in 1879, remains the leading source for his early life and career. Written, with the benefit of hindsight, it is not always reliable when dealing with issues more contentious than those of his childhood.
The other director of the Philharmonic Society was Antonio Barezzi, a wholesale grocer and distiller, described by a contemporary as a "manic dilettante" of music. The young Verdi did not become involved with the Philharmonic. By June 1827, he had graduated with honours from the Ginnasio and was able to focus on music under Provesi. By chance, when he was 13, Verdi was asked to step in as a replacement to play in what became his first public event in his home town. By 1829–30, Verdi had established himself as a leader of the Philharmonic: "none of us could rival him" reported the secretary of the organisation, Giuseppe Demaldè. An eight-movement cantata, I deliri di Saul, based on a drama by Vittorio Alfieri, was written by Verdi when he was 15 and performed in Bergamo, it was acclaimed by both Demaldè and Barezzi, who commented: "He shows a vivid imagination, a philosophical outlook, sound judgment in the arrangement of instrumental parts." In late 1829, Verdi had completed his s
Jun Kaneko is a Japanese ceramic artist living in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. His works in clay explore the effects of repeated abstract surface motifs. In 1942 he was born in Nagoya, where he studied painting during his high school years, he came to the United States in 1963 to continue those studies at Chouinard Art Institute when his focus was drawn to sculptural ceramics through his introduction to Fred Marer. He studied with Peter Voulkos, Paul Soldner, Jerry Rothman in California during the time now defined as the contemporary ceramics movement; the following decade, Kaneko taught at various U. S. art schools, including Scripps College, Cranbrook Academy of Art and Rhode Island School of Design. Kaneko established his third studio in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1990 where he works, he has created work in several experimental studios including European Ceramic Work Center, Otsuka Omi Ceramic Company, Fabric Workshop, Bullseye Glass Co. and A. S. A. P, he created series of large-scale sculptures from 1982-1983 at his Omaha Project, from 1992-1994 at his Fremont Project in California and at his Mission Clay Project in Kansas.
He produced a large Dango series of ceramic pieces resembling vases without openings. The Honolulu Museum of Art has four of these dango permanently installed in a courtyard, his prolific roster of diverse work appears in numerous international solo and group exhibitions annually. Kaneko's technique involves the use of masking tape and colored slips, which he uses to cover free-standing ceramic forms and wall-hung pieces with graphic motifs and markings, he favors the large oval plate as one of his sculptural formats, which serves as a canvas for arrangements of straight and spiraling lines, creating an interplay of abstract imagery on a three-dimensional surface. He designed sets and costumes for opera performances: Opera Omaha's Madama Butterfly and a co production of the San Francisco Opera, Opera Omaha, Opera Carolina and the Washington National Opera, The Magic Flute, his work is included in more than forty museum collections including the Hawaii State Art Museum, the Honolulu Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Museum of Arts and Design, the Museum of Nebraska Art, the Sheldon Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Scripps College, the Shigaraki Ceramics Museum, the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
His most recent collected works is Water Plaza at Bartle Hall in Missouri. He has realized over twenty-five public art commissions around the world, he has been honored with national and organization fellowships and an honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art in London. Polka Dot Sidewalk, 1984, Museum of South Texas History, Texas Salt Palace, 1994, Salt Lake City Tropical Sounds, 2000, Waikiki Aquarium, Honolulu. Untitled, 2000, Hawaii State Art Museum Sculpture Garden Dango, 2001, Honolulu Museum of Art Garden of Tanukis, 2014, Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium, Nebraska Chang, Gordon H. Mark Dean Johnson, Paul J. Karlstrom & Sharon Spain, Asian American Art, a History, 1850-1970, Stanford University Press, ISBN 9780804757515, pp. 346-347 Honolulu Museum of Art, Spalding House Self-guided Tour, Sculpture Garden, 2014, p. 3 Kaneko, Jun, “Jun Kaneko, selected works, 1989-2005, edited by Iwai Mieko”, Japan, Kokuritsu Kokusai Bijutsukan, 2005. Morse and Allison Wong, 10 Years: The Contemporary Museum at First Hawaiian Center, The Contemporary Museum, Honolulu, 2006, ISBN 1888254076, p. 56 Peterson, Susan, “Jun Kaneko / Susan Peterson, foreword by Arthur C.
Danto”, Laurence King, 2001. Public Art in Public Places Project - Southern California and Hawaii. 2014. "Colorbox 1-5". Glass. Victoria and Albert Museum. Archived from the original on 2008-10-08. Retrieved 2008-06-11. Personal website Oral history interview with Jun Kaneko, 2005 May 23- 24, Archives of American Art
President William McKinley High School
President William McKinley High School, more referred to as McKinley High School, is a comprehensive public high school in the Honolulu District of the Hawaii State Department of Education. It serves grades nine through twelve. McKinley is one of three schools in the Kaimuki-McKinley-Roosevelt Complex Area which includes Kaimuki High School and Roosevelt High School, it was founded as Fort Street English Day School in 1865. It was renamed in memorial to William McKinley, the twenty-fifth President of the United States, in 1907. President William McKinley High School is one of the oldest secondary schools in the state and several of its buildings have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the campus displays sculptures by Bumpei Akaji. McKinley High School is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges through 2013. Timeline of notable McKinley High School events 1865 - Fort Street English Day School founded by Maurice B. Beckwith in the basement of the old Fort Street Church.
1869 - English Day School moved to the corner of Fort Street and School Street. 1895 - English Day School moved to Princess Ruth's palace and renamed Honolulu High School. 1907 - Honolulu High School moved to the corner of Beretania Street and Victoria Street and renamed President William McKinley High School. 1923 - McKinley High School moved to its present location on South King Street. 1927 - Marion McCarrell Scott Auditorium dedicated. 1931 - McKinley pool completed and named in honor of the late Fred Wright, former mayor of Honolulu. 1959 - Social studies building completed and named after Hawaiʻi Chief Justice Wilfred Tsukiyama. 1961 - Miles E. Carey cafeteria completed. 1962 - Music building completed. 1964 - Gymnasium completed. 2011 - Ground for a new softball stadium is broken. School Year 2010-2011 Enrollment - 1782 Number of Economically Disadvantaged Students - 1026 Racial composition: Native American - 9 Black - 12 Chinese - 449 Filipino - 347 Native Hawaiian - 173 Japanese - 163 Korean - 110 Portuguese - 10 Samoan - 72 Indo-Chinese - 151 Micronesian - 98 Tongan - 13 Guamanian/Chamorro - 8 White - 78 Other Asian - 10 Other Pacific Islander - 8 Pacific Islander - 1 Multiple - 4 School Year 2001-2002 Total number of teachers - 108 Number of teachers with 5 or more years at this school - 85 Average years of experience - 18.1 Number of teachers with advanced degrees - 32 School Year 2010-2011 Total number of teachers - 98 Number of teachers with 5 or more years at this school - 69 Average years of experience - 17.2 Number of teachers with advanced degrees - 42 McKinley High School is part of the Hawaii Department of Education Kaimuki-McKinley-Roosevelt Complex Area along with Kaimuki High School and Roosevelt High School.
The McKinley Complex consists of 11 elementary and public charter schools including McKinley. Central Middle School Halau Lokahi Public Charter School Kaahumanu Elementary School Kaiulani Elementary School Kauluwela Elementary School Lanakila Elementary School Likelike Elementary School Lunalilo Elementary School Myron B. Thompson Academy Royal Elementary School Voyager Public Charter School McKinley High School feeds from 4 middle schools in the Honolulu area. Central Middle School Prince David Kawananakoa Middle School Robert Louis Stevenson Middle School President George Washington Middle School In 2011, McKinley fielded 56 teams competing in 19 sports; these sports including air riflery, basketball, canoe paddling, cross country, golf, soccer, soft tennis, tennis and field, water polo, wrestling. McKinley competes in the Oahu Interscholastic Association. McKinley has fielded girls teams in basketball and swimming as early as in the 1910s; some years fielded girls baseball team before softball became recognized as its own sport.
The yearbooks of those early years noted games against St. Andrew's Priory, YWCA, Normal School, College of Hawaii. McKinley was a founding member of the Interscholastic League of Honolulu in 1909 alongside Punahou and Kamehameha. In 1970, McKinley left the ILH with 4 other Honolulu area public schools to join the OIA; the 1933 football team traveled across the Pacific Ocean and went on to defeat Weber College, BYU freshmen team, Ricks College. Ricks College traveled to Honolulu the following year. McKinley won again by the score of 24-6 in a game attended by about 19,000 fans; the McKinley Tigers varsity football team competes in the Oahu Interscholastic Association Red-East division. Joseph Cho has served as the team's head coach since 2010. For the 2010 and 2011 seasons, McKinley's Tiger football team competed in the Oahu Interscholastic Association White Division along with 7 other Oahu public schools including rival Kaimuki High School. In 2012, the football team was promoted to the OIA Red-East Division where it competes with 6 other Oahu public schools.
The Tigers' homefield is the 3000 seat Ticky Vasconcellos Stadium on the Roosevelt High School campus. In September 2012, the McKinley football team traveled to Corvallis, Oregon to play the OSAA 4A champions La Salle High School Falcons on the campus of Crescent Valley High School. McKinley won 43-22. In September 2008, it was announced that McKinley was planning to upgrade its aging athletic facilities. Expected to cost more than $121 million, the upgrade
A Little Night Music
A Little Night Music is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Hugh Wheeler. Inspired by the Ingmar Bergman film Smiles of a Summer Night, it involves the romantic lives of several couples, its title is a literal English translation of the German name for Mozart's Serenade No. 13 for strings in G major, Eine kleine Nachtmusik. The musical includes the popular song "Send In the Clowns". Since its original 1973 Broadway production, the musical has enjoyed professional productions in the West End, by opera companies, in a 2009 Broadway revival, elsewhere, it is a popular choice for regional groups, it was adapted for film in 1977, with Harold Prince directing and Elizabeth Taylor, Len Cariou, Lesley-Anne Down, Diana Rigg starring. The setting is Sweden, around the year 1900. One by one, the Quintet – five singers who comment like a Greek chorus throughout the show – enter, tuning up, their vocalizing becomes an overture blending fragments of "Remember", "Soon" and "The Glamorous Life", leading into the first "Night Waltz".
The other characters enter waltzing, each uncomfortable with her partner. After they drift back off, the aging and sardonic Madam Armfeldt and her solemn granddaughter, enter. Madam Armfeldt tells the child that the summer night "smiles" three times: first on the young, second on fools, third on the old. Fredrika vows to watch the smiles occur. Middle-aged Fredrik Egerman is a successful lawyer, he has married an 18-year-old trophy wife, Anne, a naive girl who loves Fredrik but is too immature to grasp the concept of marriage. The two have been married for eleven months. Fredrik plots how he might seduce his wife. Meanwhile, his son Henrik, a seminary student a year older than his stepmother, is frustrated and ignored. Anne promises her husband that shortly she will consent to have sex, which leads into all three of them lamenting at once. Anne's maidservant Petra, an experienced and forthright girl older than the teen herself, offers her worldly but crass advice. Desiree Armfeldt is a prominent and glamorous actress, now reduced to touring in small towns.
Madam Armfeldt, Desiree's mother, has taken over the care of Desiree's daughter Fredrika. Fredrika misses her mother, but Desiree continually delays going to see her, somewhat "The Glamorous Life", she is performing near Fredrik's home, Fredrik brings Anne to see the play. While there, Desiree notices Fredrik in the audience. Anne and annoyed at Desiree's amorous glances, demands that Fredrik take her home immediately. Meanwhile, Petra tries to seduce a petulant Henrik; that night, as Fredrik remembers his past with Desiree, he sneaks out to see her. They reflect on their new lives, Fredrik tries to explain how much he loves Anne. Desiree responds sarcastically and boasts of her own adultery, as she has been seeing the married dragoon, Count Carl-Magnus Malcolm. Upon learning that Fredrik has gone for eleven months without sex, she agrees to accommodate him as a favor for an old friend. Madam Armfeldt offers advice to young Fredrika; the elderly woman reflects poignantly on her own checkered past, wonders what happened to her refined "Liaisons".
Back in Desiree's apartment, Count Carl-Magnus Malcolm proclaims his unannounced arrival in his usual booming tones. Fredrik and Desiree fob off the Count with an innocent explanation for their disheveled appearance, but he is still suspicious, he dislikes Fredrik and returns to his wife, Countess Charlotte. Charlotte is quite aware of her husband's infidelity, but Carl-Magnus is too absorbed in his suspicions of Desiree to talk to her; when she persuades him to blurt out the whole story, a twist is revealed—Charlotte's little sister is a schoolfriend of Anne's. Charlotte describes Fredrik's tryst with Desiree. Anne is shocked and saddened, but Charlotte explains that such is the lot of a wife, love brings pain. Meanwhile, Desiree asks Madam Armfeldt to host a party for Fredrik and Henrik. Though reluctant, Madam Armfeldt agrees, she sends out a personal invitation. Anne does not want to accept the invitation, but Charlotte convinces her to do so to heighten the contrast between the older woman and the young and beautiful teenager.
Charlotte relates this to the Count. Carl-Magnus plans to challenge Fredrik to a duel, while Charlotte hopes to seduce the lawyer to make her husband jealous and end his philandering; the act ends. Madam Armfeldt's country estate is bathed in the golden glow of perpetual summer sunset at this high latitude. Everyone arrives, each with their own amorous purposes and desires—even Petra, who catches the eye of Armfeldt's fetching manservant, Frid; the women begin to quarrel with one another. Fredrik is astonished to learn the name of Desiree's daughter. Henrik meets Fredrika, confesses his deep love for Anne to her. Meanwhile, in the garden and Carl-Magnus reflect on how difficult it is to be annoyed with Desiree, agreeing "It Would Have Been Wonderful" had she not been quite so wonderful. Dinner is served, the characters' "Perpetual Anticipation" enlivens the meal. At dinner, Charlotte attempts to flirt with Fredrik, trades insults with Desiree. Soon, everyone is shouting and scolding everyone else, except for Henrik, who speaks up.
He accuses the whole company of
Neal S. Blaisdell Center
The Neal S. Blaisdell Center near downtown Honolulu, Hawaii is a community center for the City & County of Honolulu. Constructed in 1964 on the historic Ward Estate and called the Honolulu International Center, the center was renamed after Mayor of Honolulu Neal S. Blaisdell, who oversaw its construction; the multi-purpose complex is composed of an internationally renowned arena, concert hall, conference rooms and exhibition hall. It was remodeled and expanded in 1994; the complex is overseen by the City's Department of Enterprise Services which oversees the Waikiki Shell. The City is seeking to redevelop the site with extensive stakeholder and public involvement to assess the community’s goals. Implementation of this plan will require significant investment by the City and its partners over the coming years, the outcome will be an iconic symbol of the City and County of Honolulu; the Neal S. Blaisdell Arena is a circular performance facility used for concerts and major sporting events; the arena can accommodate 7,700 seats for sports events, up to 8,800 seats for stage events with seats set up on the arena floor.
Elvis Presley's "Aloha from Hawaii" concert was held here on January 14, 1973. In recognition of the concert, a bronze statue of Elvis was installed in 2007 outside the front of the arena; the statue was sponsored by the cable channel TV Land. Other events at the arena include WWE, Disney on Ice, American Idol Live!, Sesame Street Live, college basketball and volleyball, international gymnastics, as well as a fundraising concert for victims of Hurricane Iniki, with Crosby, Stills & Nash, Jackson Browne & Bonnie Raitt, a 1965 Billy Graham crusade. Other music artists that have performed at the arena include The Bun E Carlos Experience, Mariah Carey, Aerosmith, Van Halen, Bon Jovi, Elton John, Journey and Bruno Mars. During a circus performance in 1994, Tyke, an African Elephant, killed her trainer and charged out of the arena in rage; the animal rampaged outside the arena for 30 minutes before police fired 86 rounds at the elephant, who collapsed and died as a result of the shootings. The Philippine TV show ASAP performed at the Neal S. Blaisdell Arena on June 30, 2018 through an international concert titled ASAP Live in Honolulu.
The Arena hosts the start of the exhibition season for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association and the men's and women's basketball and volleyball games for Hawaii Pacific University, the state's largest private university. It served as the home court for University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa basketball until UH built the Stan Sheriff Center on campus in 1994; the arena was the home venue for several short-lived attempts to establish Hawaii professional sports teams, including the Hawaii Volcanos of the Continental Basketball Association, the Hawaii Hurricanes of the American Basketball Association, the Hawaii Leis of World Team Tennis and three indoor football teams: the Honolulu Hurricanes, the Hawaii Hammerheads, the af2's Hawaiian Islanders, the Arena Football League All-Star game of 2013. The Leis and Islanders each persisted for three full seasons, the longest of all the pro teams based at the arena. In 1982, the arena served as home court for Chaminade University in a Christmas Eve upset of a Ralph Sampson-led number one ranked University of Virginia, 77-72.
In November 2006, the Professional Bull Riders hosted the Cheeseburger Island Style PBR Hawaii All-Star Challenge, a special event that took place between the 2006 PBR World Finals and the start of the 2007 PBR season. Many graduation and commencement ceremonies are held by schools in the arena and concert hall in late May and June; the arena hosts the WWE's flagship shows and SmackDown LIVE for two nights, starts from June 25 to 26, 2018. With a capacity of 2,158 seats, the Neal S. Blaisdell Concert Hall is the home of the Honolulu Symphony and the Hawaiʻi Opera Theatre. Broadway productions such as The Phantom of the Opera, Les Misérables, Miss Saigon, Chicago and other national touring shows have performed at the concert hall. In the fall and early winter of 2007 the concert hall was host to the Broadway musical The Lion King, a booking which displaced the Honolulu Symphony from its usual home and led to a major cash flow crisis for the orchestra. Located between the Concert Hall and the Arena, the Exhibition Hall provides 65,000 square feet of exhibition space on the main floor, expandable to 85,000 square feet when combined with adjoining spaces.
Five meeting rooms are available in the hall. The Exhibition Hall accommodates numerous local trade and consumer shows and fundraising events throughout the year, is one of the main exhibition venues in Honolulu in addition to the Hawaii Convention Center; the Exhibition Hall hosts events throughout the year such as craft fairs, gun shows, family expos, job fairs, food & product shows, as well as private tradeshows. Many religious ceremonies have been performed in the Neal S. Blaisdell Center; the largest of which were the enthronement of Joseph Anthony Ferrario as the third Bishop of Honolulu and the ordination and installation of Clarence Richard Silva as the fifth Bishop of Honolulu, overseeing the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. Kamehameha Schools has held their annual Song Contest at the Blaisdell since 1964. On December 23, 1982, what is considered by many as the greatest upset in sports history happened at the Blaisdell Arena as the number 1-ranked University of Virginia Cavaliers, led by future Hall of Famer Ralph Sampson, were beaten 77-72 by Chaminade University, a small NAIA school with a student body of 800.
List of concert halls Tyke the elephant
Yakuza known as gokudō, are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan. The Japanese police, media by request of the police, call them bōryokudan, while the Yakuza call themselves ninkyō dantai; the Western equivalent for the term Yakuza is gangster, meaning an individual involved in a Mafia-like criminal organization. The Yakuza are notorious for their strict codes of conduct, their organized fiefdom nature, several unconventional ritual practices such as "Yubitsume". Yakuza members are described as males with tattooed bodies and slicked hair, yet this group is still regarded as being among "the most sophisticated and wealthiest criminal organizations."At their height, the Yakuza maintained a large presence in the Japanese media and operated internationally. In fact, in the early 1960s police estimated that the Yakuza had a membership of 184,100. However, in recent years their numbers have dwindled with the latest figure from the National Police Agency estimating that as of 2016 the number of members in all 22 designated gangs was 39,100.
This decline is attributed to changing market opportunities and several legal and social developments in Japan which discourage the growth of Yakuza membership. Yet, despite their dwindling numbers, the Yakuza still engage in an array of criminal activities, many Japanese citizens remain fearful of the threat these individuals pose to their safety. However, there remains no strict prohibition on Yakuza membership in Japan today, although much legislation has been passed by the Japanese government aimed at increasing liability for criminal activities and impeding revenue; the name Yakuza originates from the traditional Japanese card game Oicho-Kabu, a game in which the goal is to draw three cards adding up to a score of 9. If the sum of the cards exceeds 10, the second digit is used as the score instead, if the sum is 10, the score is 1. If the three cards drawn are 8-9-3, the sum is 20 and therefore the score is zero, making it the worst possible hand that can be drawn. Despite uncertainty about the single origin of Yakuza organizations, most modern Yakuza derive from two classifications which emerged in the mid-Edo period: tekiya, those who peddled illicit, stolen, or shoddy goods.
Tekiya were considered one of the lowest social groups during the Edo period. As they began to form organizations of their own, they took over some administrative duties relating to commerce, such as stall allocation and protection of their commercial activities. During Shinto festivals, these peddlers opened stalls and some members were hired to act as security; each peddler paid rent in exchange for a stall protection during the fair. The tekiya were a structured and hierarchical group with the oyabun at the top and kobun at the bottom; this hierarchy resembles a structure similar to the family as the oyabun was regarded as a surrogate father, the kobun as surrogate children. During the Edo period, the tekiya were formally recognized by the government. At this time, the oyabun were appointed as supervisors and granted near-samurai status meaning they were allowed the dignity of a surname and two swords. Bakuto had a much lower social standing than traders, as gambling was illegal. Many small gambling houses cropped up in abandoned temples or shrines at the edge of towns and villages all over Japan.
Most of these gambling houses ran loan sharking businesses for clients, they maintained their own security personnel. The places themselves, as well as the bakuto, were regarded with disdain by society at large, much of the undesirable image of the Yakuza originates from bakuto; because of the economic situation during the mid-period and the predominance of the merchant class, developing Yakuza groups were composed of misfits and delinquents that had joined or formed Yakuza groups to extort customers in local markets by selling fake or shoddy goods. The roots of the Yakuza can still be seen today in initiation ceremonies, which incorporate tekiya or bakuto rituals. Although the modern Yakuza has diversified, some gangs still identify with the other. During the formation of the Yakuza, they adopted the traditional Japanese hierarchical structure of oyabun-kobun where kobun owe their allegiance to the oyabun. In a much period, the code of jingi was developed where loyalty and respect are a way of life.
The oyabun-kobun relationship is formalized by ceremonial sharing of sake from a single cup. This ritual is not exclusive to the Yakuza—it is commonly performed in traditional Japanese Shinto weddings, may have been a part of sworn brotherhood relationships. During the World War II period in Japan, the more traditional tekiya/bakuto form of organization declined as the entire population was mobilised to participate in the war effort and society came under strict military government. However, after the war, the Yakuza adapted again. Prospective Yakuza come from all walks of life; the most romantic tales tell how Yakuza accept sons who have been abandoned or exiled by their parents. Many Yakuza start out in junior high school or high school as common street thugs or members of bōsōzoku gangs; because of its lower socio-economic status, numerous Yakuza me
Madama Butterfly is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. It is based on the short story "Madame Butterfly" by John Luther Long, which in turn was based on stories told to Long by his sister Jennie Correll and on the semi-autobiographical 1887 French novel Madame Chrysanthème by Pierre Loti. Long's version was dramatized by David Belasco as the one-act play Madame Butterfly: A Tragedy of Japan, after premiering in New York in 1900, moved to London, where Puccini saw it in the summer of that year; the original version of the opera, in two acts, had its premiere on 17 February 1904 at La Scala in Milan. It was poorly received, despite having such notable singers as soprano Rosina Storchio, tenor Giovanni Zenatello and baritone Giuseppe De Luca in lead roles; this was due in part to a late completion by Puccini. Puccini revised the opera, splitting the second act in two, with the Humming Chorus as a bridge to what became Act III, making other changes.
Success ensued. Madama Butterfly has become a staple of the operatic repertoire around the world, ranked 6th by Operabase. Puccini wrote five versions of the opera; the original two-act version, presented at the world premiere at La Scala on 17 February 1904, was withdrawn after the disastrous premiere. Puccini substantially rewrote it, this time in three acts; this second version was performed on 28 May 1904 in Brescia. It was this second version that premiered in the United States in 1906, first in Washington, D. C. in October, in New York in November, performed by Henry Savage's New English Opera Company. In 1906, Puccini wrote a third version, performed at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. In 1907, Puccini made several changes in the orchestral and vocal scores, this became the fourth version, performed in Paris. In 1907, Puccini made his final revisions to the opera in a fifth version, which has become known as the "Standard Version" and is the one, most performed around the world. However, the original 1904 version is performed, such as for the opening of La Scala's season on 7 December 2016, with Riccardo Chailly conducting.
Premieres of the standard version in major opera houses throughout the world include those in the Teatro de la Opera de Buenos Aires on 2 July 1904, under Arturo Toscanini, this being the first performance in the world outside Italy. Its first performance in Britain was in London on 10 July 1905 at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, while the first US performance was presented in English on 15 October 1906, in Washington, D. C. at the Columbia Theater. The first performance in New York took place on 12 November of the same year at the Garden Theatre; the Metropolitan Opera first performed the work on 11 February 1907 in the presence of the composer with Geraldine Farrar as Cio-Cio San, Enrico Caruso as Pinkerton, Louise Homer as Suzuki, Antonio Scotti as Sharpless, Arturo Vigna conducting. Three years the first Australian performance was presented at the Theatre Royal in Sydney on 26 March 1910, starring Amy Eliza Castles. Between 1915 and 1920, Japan's best-known opera singer Tamaki Miura won international fame for her performances as Cio-Cio-san.
A memorial to this singer, along with one to Puccini, can be found in the Glover Garden in the port city of Nagasaki, where the opera is set. Time: 1904. Place: Nagasaki, Japan. In 1904, a U. S. naval officer named Pinkerton rents a house on a hill in Nagasaki, for himself and his soon-to-be wife, "Butterfly". Her real name is Ciocio-san, she is a 15-year-old Japanese girl whom he is marrying for convenience, he intends to leave her once he finds a proper American wife, since Japanese divorce laws are lax. The wedding is to take place at the house. Butterfly had been so excited to marry an American that she had earlier secretly converted to Christianity. After the wedding ceremony, her uninvited uncle, a bonze, who has found out about her conversion, comes to the house, curses her and orders all the guests to leave, which they do while renouncing her. Pinkerton and Butterfly prepare to spend their first night together. Three years Butterfly is still waiting for Pinkerton to return, as he had left shortly after their wedding.
Her maid Suzuki keeps trying to convince her that he is not coming back, but Butterfly will not listen to her. Goro, the marriage broker who arranged her marriage, keeps trying to marry her off again, but she does not listen to him either; the American consul, comes to the house with a letter which he has received from Pinkerton which asks him to break some news to Butterfly: that Pinkerton is coming back to Japan, but Sharpless cannot bring himself to finish it because Butterfly becomes excited to hear that Pinkerton is coming back. Sharpless asks Butterfly, she reveals that she gave birth to Pinkerton's son after he had left and asks Sharpless to tell him. From the hill house, Butterfly sees Pinkerton's ship arriving in the harbour, she and Suzuki prepare for his arrival, they wait. Suzuki and the child Butterfly stays up all night waiting for him to arrive. Suzuki wakes up in the morning and Butterfly falls asleep. Sharpless and Pinkerton arrive at the house, along with Kate, they have come