Ala Moana, Honolulu
Ala Moana is a commercial and residential district of Honolulu, Hawaiʻi. It is nestled between Waikīkī to Kakaʻako and Honolulu Harbor to the west. King Street, to the north, marks the border with the neighborhood of Makiki. Ala Moana is situated along the southern shores of the island of Oʻahu and features a vast stretch of reef-protected white sandy beaches; the main roads through Ala Moana are Kapiʻolani Boulevard. Ala Moana is a major transfer point in Honolulu's bus system. Across the street from Ala Moana Center is Ala Moana Beach Park, dedicated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930's; the civic center of Ala Moana is Ala Moana Center, once the largest shopping center in the United States and the largest open-air shopping center in the world. The shopping center was developed by Don Graham and opened August 13, 1959; the area is experiencing residential and retail growth in addition to the shopping center. A new name, Midtown Ala Moana, has been coined to promote the area; the ancient Hawaiian name for the area was Kâlia.
It included many fishponds, taro fields and residences for the fishermen. The land was sold in 1861 to Lot Kamehameha; the parcel passed into Bernice Pauahi Bishop’s holdings and became part of the Bishop Estate which put the parcel up for sale around the time of Bernice Pauahi Bishop’s death in 1884. It was sold to Walter F. Dillingham in 1912 for $30,000. Dillingham established the Hawaiian Dredging Company in 1902 to build harbors along his father’s OR&L Co.’s lines and, shortly thereafter, won the U. S. Navy contract to dredge the entrance channel to Pearl Harbor; the parcel of land in Kalia provided a dumping spot for excess fill from dredging Pearl Harbor, creating the opportunity for future development. Honolulu’s 1939-1944 master plan had zoned the property for hotels and apartments with a street grid through the site. A 1949 feasibility survey by Skidmore Owings & Merrill convinced the developer, the Hawaiian Land Company, a newly formed subsidiary company of the Hawaiian Dredging Company headed by Walter Dillingham’s son Lowell, to request a change in zoning in order to develop the property into a shopping center.
The study, prior to the construction of most of the island’s shopping centers, had found that urban Honolulu was underserved by retail outlets and that parking had become difficult in the downtown shopping area
American Routes is a weekly two-hour public radio program that presents the breadth and depth of the American musical and cultural landscape. Hosted by Nick Spitzer, American Routes is syndicated by 225 stations, with over half a million listeners, it is produced out of New Orleans and distributed by PRX. American Routes is the most heard regular presence for tradition-derived and community-based music on public radio today; the show was launched in November 1997 on WWOZ in New Orleans. It was created by Nick Spitzer and Mary Beth Kirchner, who had worked together producing segments for All Things Considered. By 1998, American Routes was syndicated by American Public Radio for 39 stations. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, production of the show temporarily relocated to KRVS 88.7 FM at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette in Lafayette, Louisiana. While in Lafayette and his crew produced a series of shows called "After the Storm," which "followed the rebuilding of the Gulf Coast through the stories and songs of its musicians."Production operations have since returned to New Orleans with studios now at Tulane University.
In July 2008, American Routes announced an affiliation with Tulane. American Routes celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 16, 2009, with a concert at the House of Blues in New Orleans. Performers included Trombone Shorty and Al Johnson. Performances and interviews from the show were included in a program that aired the week of February 18, 2009. American Routes has more than 300 original shows in its catalog, a database of over 1000 hours of interviews; as of July 6, the program will switch distributors from APM to the Public Radio Exchange, although it will continue to be distributed on the public radio satellite system. It is the second major public radio series to switch to the web-based distributor from one of the "Big 3" public radio distributors, after Sound Opinions switched from APM last year; every American Routes show is two hours long. The show consists of songs arranged around interviews of musicians or field audio from various cultural events or institutions; the music is chosen to complement the theme of the show.
You can find archived radio shows featuring playlists of specific artists and styles to choose from, streaming 24/7 at American Routes Nick Spitzer has hosted the public radio show American Routes since its 1997 premiere. He was Louisiana's first State Folklorist, the founding director of the Louisiana Folklife Program, he has been the senior folklife specialist at the Smithsonian Institution, a commentator and producer for NPR, CBS and ABC. Nick Spitzer is the editor and co-writer of numerous books, including Public Folklore and Blues for New Orleans: Mardi Gras and America’s Creole Soul, he was named the Louisiana Humanist of the Year in 2006 for his work towards cultural recovery after Hurricane Katrina. He is a professor of Anthropology and American Studies at Tulane University.. Notable interviews featured on American Routes include: As of April 2018: Nick Spitzer – Host and Producer Mary Beth Kirchner – Founding Executive Producer Betsy Shepherd – Managing Producer & Editor Garrett Pittman – Associate Producer Olivia Broslawsky – Assistant Producer Jason Rhein – Technical Supervisor Lauren Callihan — Development Associate American Routes with Nick Spitzer: Songs and Stories from the Road Our New Orleans: A Benefit Album American Routes American Routes via streaming audio
Music of Hawaii
The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles like slack-key guitar are well-known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks. Hawaii made a contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar. In addition, the music which began to be played by Puerto Ricans in Hawaii in the early 1900s is called cachi cachi music, on the islands of Hawaii. Music of Hawaiian people is religious in nature, includes chanting and dance music. Hawaiian music has had a notable impact on the music of other Polynesian islands. Major music festivals in Hawaii include the Merrie Monarch Hula Festival, which brings together hula groups from across the world, as well as a number of slack-key and steel guitar festivals: Big Island Slack Key Guitar Festival, Steel Guitar Association Festival and the Gabby Pahinui/Atta Isaacs Slack Key Festival.
April's Aloha Week is a popular tourist attraction, as is the Moloka'i Music Festival held around Labor Day. There was a Hawaii International Jazz Festival, which ran from 1993 until 2007; the annual Pacific Rim Jazz Festival occurs in mid-autumn at the Hawaii Convention Center. The annual Manoa Jazz & Heritage Festival takes place in early autumn at the Andrews Amphitheatre on the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa campus. Hawaii is home to numerous hotels, many of which feature music in the evening. Large music venues in Hawaii include the University of Hawaii at Hilo Performing Arts Center, which has 600 seats and is the largest venue on the Big Island. A 560-seat venue and cultural exhibition center on Kauai is the Kauai Community College Performing Arts Center. In Honolulu, the Neal S. Blaisdell Center Arena, Concert Hall, Exhibition Hall are three of the largest venues in the state. Other venues for Hawaiian music on Oahu include the Waikiki Shell an establishment used for concerts and entertainment purposes.
Over the years many local, as well as international artists have graced the stage there. It is unique outdoor theater located in Kapiolani Park; this venue seats 2,400 persons, with the capacity to hold up to 6,000 more on the lawn area. Concerts, graduation ceremonies and hula shows are popular at this site; as well as Kennedy Theatre and Andrews Amphitheatre on the campus of the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the Blaisdell Center Concert Hall, the Hawaii Theatre in downtown Honolulu, the Red Elephant, Paliku Theatre on the campus of Windward Community College and the Leeward Community College Theatre. The historic Lanai Theatre is a cultural landmark on Lanai, dating back to the 1930s. Hawaii is home to a number of renowned music institutions in several fields; the Honolulu Symphony Orchestra is an important part of the state's musical history, is the oldest orchestra in the United States west of the Rocky Mountains, founded in 1900. The Orchestra has collaborated with other local institutions, like the Hawaii Opera Theatre and the Oʻahu Choral Society, which sponsors the Honolulu Symphony Chorus and the Honolulu Chamber Choir.
Numerous businesses have been created supporting the special musical styles and instruments suited to the Hawaiian musical tradition. The Guitar and Lute Workshop was an early manufacturer and proponent of specialty slack-key guitars in the early 1970s, the Kamaka Ukulele company was established as key manufacturer of ukuleles for Hawaiian musical acts. Hawaiian folk music includes several varieties of chanting and music meant for ritualized dance. Traditional Hawaiian music and dance was functional, used to express praise, communicate genealogy and mythology, accompany games and other secular events; the Hawaiian language has no word that translates as music, but a diverse vocabulary exists to describe rhythms, instruments and elements of voice production. Hawaiian folk music is simple in melody and rhythm, but is "complex and rich" in the "poetry, accompanying mimetic dance, subtleties of vocal styles... in the attenuated forms in which they survive today". The chant is accompanied by an ipu heke and/or pahu.
Some dances require dancers to utilize hula implements such as an ipu, ʻiliʻili,ʻuliʻuli, pu`ʻli or kalaʻau. The older, formal kind of hula is called kahiko. There are religious chants called ʻoli. In the pre-contact Hawaiian language, the word mele referred to any kind of poetic expression, though it now translates as song; the two kinds of Hawaiian chanting were mele mele hula. The first were a cappella individual songs, while the latter were accompanied dance music performed by a group; the chanters were known as haku mele and were trained composers and performers. Some kinds of chants express emotions like angst and affection, or request a favor from another person. Other chants are for specific purposes like naming, prayer and genealogical recitations. Mele chants were governed by strict rules, were performed in a number of styles
Kailua, Hawaii County, Hawaii
Kailua is an unincorporated city in Hawaiʻi County, United States, in the North Kona District of the Island of Hawaiʻi. The population was 11,975 at the 2010 census, up from 9,870 at the 2000 census, it is of the tourist industry on West Hawaiʻi. Its post office is designated Kailua-Kona to differentiate it from Kailua located on the windward side of Oʻahu island, it is sometimes referred to as Kona in everyday speech; the city is served by Kona International Airport, located just to the north in the adjacent Kalaoa CDP. Kailua-Kona was the closest major settlement to the epicenter of the 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake; the community was established by King Kamehameha I to be his seat of government when he was chief of Kona before he consolidated rule of the archipelago in 1795. It was designated as the capital of the newly unified Kingdom of Hawaiʻi; the capital was moved to Lāhainā, to Honolulu. Royal fishponds at Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park were the hub of unified Hawaiian culture.
The town functioned as a retreat of the Hawaiian royal family. Up until the late 1900s, Kailua-Kona was a small fishing village. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the region has undergone a real estate and construction boom fueled by tourism and investment. Kailua is located at 19°39′0″N 155°59′39″W, along the shoreline of Kailua Bay and up the southern slope of Hualālai volcano. There streams in Kailua or on the Kona side of Hawaii. According to the United States Census Bureau, the City has a total area of 39.9 square miles, of which 35.6 square miles are land and 4.2 square miles, or 10.67%, are water. Kailua-Kona is bordered to the north by Kalaoa, to the south by Holualoa, to the west by the Pacific Ocean from Kailua Bay in the south to Honokohau Bay in the north; the Kailua-Kona postal code is 96740. Kona has a tropical, semi-arid climate with warm temperatures year-round, typical of its latitude in the tropics, it is the warmest place in the United States of America in January on average.
The coolest month is February, with an average high temperature of 81.2 °F, while the warmest is August, with an average high of 86.9 °F. In addition to being the warmest place in the United States in January, it is the city with the highest record low in the United States with an all-time low temperature of 56 °F. Humidity is between 50% and 70%. Kona is dry, with an average annual precipitation of 32.05 inches. Mornings are clear, while thermal clouds created in the day raise the temperature during the day. Vog can cover parts of the Kona coast from time to time depending on the activity of the Kilauea volcano and the island winds. Kailua-Kona is located on the leeward side of the Hualalai Volcano, sheltering the town from wind and rain; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,870 people, 3,537 households, 2,429 families residing in the City. The population density was 278.0 people per square mile. There were 4,322 housing units at an average density of 121.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the City was 38.7% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 18.3% Asian, 13.2% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, 27.07% from two or more races.
10.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,537 households out of which 35.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families. 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.26. In the City the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. The median income for a household in the City was $40,874, the median income for a family was $46,657. Males had a median income of $30,353 versus $26,471 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $20,624. 10.8% of the population and 6.5% of families were below the poverty line.
Out of the total population, 11.9% of those under the age of 18 and 3.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Kailua-Kona saw an economic downturn during the 2008 national financial crisis but in the early 2010s has seen significant growth and economic development. Tourism saw a downturn in the late 2000s but has since seen some resurgence; the University of Hawaii has plans for its Hawaii Community College Palamanui Campus. Since the early 2000s the Kona side has seen significant amounts of vog from Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Kīlauea via wind patterns up the South Kona Coast around Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Visitor industry statistics show. Kailua is the start and finish of the annual Ironman World Championship triathlon, the annual Kona Coffee Festival, the Hawaiian International Billfish Tournament. Kona coffee is the variety of Coffea arabica cultivated on the slopes of Hualālai and Mauna Loa in the North and South Kona Districts. Ali'i Drive, Kailua's oceanfront downtown street, starts at Kailua Pier.
It has been given the designation as a Hawaii Scenic Byway called the "Royal Footsteps Along the Kona Coast". This byway features archaeological sites. North of the pier is the Kamakahonu royal residence and Ahuʻena
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b
BBC World Service
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays. In November 2016 the BBC announced again that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo, in its biggest expansion since the 1940s. In 2015 World Service reached an average of 210 million people a week; the English-language service broadcasts 24 hours a day. The World Service is funded by the United Kingdom's television licence fee, limited advertising and the profits of BBC Worldwide Ltd; the service is guaranteed £289 million from the UK government. The World Service was funded for decades by grant-in-aid through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the British Government until 1 April 2014. BBC World Service English maintains eight different regional feeds with several program variations, covering East and South Africa.
There are two separate online-only streams with one being more news-oriented, known as News Internet. The controller of BBC World Service English is Mary Hockaday; the BBC World Service began in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service, broadcasting on shortwave and aimed principally at English-speakers across the British Empire. In his first Christmas Message, King George V characterised the service as intended for "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them". First hopes; the Director General, Sir John Reith said in the opening programme:"Don't expect too much in the early days. The programmes will neither be interesting nor good." This address was read out five times. On 3 January 1938 the first foreign-language service was launched - in Arabic. Programmes in German started on 29 March 1938, by the end of 1942 the BBC had started broadcasts in all major European languages; as a result, the Empire Service was renamed the BBC Overseas Service in November 1939, supplemented by the addition of a dedicated BBC European Service from 1941.
Funding for these services - known administratively as the External Services of the BBC - came not from the domestic licence-fee but from government grant-in-aid. The External Services broadcast propaganda during the Second World War of 1939-1945, its French service Radio Londres sent coded messages to the French Resistance. George Orwell broadcast many news bulletins on the Eastern Service during World War II. By the end of the 1940s the number of broadcast languages had expanded and reception had improved, following the opening of a relay in modern-day Malaysia and of the Limassol relay in Cyprus in 1957. On 1 May 1965 the service took its current name of BBC World Service, it expanded its reach with the opening of the Ascension Island relay in 1966, serving African audiences with a stronger signal and better reception, with the relay on the Island of Masirah in Oman. In August 1985 the service went off-air for the first time when workers went on strike in protest at the British government's decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin.
Subsequently, financial pressures decreased the number and the types of services offered by the BBC. Audiences in countries with wide access to Internet services have less need for terrestrial radio. Broadcasts in German ended in March 1999, after research showed that the majority of German listeners tuned into the English-language service. Broadcasts in Dutch, French, Italian and Malay stopped for similar reasons. On 25 October 2005, the BBC announced that broadcasts in Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Slovak and Thai would end by March 2006, to finance the launch in 2007 of television news-services in Arabic and Persian. Additionally, Romanian broadcasts ceased on 1 August 2008. In January 2011 the closure of the Albanian, Portuguese for Africa and English for the Caribbean services was announced; this reflected the financial situation the Corporation faced following transfer of responsibility for the Service from the Foreign Office, so that it would in future have been funded from within licence-fee income.
The Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese and Spanish for Cuba services ceased radio broadcasting, the Hindi, Kyrgyz, Swahili and Kirundi services ceased shortwave transmissions. The British government announced that the three Balkan countries had wide access to international information, so broadcasts in the local languages had become unnecessary. 650 jobs went as part of the 16% budget cut. The Service broadcasts from Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the Corporation, it is located in the newer parts of the building, which contains radio and television studios for use by the various language services. The building contains an integrated newsroom used by the international World Service, the international television channel BBC World News, the domestic television and radio BBC News bulletins, the BBC News Channel and BBC Online. At its launch, the Service was located along with m