The Hawaiian language is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiʻi, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. Hawaiian, along with English, is an official language of the State of Hawaii. King Kamehameha III established the first Hawaiian-language constitution in 1839 and 1840. For various reasons, including territorial legislation establishing English as the official language in schools, the number of native speakers of Hawaiian decreased during the period from the 1830s to the 1950s. Hawaiian was displaced by English on six of seven inhabited islands. In 2001, native speakers of Hawaiian amounted to less than 0.1% of the statewide population. Linguists were unsure if other endangered languages would survive. From around 1949 to the present day, there has been a gradual increase in attention to and promotion of the language. Public Hawaiian-language immersion preschools called Pūnana Leo were established in 1984; the first students to start in immersion preschool have now graduated from college and many are fluent Hawaiian speakers.
The federal government has acknowledged this development. For example, the Hawaiian National Park Language Correction Act of 2000 changed the names of several national parks in Hawaiʻi, observing the Hawaiian spelling. However, the language is still classified as critically endangered by UNESCO. A creole language spoken in Hawaiʻi is Hawaiian Pidgin, it should not be mistaken for the Hawaiian language nor for a dialect of English. The Hawaiian alphabet has 13 letters: five vowels: a e i o u and eight consonants: he ke la mu nu pi we, including a glottal stop called ʻokina; the Hawaiian language takes its name from the largest island in Hawaii. The island name was first written in English in 1778 by British explorer James Cook and his crew members, they wrote it as "Owhyhee" or "Owhyee". Explorers Mortimer and Otto von Kotzebue used that spelling; the initial "O" in the name is a reflection of the fact that unique identity is predicated in Hawaiian by using a copula form, o before a proper noun. Thus, in Hawaiian, the name of the island is expressed by saying O Hawaiʻi, which means " is Hawaiʻi."
The Cook expedition wrote "Otaheite" rather than "Tahiti."The spelling "why" in the name reflects the pronunciation of wh in 18th-century English. Why was pronounced; the spelling "hee" or "ee" in the name represents the sounds, or. Putting the parts together, O-why-ee reflects, a reasonable approximation of the native pronunciation. American missionaries bound for Hawaiʻi used the phrases "Owhihe Language" and "Owhyhee language" in Boston prior to their departure in October 1819 and during their five-month voyage to Hawaiʻi, they still used such phrases as late as March 1822. However, by July 1823, they had begun using the phrase "Hawaiian Language."In Hawaiian, ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi means "Hawaiian language", as adjectives follow nouns. Hawaiian is a Polynesian member of the Austronesian language family, it is related to other Polynesian languages, such as Samoan, Tahitian, Māori, Rapa Nui and Tongan. According to Schütz, the Marquesans colonized the archipelago in 300 CE followed by waves of immigration from the Society Islands and Samoa-Tonga.
Their languages, over time, became the Hawaiian language within the Hawaiian Islands. Kimura and Wilson state: Linguists agree that Hawaiian is related to Eastern Polynesian, with a strong link in the Southern Marquesas, a secondary link in Tahiti, which may be explained by voyaging between the Hawaiian and Society Islands; the genetic history of the Hawaiian language is demonstrated through the application of lexicostatistics, which involves quantitative comparison of lexical cognates, the comparative method. Both the number of cognates and the phonological similarity of cognates are measures of language relationship; the following table provides a limited lexicostatistical data set for ten numbers. The asterisk is used to show that these are reconstructed forms. In the table, the year date of the modern forms is rounded off to 2000 CE to emphasize the 6000-year time lapse since the PAN era. Note: For the number "10", the Tongan form in the table is part of the word /hoŋo-fulu/; the Hawaiian cognate is part of the word /ana-hulu/.
Application of the lexicostatistical method to the data in the table will show the four languages to be related to one another, with Tagalog having 100% cognacy with PAN, while Hawaiian and Tongan have 100% cognacy with each other, but 90% with Tagalog and PAN. This is because the forms for each number are cognates, except the Hawaiian and Tongan words for the number "1", which are cognate with each other, but not with Tagalog and PAN; when the full set of 200 meanings is used, the percentages will be much lower. For example, Elbert found Tongan to have 49 % shared cognacy; this points out the importance of data-set size for this method, where less data leads to cruder results, while more data leads to better results. Application of the comparative method will show different genetic relationships, it will point out sound changes, such as: the loss of all PAN word-final consonants in Tongan and Hawaiian.
The Iraq Division One of 2015–16. Al-Hussein ended as champions of the division for the first time in their history, Al-Bahri were runners-up on the goals scored rule. Both teams were promoted to the 2016–17 Iraqi Premier League. League consists of four different stages; the first stage ended in April and the second stage ended in May. 12 teams qualified for the Elite Stage. The Elite Stage started on June 6 and ended on June 14; the two top teams in the Golden Stage are promoted to the 2016–17 Iraqi Premier League and the top team is the Iraq Division One champion. The match between Brayati and Ghaz Al-Shamal ended 1–1 but the result was changed to a 3–0 win for Brayati after Ghaz Al-Shamal were found guilty of playing ineligible player Uday Shehab. 2015–16 Iraqi Premier League 2015–16 Iraq FA Cup Iraqi Football Website
Chen Hu was a Chinese military physician and stem cell researcher. He served as Director of the PLA Institute of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research and the Beijing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy Laboratory. Known for his research on hematopoietic stem cell therapy for leukemia, he was awarded the State Science and Technology Progress Award in 2015 and the Ho Leung Ho Lee Prize in 2016. In 2017, he and Deng Hongkui engineered resistance to HIV in mice using CRISPR gene editing, for the first time used the technique on an AIDS patient, he died of a sudden heart attack. Chen Hu was born 17 February 1962 in Chongqing, with his ancestral home in Luoyang, Henan, he enlisted in the People's Liberation Army in September 1979 and enrolled at the Third Military Medical University. He earned both a Ph. D. and an M. D. After graduation, Chen became a physician at the Affiliated Hospital of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, he served as Director of the Beijing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy Laboratory and Director of the PLA Institute of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research at the Fifth Medical Center of the People's Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing.
Chen spent more than 30 years researching treatment for leukemia, with a focus on hematopoietic stem cell therapy. He treated more than 40,000 patients and performed over 3,200 HSC transplants, improving the survival rate from nearly 0% at the beginning to 65%. In 2015, his research on the treatment of radiation damage using adult stem cells won the State Science and Technology Progress Award. A year he won the Ho Leung Ho Lee Prize for Science and Technology Progress. In 2017, Chen and his collaborator, Deng Hongkui of Peking University, used CRISPR gene editing to transplant human HSCs with the edited CCR5 gene to mice, conferred HIV resistance to the animals, they subsequently used the technique to treat an AIDS patient who suffered from acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It was the first time CRISPR was used on a human HIV patient. 19 months the patient's ALL was in complete remission. Their research demonstrated the safety of CRISPR for humans, although the therapy was not effective for curing AIDS as only 5% to 8% of the patient's bone marrow cells carried the edited CCR5 gene, much lower than the ideal 100%.
Their research was published in The New England Journal of Medicine in September 2019, after Chen had died. On 24 July 2019, Chen Hu died from a sudden heart attack in Beijing, aged 57. At the time of his death he was a candidate for election to the Chinese Academy of Sciences