New Munster Province
These divisions were at first of geographical significance only, not used as a basis for the government of the colony, which was centralised in Auckland. New Munster referred solely to the South Island, the situation was altered in 1846 when the New Zealand Constitution Act 1846 divided the colony into two provinces, New Ulster and New Munster. New Munster included the South Island and Stewart Island, plus the portion of the North Island up to the mouth of the Patea River. New Ulster consisted of the remainder of the North Island and these boundaries incorporated the Cook Strait settlements of Wellington and Nelson into one province, despite being on different islands. Each province had a Governor and Legislative and Executive Council, in addition to the Governor-in-Chief, early in 1848 Edward John Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster. In 1851 the Provincial Legislative Councils were permitted to be partially elective, the Provincial Council of New Munster had only one legislative session, in 1849, before it succumbed to the virulent attacks of the Wellington settlers.
Grey implemented the ordinance with such deliberation that neither Council met before advice was received that the United Kingdom Parliament had passed the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852. This act dissolved these provinces in 1853, after seven years existence, and New Munster was divided into the provinces of Wellington, Nelson. The New Munster Party seeks to revive New Munster as an independent republic separate from New Zealand, sir Francis Dillon Bell, Appointed to the Legislative Council of the Province of New Munster. Alfred Domett, Colonial Secretary of New Munster, Edward John Eyre, Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster. Sir William Fox, Attorney-General of New Munster, although his acceptance was withdrawn, William Gisborne, Private secretary to the Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster. Sir David Munro, Appointed to the Legislative Council of the Province of New Munster, John Davies Ormond, Private secretary to the Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster and Clerk of the New Munster Executive Council.
Mathew Richmond, Appointed to the Legislative Council of the Province of New Munster, New Munster Armed Police Force 1844 New Munster Inwards Correspondence Register 1848 New Munster Inwards Correspondence Register Rulers
William Colenso was a Cornish Christian missionary to New Zealand, and a printer, botanist and politician. He attended the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and wrote an account of the events at Waitangi, born in Penzance, Cornwall, he was the cousin of John William Colenso, bishop of Natal. He trained as a printers apprentice travelled to New Zealand in 1834 to work for the Church Missionary Society as a printer/missionary and he was responsible for the printing of the Māori language translation of the New Testament. He was ordained a Deacon on 22 September 1844 following his studies at St John’s College. He was an avid botanist and transmitting to Kew Gardens in England previously unrecorded New Zealand flora, in 1866 he was the first New Zealander to be elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society. He wrote several books, and contributed over a hundred papers to scientific journals and his travels took him through trackless forest, over the high Ruahine Range and across the Rangipo Desert and past the mountains of Ruapehu and Tongariro to the shores of Lake Taupo.
In doing so he contributed greatly to the European exploration of the central North Island, one of his journeys, between December 1841 and February 1842, was across the North Island and up to the Kaipara Harbour. From 1845 Colenso undertook lengthy journeys every spring and autumn, in 1847 he travelled to Taupo south to pass by the Tongariro and Ruapehu mountains. He regularly visited the Wairapara and Hutt districts, where he was frequently at odds with the European lessees of sheep and cattle stations such as Kelly, McMaster and Gillies. In 1845 about 12 sheep and cattle farmers had leased large areas of land from local Maori by mutual agreement, Maori owners regularly raised the annual lease fee to the annoyance of the farmers. The farmers regularly pressed Maori to sell land, many younger chiefs were keen sellers but were thwarted by conservative older chiefs. The farmers paid Maori to assist in building roads to help economic development, Colenso regularly counselled Maori against selling any land or helping build roads which he claimed would be disastrous for them.
Colenso was especially vociferous about the living with Maori women as their wives. Colenso had strong views about drinking and horse racing which were a part of colonial life that Maori as well as settlers enjoyed. This put him in opposition to a range of New Zealanders. In 1847 judge Chapman, doctor Featherston, bank manager McDonald, there was criticism of what was called the malicious interference of Colenso. In November 1851 he was suspended as a deacon and dismissed from the mission in 1852, in 1853 he was convicted of a technical assault over an argument about Ripeka and their son. Following a long period during which he continued his botany work
Donald McLean (New Zealand politician)
Sir Donald McLean KCMG was a 19th-century New Zealand politician and government official. He was involved in negotiations between the government and Māori from 1844 to 1861, eventually as Native Secretary and Land Purchase commissioner. He was one of the most influential figures in Māori-Pākehā relations in the mid-1800s and was involved in the dispute over the Waitara Purchase and he was born on the Hebridean island of Tiree, and came to New Zealand via Australia in 1840. He married Susan Douglas Strang, daughter of the registrar of the Supreme Court in Wellington, Robert Strang and she died after giving birth to their son Douglas in December 1852 and her death deeply affected McLean, he never remarried. McLean was involved in negotiations between the government and Māori from 1844 to 1861, eventually as Native Secretary and Land Purchase commissioner. He was involved in the dispute over the Waitara Purchase, which led up to the First Taranaki War and he was one of the most influential figures in Māori-Pākehā relations in the mid-1800s.
He was elected Superintendent of Hawkes Bay Province on 26 February 1863 and he was re-elected on 9 May 1867 and served until his resignation on 3 September 1869. In addition, he was a member of the Hawkes Bay Provincial Council, representing the Napier Country electorate in the 2nd Council and he was a Member of Parliament for the Napier electorate in the 4th to 6th Parliament, from 1866 until his death in 1877. In 1867 he introduced the law providing for four Māori electorates in Parliament from 1868, in the third Fox Ministry, he was Minister of Defence from 1869 to 1872 and Minister of Native Affairs. In 1874 he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael, the National Library of New Zealand has digitised 100,000 pages of his papers, and the collection is featured on their website. The collection includes over 3,000 letters written to McLean by Māori from throughout New Zealand and it is the largest surviving group of 19th-century letters in Māori. The Best Man Who Ever Served the Crown, biography in the 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
It was abolished, along with all other provinces, in 1876. Nelson Province initially covered the entire upper South Island, land sales in Nelson and Marlborough netted the Nelson Provincial Council £33,000 and £160,000, respectively. Of that, £200 were expended benefiting the Marlborough region, there was considerable conflict between Superintendent John Perry Robinsons policies of supporting smaller land holders, and the objectives of the large pastoral run-holders in the Wairau Valley. The New Provinces Act 1858 allowed for parts of a province to break if the area was large enough. The petition was signed by almost all settlers in the Wairau, the new Marlborough Province was gazetted on 4 October 1859. The election of Nelsons first superintendent was contested by three candidates, Edward Stafford, Francis Jollie and John Waring Saxton, the election took place on 1 August 1853 and resulted in Edward Stafford being Nelsons first superintendent. The final results for the election were, Saxton, Edward Stafford will be remembered for his free and compulsory education system became the model for New Zealand, with this ‘Nelson system’ introduced to all state primary schools in 1877.
Nelson was the seat of government and Superintendent John Perry Robinson laid the foundation stone for the Provincial Government buildings in Nelson on 26 August 1859. The building was in Albion Square in Bridge Street and it was designed by visiting architect Maxwell Bury and he modeled it on Aston Hall near Birmingham. Whereas Aston Hall was built from stone, the Government buildings were from timber, the buildings were run down and had stood empty for some years when they were demolished in 1969, amidst much controversy. The Nelson District Court building now stands on the site, during the First Taranaki War in 1860 nearly 1,200 Taranaki settlers including women and children were relocated to Nelson. The Nelson Provincial Council funded the building of cottages known as the Taranaki Buildings for the housing of these refugees, upon the cessation of hostilities the war refugees were offered free passage back to Taranaki, the majority took advantage of this offer but some elected to remain in Nelson.
By 1876 the province was abolished under the Counties Bill of 1876 with the following boroughs, in 1886, there was a proposal for the Grey District to be annexed by the Nelson Province. New Zealand law provides for an anniversary day
Hawke's Bay Region
Hawkes Bay Region is a region of New Zealand on the east coast of the North Island. It is recognised on the stage for its award-winning wines. Hawkes Bay Regional Council sits in both the cities of Napier and Hastings and it derives from Hawke Bay which was named by Captain James Cook in honour of Admiral Edward Hawke who decisively defeated the French at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759. The region is situated on the east coast of the North Island and it bears the former name of what is now Hawke Bay, a large semi-circular bay that extends for 100 kilometres from northeast to southwest from Mahia Peninsula to Cape Kidnappers. Five major rivers flow down into the coast of Hawkes Bay, from north to south, they are the Wairoa River, Mohaka River, Tutaekuri River, Ngaruroro River and Tukituki River respectively. Lake Waikaremoana is situated in northern Hawkes Bay roughly 35 km from the coast and it is the largest lake in Hawkes Bay, 4th largest in the North Island and 16th largest in New Zealand.
In June 2015, the Local Government Commission proposed the amalgamation of the four local councils with the Hawkes Bay Regional Council and this proposal was rejected by the affected communities. The region has a hill with the longest place name in New Zealand, taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu is an otherwise unremarkable hill in southern Hawkes Bay, not far from Waipukurau. The regions population is 161,500 as of June 2016,3.4 percent of New Zealands population, around 81 percent of the regions population lives in the Napier-Hastings conurbation. Below is a list of areas that contain more than 1,000 population. The region has a significant Māori population,24.3 percent of the population identified as of Māori ethnicity at the 2013 census, a major local Māori tribe is Ngāti Kahungunu. Around 50.5 percent of Hawkes Bays population affiliate with Christianity at the 2013 Census, Hawkes Bay Province was founded in 1858 as a province of New Zealand, after being separated from the Wellington Province following a meeting in Napier in February 1858.
The Province was abolished in 1876 along with all provinces in New Zealand. It was replaced with a Provincial District, on February 3,1931, Napier and Hastings were devastated by New Zealands worst natural disaster, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter magnitude scale, which killed 256 people. Napier rebuilt and now the city is world-famous for its Art Deco buildings, MTG Hawkes Bay, formerly Hawkes Bay Museum and Art Gallery, has an exhibition on the earthquake, its causes and impact. The GDP of the Hawkes Bay region was estimated at US$4.3 billion in 2003, the region is renowned for its horticulture, with large orchards and vineyards on the plains. In the hilly parts of the sheep and cattle farming predominates. The climate is dry and temperate, and the long, hot summers, missionaries in the mid 19th century planted the first vines in Hawkes Bay and it is now becoming an important place for full bodied red wines
The Canterbury Province was a province of New Zealand from 1853 until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. Canterbury Province was founded in December 1850 by an association of influential Englishmen associated with the Church of England, the Charlotte Jane and the Randolph—the first two of the First Four Ships—arrived in the area on 16 December 1850, celebrated as the provinces initial Anniversary Day. Elections were held in 1853 for Superintendent and, that year and these elections predated any elected national assembly. The franchise was extended to men over the age of 21 who owned property in the province, the first meeting place was the former office of the Guardian and Advertiser, Canterburys second newspaper, on Chester Street near the Avon River. In 1866, the moved to Guise Brittans house, which became part of the Clarendon Hotel. One session in 1858 was held in the hall on what is now High Street. On 28 September 1859, the council first met in what known as the Timber Chamber of the Canterbury Provincial Council Buildings.
The Stone Chamber of the Provincial Council Buildings was used from November 1865, following the West Coast Gold Rush, the portion of the province west of the Southern Alps was split off as Westland in 1867. Upon the establishment of the University of New Zealand in 1870, on the east coast the province was bounded by the Hurunui River in the north and the Waitaki River in the south. The boundary on the west coast was largely undefined before the West Coast became its own province. In 1868 the West Coast was separated from the Province with the formation of the County of Westland on the West Coast with the line defined as the crest of the Southern Alps. In 1873 the County formed its own Province, the short-lived Westland Province, in the south the course of the Waitaki River was not known and disputes arose with the Province of Otago over pastoral leases in the inland high country. In the 1860s South Canterbury made two bids to become separate province but this was rejected by the national government, when the province was abolished, the area was distributed across eight counties.
The Ferrymead Railway was the first railway to be opened and closed in New Zealand and it was made obsolete by the opening of a new 8 miles line through a tunnel giving Christchurch access to the better port of Lyttelton. The mainlines of the Canterbury Provincial Railways were Irish gauge with some lines in Colonial gauge. These lines were all absorbed into the New Zealand Railways Department in 1876. Charles Simeon was the officer for the first election of a Superintendent. Canterbury had four Superintendents, The Executive Council is comparable to a cabinet, the following 26 Executive Councils existed, Each New Zealand province celebrates an anniversary day
The Illustrated London News
The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the worlds first illustrated weekly news magazine. Founded by Herbert Ingram, it appeared weekly until 1971, less frequently thereafter, the company continues today as Illustrated London News Ltd, a publishing and digital agency in London, which holds the publication and business archives of the magazine. As a newsagent, Ingram was struck by the increase in newspaper sales when they featured pictures. Ingram began to plan a weekly newspaper that would contain pictures in every edition, Ingram rented an office, recruited artists and reporters, and employed as his editor Frederick William Naylor Bayley, formerly editor of the National Omnibus. The first issue of The Illustrated London News appeared on Saturday,14 May 1842, Ingram hired 200 men to carry placards through the streets of London promoting the first edition of his new newspaper. Costing sixpence, the first issue sold 26,000 copies, despite this initial success, sales of the second and subsequent editions were disappointing.
Its circulation soon increased to 40,000 and by the end of its first year was 60,000, in 1851, after the newspaper published Joseph Paxtons designs for the Crystal Palace before even Prince Albert had seen them, the circulation rose to 130,000. Andrew Spottiswoodes Pictorial Times lost £20,000 before it was sold to Ingram by Henry Vizetelly, Ingram folded it into another purchase, The Ladys Newspaper, which became The Ladys Newspaper and Pictorial Times. Vitezelly was behind a competitor, The Illustrated Times in 1855. Ingrams other early collaborators left the business in the 1850s, nathanial Cooke, his business partner and brother-in-law, found himself in a subordinate role in the business and parted on bad terms around 1854. 1858 saw the departure of William Little, who, in addition to providing a loan of £10,000, was printer and publisher of the paper for 15 years, littles relationship with Ingram deteriorated over Ingrams harassment of their mutual sister-in-law. By 1863, The Illustrated London News was selling more than 300,000 copies every week, the death of Herbert and his eldest son left the company without a director and manager.
Control passed to Ingrams widow Ann, and his friend Sir Edward William Watkin, once Ingrams two younger sons and Charles, were old enough, they took over as managing directors, although it was William who took the lead. It was a period of expansion and increased competition for the ILN, as reading habits and the illustrated news market changed, the ILN bought or established a number of new publications, evolving from a single newspaper to a larger-scale publishing business. As with Herbert Ingrams purchases in the 1850s, this expansion was a way of managing competition, dominating markets. As too with the acquisitions of the 1850s, several similar illustrated publications were established in this period by former employees of The Illustrated London News. Serious competition for the ILN appeared in 1869, with the establishment of The Graphic, Thomas was a former wood engraver for The Illustrated London News, and brought his expertise in illustrated publishing to his new magazine. The Graphic was highly popular, particularly for its coverage of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, William Ingram became chief proprietor of The Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, and The Ladys Pictorial, which may have been a title of The Ladys Newspaper and Pictorial Times
John Davies Ormond
John Davies Ormond was a New Zealand politician whose positions included Superintendent of Hawkes Bay Province, Minister of Public Works and member of the New Zealand Legislative Council. He represented the Clive electorate in Parliament from 1861 to 1881 and he represented the Napier electorate from 1884 to 1890, when he retired. He was appointed to the Legislative Council on 20 January 1891, Ormond was baptised on 28 June 1831. He came from Wallingford, Oxfordshire and established a homestead called Wallingford in Central Hawkes Bay in 1847, businessman and farmer Sir John Ormond and farmer Tiaki Omana, and politician and Historic Places Trust chairman Ormond Wilson were his grandsons. His brother-in-law and husband of his sister was the Governor of Jamaica and his second great-granddaughter is the Headmistress, Ormond Felicity Lusk. He married Hannah Richardson on 4 December 1860, the sister of George Edward Gordon Richardson and he died on 6 October 1917 at his home Tintagel in Napier. Wallingford Station, Ormond family history Biography in the 1966 in Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke
Admiral of the Fleet Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke KB, PC was a Royal Navy officer. As captain of the third-rate HMS Berwick he took part in the Battle of Toulon in February 1744 during the War of the Austrian Succession and he captured six ships of a French squadron in the Bay of Biscay in the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in October 1747. Hawke went on to achieve a victory over a French fleet at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in November 1759 during the Seven Years War and he developed the concept of a Western Squadron, keeping an almost continuous blockade of the French coast throughout the war. Hawke served as First Lord of the Admiralty for five years between 1766 and 1771, in this post, he was successful in bringing the navys spending under control and oversaw the mobilisation of the navy during the Falklands Crisis in 1770. Born the only son of a Edward Hawke, a barrister at Lincolns Inn, and Elizabeth Hawke, Hawke benefited from the patronage of Colonel Martin Bladen a Member of Parliament, who was his maternal uncle.
Hawke joined the navy as a volunteer in the sixth-rate HMS Seahorse on the North American Station in February 1720 and he did this successfully, although it meant his ship did not take part in the British attack on Porto Bello in November 1739 during the War of Jenkins Ear. Hawke became commanding officer of the third-rate HMS Berwick in June 1743, the fight at Toulon was extremely confused, although Hawke had emerged from it with a degree of credit. Hawkes ship managed to capture the prize of the battle. He was given command of the second-rate HMS Neptune in August 1745, despite having distinguished himself at Toulon, Hawke had few opportunities over the next three years. However, he was promoted to admiral on 15 July 1747 and appointed Second-in-Command of the Western Squadron. He went on to replace Admiral Peter Warren as the Commander-in-Chief of the Western Squadron, with his flag in the third-rate HMS Devonshire, Hawke put a great deal of effort into improving the performance of his crews and instilling in them a sense of pride and patriotism.
The Western Squadron had been established to keep a watch on the French Channel ports, under a previous commander, Lord Anson, it had successfully contained the French coast and in May 1747 won the First Battle of Cape Finisterre when it attacked a large convoy leaving harbour. The British had received word there was now an incoming convoy arriving from the West Indies. Hawke took his fleet and lay in wait for the arrival of the French, in October 1747, Hawke captured six ships of a French squadron in the Bay of Biscay in the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre. The consequence of this, along with Ansons earlier victory, was to give the British almost total control in the English Channel during the months of the war. It proved ruinous to the French economy, helping the British to secure a peace at the negotiations for the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. For Hawke, the arrival of peace brought an end to his opportunities for active service. In December 1747, he was elected as a Member of Parliament for the town of Portsmouth